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Redox Regulation of the Microcirculation

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The microcirculation maintains tissue homeostasis through local regulation of blood flow and oxygen delivery. Perturbations in microvascular function are characteristic of several diseases and may be early indicators of pathological changes in the cardiovascular system and in parenchymal tissue function. These changes are often mediated by various reactive oxygen species and linked to disruptions in pathways such as vasodilation or angiogenesis. This overview compiles recent advances relating to redox regulation of the microcirculation by adopting both cellular and functional perspectives. Findings from a variety of vascular beds and models are integrated to describe common effects of different reactive species on microvascular function. Gaps in understanding and areas for further research are outlined. © 2020 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 10:229‐260, 2020.

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Figure 1. Figure 1. Subcellular localization of vascular ROS generation.
Figure 2. Figure 2. Oxidation and reduction of protein cysteine residues by hydrogen peroxide. Reproduced, with permission, from Burgoyne JR, et al., 2013 54.
Figure 3. Figure 3. ROS detoxification by glutathione and peroxiredoxin/thioredoxin pathways. Reproduced, with permission, from Bindoli A, et al., 2008 33.
Figure 4. Figure 4. Hydrogen peroxide signaling pathways that mediate vasodilation 53,55,58,110,139,256,266,310,338,349,376.
Figure 5. Figure 5. Triphasic effect of H2O2 on the vasculature. At low concentrations, H2O2 promotes vascular homeostasis, but very low or high concentrations promote vascular inflammation and impaired function.

Figure 1. Subcellular localization of vascular ROS generation.

Figure 2. Oxidation and reduction of protein cysteine residues by hydrogen peroxide. Reproduced, with permission, from Burgoyne JR, et al., 2013 54.

Figure 3. ROS detoxification by glutathione and peroxiredoxin/thioredoxin pathways. Reproduced, with permission, from Bindoli A, et al., 2008 33.

Figure 4. Hydrogen peroxide signaling pathways that mediate vasodilation 53,55,58,110,139,256,266,310,338,349,376.

Figure 5. Triphasic effect of H2O2 on the vasculature. At low concentrations, H2O2 promotes vascular homeostasis, but very low or high concentrations promote vascular inflammation and impaired function.
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Andrew O. Kadlec, David D. Gutterman. Redox Regulation of the Microcirculation. Compr Physiol 2019, 10: 229-259. doi: 10.1002/cphy.c180039