Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Perception

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 First Principles of Study of Perception
1.1 Classic System and Its Background
1.2 Helmholtz Theory of Sensation and Perception: Brief Introduction
2 The Separate Senses and Their Sensitivities—Specific Nerve Energies
2.1 Physical Analysis
2.2 Physiological Analysis
2.3 Perceptual Analysis
3 Analytic Elements Within Modalities
3.1 Vision: Classic Analysis
3.2 Oculomotor Kinesthesis
3.3 Audition: Helmholtz Theory
4 Assessment of Program of Sensory Analysis
4.1 Missing Properties
4.2 Effects of Context
4.3 Unconscious Inferences and General Nonnoticeability of Sensations
4.4 Alternative Units of Analysis
4.5 Figure‐Ground, Gestalt Transposition, and Laws of Organization
5 Indirect Assessment of Theories of Space and Object Perception
6 Direct and Indirect Research on Nature and Nurture in Perception
6.1 Unlearned Responses to Visual and Auditory Information About Space
6.2 Sensorimotor Recorrelation and Perceptual Relearning
7 Continuing Search for Units of Perceptual Analysis
7.1 Direct Stimulus Bases for Contrast and Constancy
7.2 Recent Research on Complex Sensory Analyzers
8 Limits of Direct or Sensory Accounts of Perception: Mental Structure and Perceptual Inference
8.1 Coupling Without Stimulus Basis
8.2 Static Cues vs. Kinetic Stimulus Information
9 Summary
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Temporal completion phenomena and mental structure. A: sequence of right angles projected one after another on the same place on a screen. Sequence is much too long to remember as a set of independent events. B: if the viewer fits successive corners to his schema for a cross, given to him (for example) by a preliminary overall view as shown at 1 followed by a closeup of the corner a, the sequence becomes comprehensible as the succession labeled a, b, c, … in 2, and the viewer recognizes that the sequence has taken a shortcut from h to k on the cross. C: adults do not require the preliminary overall view if there is sufficient overlap between the steps in the sequence, or if the views of the individual corners are connected by continuous motion ; children do not respond so well, and the younger they are the more poorly they respond.

From Hochberg 116
Figure 2. Figure 2.

The rotating trapezoid and perceptual coupling. A: the Ames window is a flat trapezoid (often painted to look like a window) that rotates as indicated by the solid arrows in the top view. When viewed monocularly from a distance of a few yards , however, it appears to oscillate rather than rotate, as shown by the dotted arrows. A possible explanation for this robust phenomenon is as follows. B: even when edge 2 is farther away than edge 1 the static depth cues of linear perspective and relative size make edge 2 look nearer, and oscillatory movement is perceived because that accords with the depth cues and the apparent rectangularity of the trapezoid. Perceived shape and perceived distance (or perceived movement) thus seem to be coupled in a way that is not to be explained by the stimulus information itself, and is consistent with the Helmholtz idea of unconscious inference.

From Hochberg 116


Figure 1.

Temporal completion phenomena and mental structure. A: sequence of right angles projected one after another on the same place on a screen. Sequence is much too long to remember as a set of independent events. B: if the viewer fits successive corners to his schema for a cross, given to him (for example) by a preliminary overall view as shown at 1 followed by a closeup of the corner a, the sequence becomes comprehensible as the succession labeled a, b, c, … in 2, and the viewer recognizes that the sequence has taken a shortcut from h to k on the cross. C: adults do not require the preliminary overall view if there is sufficient overlap between the steps in the sequence, or if the views of the individual corners are connected by continuous motion ; children do not respond so well, and the younger they are the more poorly they respond.

From Hochberg 116


Figure 2.

The rotating trapezoid and perceptual coupling. A: the Ames window is a flat trapezoid (often painted to look like a window) that rotates as indicated by the solid arrows in the top view. When viewed monocularly from a distance of a few yards , however, it appears to oscillate rather than rotate, as shown by the dotted arrows. A possible explanation for this robust phenomenon is as follows. B: even when edge 2 is farther away than edge 1 the static depth cues of linear perspective and relative size make edge 2 look nearer, and oscillatory movement is perceived because that accords with the depth cues and the apparent rectangularity of the trapezoid. Perceived shape and perceived distance (or perceived movement) thus seem to be coupled in a way that is not to be explained by the stimulus information itself, and is consistent with the Helmholtz idea of unconscious inference.

From Hochberg 116
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Julian Hochberg. Perception. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 3: Handbook of Physiology, The Nervous System, Sensory Processes: 75-102. First published in print 1984. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp010302