Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Hemispheric Specialization

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Hemispheric Differences in Normal Subjects
1.1 Perceptual Discrimination and Reaction Time
1.2 Handedness
2 Electrical Signs
2.1 Potentials Evoked by Stimuli
2.2 Potentials Related to Execution of Movements
2.3 Asymmetry in the Electroencephalogram
3 Anatomical Correlates
3.1 Left Hemisphere Sites and Speech Perception
3.2 Right Hemisphere Enlargements: Variations With Handedness
3.3 Anatomical Correlates of Left Hemisphere Deficits
4 Hemispherectomy and Cerebral Hemiatrophy
4.1 Hemispherectomy for Tumor
4.2 Hemispherectomy for Infantile Hemiplegia
5 Transitory Inactivation of one Hemisphere
5.1 Unilateral Carotid Injection of Amytal
5.2 Unilateral Electroconvulsion
6 Hemisphere Functions Dissociated by Commissurotomy
6.1 Cognitive and Perceptual Processes Within Both Hemispheres
6.2 Hemispheric Specialization for Language
6.3 Superiority of Right Hemisphere for Spatial Constructive Skills
6.4 Spontaneous Choice of Hemispheric Response Mode: Tests with Stimulus Chimeras
7 Effects of Left Cerebral Lesions
7.1 Classic Theories of the Hemispheres
7.2 Current Ideas on Left Hemisphere Specialization for Language
7.3 Disorders of Logical Inference
7.4 Left Hemisphere Systems for Voluntary Motor Coordination and for Perceptual Categorization
8 Disorders from Lesions of Right Hemisphere
8.1 Visuoconstructive Disorders
8.2 Unilateral Neglect of Extracorporeal Space or of Parts of Body
8.3 Perception of Orientation and Form of Objects
8.4 Color Perception
8.5 Loss of Face Recognition: Prosopagnosia
9 Development of Lateral Asymmetry of Brain Function
10 Sex Differences in Laterality
11 Asymmetries in Emotional Expression
12 Conclusions
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Projections to hemispheres of visual, auditory, and haptic sensory and motor functions divide left (L) and right (R) halves of extracorporeal space with inversion of left and right. Cognitive processes are asymmetrically represented in cortical areas remote from primary sensory fields of hand (H), audition (A) and vision (V) in both hemispheres.

Figure 2. Figure 2.

Left: Simple scheme to explain how hand reactions (LH, left hand; RH, right hand) are faster to stimuli in the same side (LVF, left visual field; RVF = right visual field). Crossed combinations involve a longer transcallosal route (CC). Right: More complex factors affecting reaction times. Contralateral hand control (C) is more rapid than ipsilateral (I) for one hemisphere. Temporary time differences in sensory‐motor processes result from orientational sets coupling brain stem to cortex (e.g., large black arrow activating right hemisphere), or from task‐specific cognitive sets that may be asymmetric (e.g., dotted arrows indicating frontal and temporoparietal processes favoring left hemisphere in, for example, a verbal task).

Figure 3. Figure 3.

Manual reaction times as a function of visual field of presentation (LVF, left visual field; RVF, right visual field). A: stimuli seen as easily integrated wholes. Faster identity matches (“SAME”) produce stronger left‐field superiorities than slower “DIFFERENT” discriminations. B: in more difficult task requiring separate feature analysis, difference discriminations typically are faster, but both responses induce right‐field superiorities. C: when stimuli do not comprise readily integrated wholes, or when memory load is high, there is field‐by‐judgment interaction.

Courtesy of J. Bradshaw
Figure 4. Figure 4.

Upper: increase of late positive component of right parietal event‐related potential (ERP) during active touch by right hand in a right‐handed subject. At arrow, right index finger is dropped mechanically onto a circular ridge on a perspex rod. By palpation subject identifies orientation of a groove in the ridge (thick trace). Runs with smooth perspex surface show smaller N150 in left cortex (C) and smaller late positive potential (P400) in right cortex (E). A: vertical electrooculogram showing absence of eye movement artifacts. B: calibration. D, F: averages of EEG samples to check that nonresponse EEG background does not contribute to ERP wave forms. Lower: silent reading of seven‐word sentences presented one word at a time elicited ERPs in temporoparietal cortex with late positive component that was significantly larger on left side. Potentials shown are averages of ERPs to first six words

Upper: from Desmedt and Robertson , with permission of S. Karger AG, Basel; lower: from Kutas and Hillyard
Figure 5. Figure 5.

Upper surfaces of left and right temporal lobes (temporal planum) showing asymmetry posterior to Heschl's gyrus (HG). A: drawing published by von Economo and Horn in 1930. B: confirmation of asymmetry by Geschwind and Levitsky (brains sectioned along plane T in Fig. .) C: cytoarchitectonic areas of human auditory cortex in one brain. Black (KA), primary auditory receptive area, is equal on the two sides, but stippled (Tpt), temporoparietal cortex related to language function, shows clear asymmetry

A: from von Economo and Horn ; B: from Galaburda et al. , copyright 1978 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and from Geschwind and Levitsky ; C: adapted from a figure of Geschwind and Sanides in Galaburda, Geschwind, et al.
Figure 6. Figure 6.

Left (upper row) and right (lower row) hemispheres of orangutan (A), human fetus of 5 mo gestation (B), adult human (C), and endocranial casts of Neanderthal La Chapelle‐aux‐Saints skull (D). All the brains show Sylvian fissures (arrows) shorter and more upturned in right hemisphere

From LeMay and from LeMay and Geschwind , with permission of S. Karger AG, Basel
Figure 7. Figure 7.

Top left: areas of left hemisphere most commonly damaged in Broca's nonfluent or motor aphasia (B), conduction aphasia (C), and Wernicke's fluent or receptive aphasia (W). Top right: right hemisphere showing parietooccipital area common to lesions in cases of visuoconstructive disorder. Center: neurohistological areas of cortex according to Brodmann. Primary receptive areas in black (areas 3, 17, 41, and olfactory lobe). Areas apparently unique to humans and absent in great apes are cross‐hatched (areas 37, 39, 40, 44–46). Bottom left: asymmetric areas in “association” cortex. Note clear asymmetry in termination of Sylvian sulcus with respect to line following upper surface of temporal lobe (T). Language areas of left hemisphere: Broca's (B), Wernicke's (W). Bottom right: right hemisphere. S, body image, visuospatial and visuoconstructive functions; F, major component for facial recognition

Top left: adapted from Kertesz et al. and Mazzocchi and Vignolo ; top right: adapted from Hécaen et al. ; center: adapted from Brodmann
Figure 8. Figure 8.

Three sectional pictures of brains traced from images obtained by x‐ray computerized axial tomography (CT scan) showing asymmetries in frontal pole (b wider than a) and occipital pole (c wider than d). Ventricles also show consistent asymmetries; left horn projects farther posteriorly

CT scans courtesy of M. LeMay. From LeMay
Figure 9. Figure 9.

Schematic representation of written language systems available to left and right hemispheres, summarizing tests with three children between ages of 10 and 15 yr after complete removal of one hemisphere in infancy. MW, right‐hemispherectomy patient, male. SM (male) and CA (female), patients with left hemisphere removed

From Dennis et al.
Figure 10. Figure 10.

Development of myelin in different brain tracts. Late‐maturing components (LMC) connect with the slowest‐maturing areas of cortex; these include territories in which psychological processes are asymmetrically represented in most adults. Major developments in language skills occur as these late developments of the brain occur

Myelinization data from Lecours
Figure 11. Figure 11.

Lateralized functions revealed by psychological tests of commissurotomy patients

Adapted from Sperry
Figure 12. Figure 12.

Methods for testing commissurotomy patients. Upper: standard tests of perception and learning in disconnected hemispheres. Visual stimuli back‐projected tachistoscopically while subject (at left) fixates a central point on screen. Auditory stimuli presented in headphones with dichotic conflict. Objects felt in hand or by foot, but out of sight. Lower: Zaidel's contact lens technique. Cap on contact lens in focal plane of reduced visual image occludes one‐half of visual field of one eye. This permits subject to freely scan test pictures while receiving visual input in one hemisphere only. Standard intelligence tests may be administered to one hemisphere at a time

Upper drawing: courtesy of R. W. Sperry; lower, courtesy of Zaidel
Figure 13. Figure 13.

Tests of visuospatial function and haptic stereognosis for commissurotomy patients. Upper: Nebes compared ability of left and right hands to recognize size of a circle from an arc fragment. A, somatosensory to visual; B, visual to somatosensory; C, somatosensory to somatosensory. Lower: in Levy's tests, shaped wooden blocks, such as the truncated pyramid with grooves shown on left, were felt out of sight in the hand; then a matching shape was chosen from three diagrams such as A, B, and C that represent objects of similar form, unfolded

Upper: from Nebes ; in: Hemisphere Disconnections and Cerebral Function, edited by M. Kinsbourne and W. L. Smith, 1975; courtesy of Charles C Thomas, Publisher, Springfield, IL. Lower: courtesy of J. Levy
Figure 14. Figure 14.

Bilateral chimeric stimuli (bottom left) presented tachistoscopically with subject fixating a central point (cf. Fig. ). This gave rise to separate perceptions in the two hemispheres (right). Naming led subject to describe stimulus perceived in left hemisphere. Matching by pointing with either hand in array shown top left led to choice of image perceived in right hemisphere

From Levy, Trevarthen, and Sperry . Reproduced by permission of Oxford University Press
Figure 15. Figure 15.

Tachistoscope (modified from Gerbrands) used to present chimeric stimuli. A: with chimeras made from drawings of familiar objects, responses were again segregated between the hemispheres as described in Fig. . B: with same stimuli as in A, a test of matching by phonological comparison—i.e., by rhyming in the head without any form of overt speech and then pointing to an appropriate picture—evoked activity strongly lateralized to left hemisphere (e.g., “bee” rhymes with “key”)

From Levy and Trevarthen
Figure 16. Figure 16.

Scheme to represent unequal representation of body scheme in left and right hemispheres. Neglect of left side is produced by right parietal lesions; left parietal lesions are not associated with contralateral neglect.

Figure 17. Figure 17.

Developmental compensatory changes in lateralization of word perception processes due to congenital deafness. Left: in tachistoscopic tests, normal adults (solid lines) perceive four‐letter words, presented unilaterally (U) or bilaterally (B), more accurately in right visual field (RVF). Deaf adults (dashed lines) show no such asymmetry. Right: event‐related potentials of normal subjects to words presented in the right visual field show large negative wave (N 410) in left temporal cortex. With deaf subjects, right‐field stimuli show smaller negative wave (N 330) in right hemisphere, possibly a result of greater use of visual processes in language by the deaf.

Courtesy of H. J. Neville


Figure 1.

Projections to hemispheres of visual, auditory, and haptic sensory and motor functions divide left (L) and right (R) halves of extracorporeal space with inversion of left and right. Cognitive processes are asymmetrically represented in cortical areas remote from primary sensory fields of hand (H), audition (A) and vision (V) in both hemispheres.



Figure 2.

Left: Simple scheme to explain how hand reactions (LH, left hand; RH, right hand) are faster to stimuli in the same side (LVF, left visual field; RVF = right visual field). Crossed combinations involve a longer transcallosal route (CC). Right: More complex factors affecting reaction times. Contralateral hand control (C) is more rapid than ipsilateral (I) for one hemisphere. Temporary time differences in sensory‐motor processes result from orientational sets coupling brain stem to cortex (e.g., large black arrow activating right hemisphere), or from task‐specific cognitive sets that may be asymmetric (e.g., dotted arrows indicating frontal and temporoparietal processes favoring left hemisphere in, for example, a verbal task).



Figure 3.

Manual reaction times as a function of visual field of presentation (LVF, left visual field; RVF, right visual field). A: stimuli seen as easily integrated wholes. Faster identity matches (“SAME”) produce stronger left‐field superiorities than slower “DIFFERENT” discriminations. B: in more difficult task requiring separate feature analysis, difference discriminations typically are faster, but both responses induce right‐field superiorities. C: when stimuli do not comprise readily integrated wholes, or when memory load is high, there is field‐by‐judgment interaction.

Courtesy of J. Bradshaw


Figure 4.

Upper: increase of late positive component of right parietal event‐related potential (ERP) during active touch by right hand in a right‐handed subject. At arrow, right index finger is dropped mechanically onto a circular ridge on a perspex rod. By palpation subject identifies orientation of a groove in the ridge (thick trace). Runs with smooth perspex surface show smaller N150 in left cortex (C) and smaller late positive potential (P400) in right cortex (E). A: vertical electrooculogram showing absence of eye movement artifacts. B: calibration. D, F: averages of EEG samples to check that nonresponse EEG background does not contribute to ERP wave forms. Lower: silent reading of seven‐word sentences presented one word at a time elicited ERPs in temporoparietal cortex with late positive component that was significantly larger on left side. Potentials shown are averages of ERPs to first six words

Upper: from Desmedt and Robertson , with permission of S. Karger AG, Basel; lower: from Kutas and Hillyard


Figure 5.

Upper surfaces of left and right temporal lobes (temporal planum) showing asymmetry posterior to Heschl's gyrus (HG). A: drawing published by von Economo and Horn in 1930. B: confirmation of asymmetry by Geschwind and Levitsky (brains sectioned along plane T in Fig. .) C: cytoarchitectonic areas of human auditory cortex in one brain. Black (KA), primary auditory receptive area, is equal on the two sides, but stippled (Tpt), temporoparietal cortex related to language function, shows clear asymmetry

A: from von Economo and Horn ; B: from Galaburda et al. , copyright 1978 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and from Geschwind and Levitsky ; C: adapted from a figure of Geschwind and Sanides in Galaburda, Geschwind, et al.


Figure 6.

Left (upper row) and right (lower row) hemispheres of orangutan (A), human fetus of 5 mo gestation (B), adult human (C), and endocranial casts of Neanderthal La Chapelle‐aux‐Saints skull (D). All the brains show Sylvian fissures (arrows) shorter and more upturned in right hemisphere

From LeMay and from LeMay and Geschwind , with permission of S. Karger AG, Basel


Figure 7.

Top left: areas of left hemisphere most commonly damaged in Broca's nonfluent or motor aphasia (B), conduction aphasia (C), and Wernicke's fluent or receptive aphasia (W). Top right: right hemisphere showing parietooccipital area common to lesions in cases of visuoconstructive disorder. Center: neurohistological areas of cortex according to Brodmann. Primary receptive areas in black (areas 3, 17, 41, and olfactory lobe). Areas apparently unique to humans and absent in great apes are cross‐hatched (areas 37, 39, 40, 44–46). Bottom left: asymmetric areas in “association” cortex. Note clear asymmetry in termination of Sylvian sulcus with respect to line following upper surface of temporal lobe (T). Language areas of left hemisphere: Broca's (B), Wernicke's (W). Bottom right: right hemisphere. S, body image, visuospatial and visuoconstructive functions; F, major component for facial recognition

Top left: adapted from Kertesz et al. and Mazzocchi and Vignolo ; top right: adapted from Hécaen et al. ; center: adapted from Brodmann


Figure 8.

Three sectional pictures of brains traced from images obtained by x‐ray computerized axial tomography (CT scan) showing asymmetries in frontal pole (b wider than a) and occipital pole (c wider than d). Ventricles also show consistent asymmetries; left horn projects farther posteriorly

CT scans courtesy of M. LeMay. From LeMay


Figure 9.

Schematic representation of written language systems available to left and right hemispheres, summarizing tests with three children between ages of 10 and 15 yr after complete removal of one hemisphere in infancy. MW, right‐hemispherectomy patient, male. SM (male) and CA (female), patients with left hemisphere removed

From Dennis et al.


Figure 10.

Development of myelin in different brain tracts. Late‐maturing components (LMC) connect with the slowest‐maturing areas of cortex; these include territories in which psychological processes are asymmetrically represented in most adults. Major developments in language skills occur as these late developments of the brain occur

Myelinization data from Lecours


Figure 11.

Lateralized functions revealed by psychological tests of commissurotomy patients

Adapted from Sperry


Figure 12.

Methods for testing commissurotomy patients. Upper: standard tests of perception and learning in disconnected hemispheres. Visual stimuli back‐projected tachistoscopically while subject (at left) fixates a central point on screen. Auditory stimuli presented in headphones with dichotic conflict. Objects felt in hand or by foot, but out of sight. Lower: Zaidel's contact lens technique. Cap on contact lens in focal plane of reduced visual image occludes one‐half of visual field of one eye. This permits subject to freely scan test pictures while receiving visual input in one hemisphere only. Standard intelligence tests may be administered to one hemisphere at a time

Upper drawing: courtesy of R. W. Sperry; lower, courtesy of Zaidel


Figure 13.

Tests of visuospatial function and haptic stereognosis for commissurotomy patients. Upper: Nebes compared ability of left and right hands to recognize size of a circle from an arc fragment. A, somatosensory to visual; B, visual to somatosensory; C, somatosensory to somatosensory. Lower: in Levy's tests, shaped wooden blocks, such as the truncated pyramid with grooves shown on left, were felt out of sight in the hand; then a matching shape was chosen from three diagrams such as A, B, and C that represent objects of similar form, unfolded

Upper: from Nebes ; in: Hemisphere Disconnections and Cerebral Function, edited by M. Kinsbourne and W. L. Smith, 1975; courtesy of Charles C Thomas, Publisher, Springfield, IL. Lower: courtesy of J. Levy


Figure 14.

Bilateral chimeric stimuli (bottom left) presented tachistoscopically with subject fixating a central point (cf. Fig. ). This gave rise to separate perceptions in the two hemispheres (right). Naming led subject to describe stimulus perceived in left hemisphere. Matching by pointing with either hand in array shown top left led to choice of image perceived in right hemisphere

From Levy, Trevarthen, and Sperry . Reproduced by permission of Oxford University Press


Figure 15.

Tachistoscope (modified from Gerbrands) used to present chimeric stimuli. A: with chimeras made from drawings of familiar objects, responses were again segregated between the hemispheres as described in Fig. . B: with same stimuli as in A, a test of matching by phonological comparison—i.e., by rhyming in the head without any form of overt speech and then pointing to an appropriate picture—evoked activity strongly lateralized to left hemisphere (e.g., “bee” rhymes with “key”)

From Levy and Trevarthen


Figure 16.

Scheme to represent unequal representation of body scheme in left and right hemispheres. Neglect of left side is produced by right parietal lesions; left parietal lesions are not associated with contralateral neglect.



Figure 17.

Developmental compensatory changes in lateralization of word perception processes due to congenital deafness. Left: in tachistoscopic tests, normal adults (solid lines) perceive four‐letter words, presented unilaterally (U) or bilaterally (B), more accurately in right visual field (RVF). Deaf adults (dashed lines) show no such asymmetry. Right: event‐related potentials of normal subjects to words presented in the right visual field show large negative wave (N 410) in left temporal cortex. With deaf subjects, right‐field stimuli show smaller negative wave (N 330) in right hemisphere, possibly a result of greater use of visual processes in language by the deaf.

Courtesy of H. J. Neville
References
 1. Ajuriaguerra, J., H. Hécaen, and R. Angelergues. Les apraxies: variétés cliniques et latéralisation lesionelle. Rev. Neurol. 102: 566–594, 1960.
 2. Ajuriaguerra, J. De, and R. Tissot. The apraxias. In: Handbook of Clinical Neurology, edited by P. J. Vinken and G. Bruyn. Amsterdam: North‐Holland, 1969, vol. 4, p. 48–66.
 3. Albert, M., A. Yamadori, H. Garner, and D. Howes. Comprehension in alexia. Brain 96: 317–328, 1973.
 4. Anderson, S. W. Language‐related asymmetries of eye‐movement and evoked potentials. In: Lateralization in the Nervous System, edited by S. Harnad, R. W. Doty, L. Goldstein, J. Jaynes, and G. Krauthamer. New York: Academic, 1977, p. 403–428.
 5. Anisfeld, M., and M. Knapp. Association, synonymity, and directionality in false recognition. J. Exp. Psychol. 77: 171–179, 1968.
 6. Annett, M. The distribution of manual asymmetry. Br. J. Psychol. 63: 343–358, 1972.
 7. Arrigoni, G., and E. deRenzi. Constructional apraxia and hemispheric locus of lesion. Cortex 1: 170–197, 1964.
 8. Arseni, C., J. Voinesco, and M. Goldenberg. Considérations clinicostatiques sur le syndrome pariétal dans tumeurs cérébrales. Rev. Neurol. 99: 623–638, 1958.
 9. Babinski, J. Contribution de l'étude des troubles mentaux dans l'hémiplégie organique cérébrale (anosognosis). Rev. Neurol. 22: 845–848, 1914.
 10. Bakan, P., G. Dibb, and P. Reed. Handedness and birth stress. Neuropsychologia 11: 363–366, 1973.
 11. Balint, R. Die Seelenlahmung des “Schauens.” Monatsschr. Psychiatr. Neurol. 1: 25, 51–81, 1909.
 12. Barton, M. I., M. Goodglass, and A. Shai. Differential recognition of tachistoscopically presented English and Hebrew words in right and left visual fields. Percept. Mot. Skills 21: 431–437, 1965.
 13. Basser, L. S. Hemiplegia of early onset and the faculty of speech with special reference to the effects of hemispherectomy. Brain 85: 427–460, 1962.
 14. Bastian, H. C. A Treatise on Aphasia and Other Speech Defects. London: H. K. Lewis, 1898.
 15. Bay, E. Agonise und Funktionswandel. Berlin: Springer‐Verlag, 1950.
 16. Bay, E. Disturbances of visual perception and their examination. Brain 76: 515–550, 1953.
 17. Bay, E. The classification of disorders of speech. Cortex 3: 26–31, 1967.
 18. Bear, D. M., and P. Fedio. Quantitative analysis of interictal behavior in temporal lobe epilepsy. Arch. Neurol. Chicago 34: 454–467, 1977.
 19. Becker, W., O. Hoehne, K. Iwase, and H. H. Kornhuber. Cerebral and ocular muscle potentials preceding voluntary eye movements in man. In: Event‐Related Slow Potentials of the Brain, edited by W. C. McCallum and J. R. Knott. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. Suppl. 33: 99–104, 1973.
 20. Bender, M. B., and M. Feldman. The so‐called “visual agnosias.” Brain 95: 173–186, 1972.
 21. Bennett, G. K., H. G. Seashore, and A. G. Wesman. Differential Aptitude Tests (Space Relations, Form A). New York: Psychological Corp., 1947.
 22. Benson, D. F. Fluency in aphasia: correlation with radioactive scan localization. Cortex 3: 373–394, 1967.
 23. Benson, D. F. Psychiatric aspects of aphasia. Br. J. Psychiatry 123: 555–566, 1973.
 24. Benson, D. F., and N. Geschwind. The alexias. In: Handbook of Clinical Nerology, edited by P. J. Vinken and G. W. Bruyn. Amsterdam: North‐Holland, 1969, vol. 4, p. 112–140.
 25. Benton, A. L. Right‐Left Discrimination and Finger Localization. New York: Hoeber, 1959.
 26. Benton, A. L. The fiction of the “Gerstmann syndrome”. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 24: 176–181, 1961.
 27. Benton, A. L. Contributions to aphasia before Broca. Cortex 1: 314–326, 1964.
 28. Benton, A. L. Disorders of spatial orientation. In: Handbook of Clinical Neurology, edited by J. P. Vinken and G. N. Bruyn. Amsterdam: North‐Holland, 1969, vol. 3, p. 212–228.
 29. Benton, A. L., and H. Hécaen. Stereoscopic vision in patients with unilateral cerebral disease. Neurology 20: 1084–1088, 1970.
 30. Benton, A. L., and R. J. Joynt. Early descriptions of aphasia. Arch. Neurol. Chicago 3: 205–221, 1960.
 31. Benton, A. L., and M. W. Van Allen. Impairment in facial recognition in patients with cerebral disease. Cortex 4: 344–358, 1968.
 32. Benton, A. L., and M. W. Van Allen. Prosopagnosia and facial discrimination. J. Neurol. Sci. 15: 167–172, 1972.
 33. Bergson, H. Matière et memoire. Paris: Alcan, 1896.
 34. Berlin, C. I. Hemispheric asymmetry in auditory tasks. In: Lateralization in the Nervous System, edited by S. Harnad, R. W. Doty, L. Goldstein, J. Jaynes, and G. Krauthamer. New York: Academic, 1977, p. 303–323.
 35. Berlin, C. I., and M. R. McNeil. Dichotic listening. In: Contemporary Issues in Experimental Phonetics, edited by N. J. Lass. New York: Academic, 1976, p. 327–387.
 36. Berlucchi, G. Cerebral dominance and interhemispheric communication in normal man. In: The Neurosciences. Third Study Program, edited by F. O. Schmitt and F. G. Worden. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1974, p. 65–69.
 37. Berlucchi, G. Some features of interhemispheric communication of visual information in brain‐damaged cats and normal humans. In: Les Syndromes de disconnexion calleuse chez l'homme, edited by F. Michel and B. Schott. Lyon, France: Hopital Neurologique, 1975, p. 123–136.
 38. Berlucchi, G., F. Crea, M. Di Stefano, and G. Tassinari. Influence of spatial stimulus‐response compatibility on reaction time of ipsilateral and contralateral hand to lateralized light stimuli. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 3: 505–517, 1977.
 39. Berlucchi, G., W. Heron, R. Hyman, G. Rizzolati, and C. Umilta. Simple reaction times of ipsilateral and contralateral hand to lateralized visual stimuli. Brain 94: 419–430, 1971.
 40. Bertelson, P. Lateral differences in normal man and lateralization of brain function. J. Int. Psychol. 17: 173–210, 1982.
 41. Bertelson, P., and F. Tisseyre. Set and lateral asymmetry in the perceived sequence of speech and non‐speech. In: Attention and Performance, edited by P. M. A. Rabbitt and S. Dornic. London: Academic, 1975, vol. 5, p. 11–19.
 42. Bertoloni, G., G. P. Anzola, H. A. Buchtel, and G. Rizzolatti. Hemispheric differences in the discrimination of the velocity and duration of a simple visual stimulus. Neuropsychologia 16: 213–220, 1978.
 43. Bever, T. G. The nature of cerebral dominance in speech behavior of the child and adult. In: Language Acquisition: Models and Methods, edited by R. Huxley and E. Ingram. London: Academic, 1971, p. 231–261. (C.A.S.D.S. Study Group, Mechanisms of Language Development.)
 44. Bever, T. G. Broca and Lashley were right: cerebral dominance is an accident of growth. In: Biological Studies of Mental Processes, edited by D. Caplan. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1980, p. 186–230.
 45. Bever, T. G., and R. J. Chiarello. Cerebral dominance in musicians. Science 185: 587–589, 1974.
 46. Bodamer, J. Die Prosop‐Agnosie. Arch. Psychiatr. Nervenkr. 179: 6–53, 1947.
 47. Bogen, J. E. The other side of the brain: dysgraphia and dyscopia following cerebral commissurotomy. Bull. Los Angeles Neurol. Soc. 34: 73–105, 1969.
 48. Bogen, J. E. The other side of the brain, 2. An appositional mind. Bull. Los Angeles Neurol. Soc. 34: 135–162, 1969.
 49. Bogen, J. E., and H. W. Gordon. Musical tests for functional lateralization with intracarotid amobarbital. Nature London New Biol. 230: 524–525, 1971.
 50. Bogen, J. E., R. W. Sperry, and P. J. Vogel. Commissural section and propagation of seizures. In: Basic Mechanisms of the Epilepsies, edited by H. H. Jasper, A. A. Ward, and A. Pope. Boston: Little, Brown, 1969, p. 439.
 51. Bogen, J. E., and P. J. Vogel. Neurological status in the long term following complete cerebral commissurotomy. In: Les Syndromes de disconnexion calleuse chez l'homme, edited by F. Michel and B. Schott. Lyon, France: Hopital Neurologique, 1975, p. 227–251.
 52. Bonhoeffer, K. Zur Klinik und Lokalisation des Agrammatismus und der Reehts‐Links‐Desorientierung. Monatsschr. Psychiatr. Neurol. 54: 11–42, 1923.
 53. Bornstein, B. Prosopagnosia. In: Problems of Dynamic Neurology, edited by L. Halpern. Jerusalem: Hadassah Med. Organiz., 1963, p. 283–318.
 54. Bradshaw, J. L. Three interrelated problems in reading. Mem. Cognit. 3: 123–134, 1975.
 55. Bradshaw, J. L., D. Bradley, A. Gates, and K. Patterson. Serial parallel or holistic identification of single words in the two visual fields? Percept. Psychophys. 21: 431–438, 1977.
 56. Bradshaw, J. L., and E. A. Gates. Visual field differences in verbal tasks: effects of task familiarity and sex of the subject. Brain Language 5: 166–187, 1978.
 57. Bradshaw, J. L., A. Gates, and N. C. Nettleton. Bihemispheric involvement in lexical decisions: handedness and a possible sex difference. Neuropsychologia 15: 277–286, 1977.
 58. Bradshaw, J. L., A. Gates, and K. Patterson. Hemispheric differences in processing visual patterns. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 28: 667–681, 1976.
 59. Brain, W. R. Speech Disorders: Aphasia, Apraxia, and Agnosia. London: Butterworth, 1961.
 60. Brain, W. R. Visual disorientation with special reference to lesions of the right cerebral hemisphere. Brain 64: 244–272, 1941.
 61. Branch, C., B. Milner, and T. Rasmussen. Intracarotid sodium amytal for the lateralization of cerebral speech dominance. J. Neurosurg. 21: 399–405, 1964.
 62. Broadbent, D. E. The word frequency effect and response bias. Psychol. Rev. 74: 1–15, 1967.
 63. Broadbent, D. E. Division of function and integration of behavior. In: The Neurosciences. Third Study Program, edited by F. O. Schmitt and F. G. Worden. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1974, p. 31–41.
 64. Broadbent, D. E., and M. Gregory. Accuracy of recognition of speech presented to right and left ears. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 16: 359–360, 1964.
 65. Broadbent, D. E., and M. H. P. Gregory. Effects on tachistoscopic perception from independent variation of word probability and of letter probability. Acta Psychol. 35: 1–14, 1971.
 66. Broca, P. Perte de la parole. Ramollissement chronique et destruction partielle du lobe anterieur gauche du cerveau. Bull. Soc. Anthropol. Paris 2: 219, 1861.
 67. Broca, P. Remarques sur le siège de la faculté du langage articulé suivie d'une observation d'aphemie. Bull. Soc. Anat. Paris 6: 330, 1861.
 68. Broca, P. Remarques sur le siège de la faculté du language articule. Bull. Soc. Anthropol. Paris 6: 493–494, 1865.
 69. Brodmann, K. Vergleichende Lokalisationslehre der Grosshirnrinde. Leipzig: Barth, 1909.
 70. Brown, J. W. Aphasia, Apraxia and Agnosia: Clinical and Theoretical Aspects. Springfield, IL: Thomas, 1972.
 71. Brown, J. W., and H. Hécaen. Lateralization and language representation: observations on aphasia in children, left handers and anomalous dextrals. Neurology 26: 183–189, 1976.
 72. Brown, W. S., J. T. Marsh, and J. C. Smith. Contextual meaning effects on speech‐evoked potentials. Behav. Biol. 9: 755–761, 1973.
 73. Bryden, M. P. An evaluation of some models of laterality effects in dichotic listening. Acta Oto‐Laryngol. 63: 595–604, 1962.
 74. Bryden, M. P. Tachistoscopic recognition, handedness and cerebral dominance. Neuropsychologia, 3: 1–8, 1965.
 75. Bryden, M. P. Speech lateralization in families: a preliminary study using dichotic listening. Brain Language 2: 201–211, 1975.
 76. Bryden, M. P., and F. Allard. Visual hemifield differences depend on typeface. Brain Language 3: 191–200, 1976.
 77. Bryden, M. P., and F. Allard. Dichotic listening and the development of linguistic processes. In: Asymmetrical Function of the Brain, edited by M. Kinsbourne. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1978, p. 392–404.
 78. Bryden, M. P., and C. Rainey. Left‐right differences in tachistoscopic recognition. J. Exp. Psychol. 66: 568–571, 1963.
 79. Buchsbaum, M. S., and D. Drago. Hemispheric asymmetry and the effects of attention on visual evoked potentials. In: Language and Hemispheric Specialization in Man: Cerebral Event‐Related Potentials, edited by J. E. Desmedt. Basel: Karger, 1977, p. 243–253. (Progress in Clinical Neurophysiology Ser., vol. 3.)
 80. Buchsbaum, M., and P. Fedio. Visual information and evoked responses from the left and right hemispheres. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 26: 266–272, 1969.
 81. Buffery, A. W. Sex differences in the development of hemispheric asymmetry of function in the human brain. Brain 31: 364–365, 1971.
 82. Buffery, A. W., and J. A. Gray. Sex differences in the development of perceptual and linguistic skills. In: Gender Differences: Their Ontogeny and Significance, edited by C. Ounsted and D. C. Taylor. London: Churchill, 1972, p. 123–158.
 83. Buser, P., and A. Rougeul‐Buser (editors). Cerebral Correlates of Conscious Experience. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1978.
 84. Butler, S., and Norrsell, U. Vocalization possibly initiated by the minor hemisphere. Nature London 220: 793–794, 1968.
 85. Cairns, H., and M. A. Davidson. Hemispherectomy in the treatment of infantile hemiplegia. Lancet 2: 411–415, 1951.
 86. Capitani, E., G. Scotti, and H. Spinnler. Colour imperception in patients with focal excisions of the cerebral hemispheres. Neuropsychologia 16: 491–496, 1978.
 87. Carey, S., and R. Diamond. From piecemeal to configurational representation of faces. Science 195: 312–314, 1977.
 88. Carey, S., and R. Diamond. Maturational determination of the developmental course of face encoding. In: Biological Studies of Mental Processes, edited by D. Caplan. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1980, p. 60–93.
 89. Carlson, J., C. Netley, E. B. Hendrick, and J. S. Prichard. A re‐examination of intellectual disabilities in hemispherictomized patients. Trans. Am. Neurol. Assoc. 93: 198–201, 1968.
 90. Carmichael, A. E. The current status of hemispherectomy for infantile hemiplegia. Clin. Proc. Child. Hosp. DC 22: 285–293, 1966.
 91. Carmon, A., and H. P. Bechtoldt. Dominance of the right cerebral hemisphere for stereopsis. Neuropsychologia 7: 29–39, 1969.
 92. Carmon, A., and I. Nachshon. Ear differences in perception of human non‐verbal emotional sounds. Acta Psychologia 37: 351–357, 1973.
 93. Carmon, R., I. Nachshon, A. Iseroff, and M. Kleiner. Visual field differences in reaction times to Hebrew letters. Psychon. Sci. 28: 222–224, 1972.
 94. Carter‐Saltzman, L. Patterns of cognitive functioning in relation to handedness and sex‐related differences. In: Sex‐Related Differences in Cognitive Functioning: Functional Issues, edited by M. Wittig and A. Peterson. New York: Academic, 1978, p. 97–118.
 95. Chaney, R. E., and J. C. Webster. Information in certain multidimensional sounds. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 47: 447–455, 1967.
 96. Chapman, R. M. Evoked potentials of the brain related to thinking. In: The Psychophysiology of Thinking, edited by F. J. McGuigan and R. A. Schoonover. New York: Academic, 1973, p. 69–108.
 97. Chapman, R. M., H. R. Bragdon, J. A. Chapman, and J. W. McCrary. Semantic meanings of words and average evoked potentials. In: Language and Hemispheric Specialization in Man: Cerebral Event‐Related Potentials, edited by J. E. Desmedt. Basel: Karger, 1977, p. 36–47. (Prog. Clin. Neurophysiol. Ser., vol. 3.)
 98. Chase, W. C., and H. A. Simon. The mind's eye in chess. In: Visual Information Processing, edited by W. G. Chase. New York: Academic, 1973, p. 215–281. (Carnegie Symp. Cognition, 8th.)
 99. Chi, J. G., E. C. Dooling, and F. H. Gilles. Left‐right asymmetries of the temporal speech areas of the human fetus. Ann. Neurol. 1: 346–348, 1977.
 100. Cohen, G. Hemispheric differences in a letter classification task. Percept. Psychophys. 11: 139–142, 1972.
 101. Cohen, G. Hemispheric differences in serial versus parallel processing. J. Exp. Psychol. 97: 349–356, 1973.
 102. Cohn, R. Differential cerebral processing of noise and verbal stimuli. Science 172: 599–601, 1971.
 103. Colonna, A., and P. Faglioni. The performance of hemispheric damaged patients on spatial intelligence tests. Cortex 2: 293–307, 1966.
 104. Coltheart, M., E. Hull, and D. Slater. Sex differences in imagery and reading. Nature London 253: 437–440, 1975.
 105. Conrad, K. Das Korperschema, eine kritische Studie und ver Versuch einer Revision. Z. Gesamte Neurol. Psychiatr. 147: 346–369, 1933.
 106. Corballis, M. C., and I. L. Beale. The Psychology of Left and Right. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1976.
 107. Corballis, M. C., and M. J. Morgan. On the biological basis of human laterality: I. Evidence for a maturational left‐right gradient. Behav. Brain Sci. 2: 261–269, 1978.
 108. Corkin, S. Tactual‐guided maze learning in man: effects of unilateral cortical excisions and bilateral hippocampal lesions. Neuropsychologia 3: 339–351, 1965.
 109. Critchley, M. The Parietal Lobes. London: Arnold, 1953.
 110. Chritchley, M. Developmental Dyslexia. London: Heineman, 1964.
 111. Critchley, M. Acquired anomalies of colour perception of central origin. Brain 88: 711–724, 1965.
 112. Critchley, M. The enigma of Gerstmann's syndrome. Brain 89: 183–198, 1966.
 113. Critchley, M. Aphasiology and Other Aspects of Language. London: Arnold, 1970.
 114. Crowell, D. H., R. H. Jones, L. E. Kapunai, and J. K. Nakagawa. Unilateral cortical activity in newborn humans: an early index of cerebral dominance? Science 180: 205–208, 1973.
 115. Curtiss, S. Genie: A Linguistic Study of a Modern Day “Wild Child.” New York: Academic, 1977.
 116. Cutting, J. E. Two left‐hemisphere mechanisms in speech perception Percept. Psychophys. 16: 601–612, 1974.
 117. Dale, H. C. A., and M. Gregory. Evidence of semantic coding in short‐term memory. Psychon. Sci. 5: 75–76, 1966.
 118. Dandy, W. E. Removal of right cerebral hemisphere for certain tumors with hemiplegia. Preliminary report. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 90: 823–825, 1928.
 119. Dandy, W. E. Physiological studies following extirpation of the right cerebral hemisphere in man. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 53: 31–51, 1933.
 120. Darwin, C. J. Ear differences in recall of fricatives and vowels. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 23: 46–62, 1971.
 121. Davidoff, J. Hemispheric differences in the perception of lightness. Neuropsychologia 13: 121–124, 1975.
 122. Davidoff, J. Hemispheric sensitivity differences in the perception of colour. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 28: 387–394, 1976.
 123. Davis, A. E., and J. A. Wada. Hemispheric asymmetry: frequency analysis of visual and auditory evoked responses to nonverbal stimuli. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 37: 1–9, 1974.
 124. Davis, A. E., and J. A. Wada. Spectral analysis of evoked potential asymmetries related to speech dominance. In: Language and Hemispheric Specialization in Man: Cerebral Event‐Related Potentials, edited by J. E. Desmedt. Basel: Karger, 1977, p. 127–139. (Prog. Clin. Neurophysiol. Ser., vol. 3.)
 125. Davis, R., and V. Schmitt. Visual and verbal coding in the interhemispheric transfer of information. Acta Psychol. 37: 229–240, 1973.
 126. Dee, H. L. Visuoconstructive and visuoperceptive deficit in patients with unilateral cerebral lesions. Neuropsychologia 8: 305–314, 1970.
 127. Dee, H. L., and A. L. Benton. A cross‐modal investigation of spatial performances in patients with unilateral cerebral disease. Cortex 6: 261–272, 1970.
 128. Dee, J. L., and D. J. Fontenot. Cerebral dominance and laterality differences in perception and memory. Neuropsychologia 11: 167–173, 1973.
 129. Déjerine, J. Contribution a l'étude anatomo‐pathologique et clinique des differents variétés de cécité verbale. C. R. Soc. Biol. 9: 61–90, 1892.
 130. Dennis, M. Impaired sensory and motor differentiation with corpus callosum agenesis: a lack of callosal inhibition during ontogeny? Neuropsychologia 14: 455–469, 1976.
 131. Dennis, M. Language acquisition in a single hemisphere: semantic organization. In: Biological Studies of Mental Processes, edited by D. Caplan. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1980, p. 159–185.
 132. Dennis, M. Language in a congenitally acallosal brain. Brain Language 12: 33–53, 1980.
 133. Dennis, M., and B. Kohn. Comprehension of syntax in infantile hemiplegics after cerebral hemidecortication: left hemisphere superiority. Brain Language 2: 472–482, 1975.
 134. Dennis, M., M. Lovett, and C. A. Weigel‐Crump. Written language acquisition after left or right hemidecortication in infancy. Brain Language 12: 54–91, 1981.
 135. Dennis, M., and H. A. Whitaker. Language acquisition following hemidecortication: linguistic superiority of the left over the right hemisphere. Brain Language 3: 404–433, 1976.
 136. Dennis, M., and H. A. Whitaker. Hemispheric equipotentiality and language acquisition. In: Language Development and Neurological Theory, edited by S. Segalowitz and F. Gruber. New York: Academic, 1977, p. 93–106.
 137. Denny‐Brown, D. The frontal lobes and their function. In: Modern Trends in Neurology, edited by A. Feiling. New York: Hoeber, 1951, p. 13–89.
 138. Denny‐Brown, D., S. J. Meyer, and S. Horenstein. The significance of perceptual rivalry resulting from parietal lesion. Brain 75: 433–471, 1952.
 139. DeRenzi, E. Hemispheric asymmetry as evidenced by spatial disorders. In: Asymmetrical Function of the Brain, edited by M. Kinsbourne. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1978, p. 49–85.
 140. DeRenzi, E., and P. Faglioni. L'Autotopagnosia. Arch. Psicol. Neurol. Psichiatr. Psicoterap. 24: 1–34, 1963.
 141. DeRenzi, E., P. Faglioni, M. Savoiardo, and L. A. Vignolo. The influence of aphasia and of hemispheric side of the cerebral lesion on abstract thinking. Cortex 2: 399–420, 1966.
 142. DeRenzi, E., P. Faglioni, G. Scotti, and H. Spinnler. Impairment in associating colour to form concomitant with aphasia. Brain 95: 293–304, 1972.
 143. DeRenzi, E., P. Faglioni, G. Scotti, and H. Spinnler. Impairment of colour sorting behaviour after hemispheric damage: an experimental study with the Holmgren Skein Test. Cortex 9: 147–163, 1973.
 144. DeRenzi, E., and G. Scotti. Autotopagnosia: fiction or reality? Arch. Neurol. Chicago 23: 221–227, 1970.
 145. DeRenzi, E., G. Scotti, and H. Spinnler. Perceptual and associative disorders of visual recognition. Neurology 19: 634, 1969.
 146. DeRenzi, E., and H. Spinnler. Facial recognition in brain‐damaged patients. An experimental approach. Neurology 16: 145–152, 1966.
 147. DeRenzi, E., and H. Spinnler. The influence of verbal and nonverbal defects on visual memory tasks. Cortex 2: 322–335, 1966.
 148. DeRenzi, E., and H. Spinnler. Impaired performance on colour tasks in patients with hemispheric damage. Cortex 3: 194–217, 1967.
 149. DeRenzi, E., and L. A. Vignolo. The Token Test: a sensitive test to detect receptive disturbances in aphasics. Brain 85: 665–678, 1962.
 150. Desmedt, J. E. (editor). Attention, Voluntary Contraction and Event‐Related Cerebral Potentials. Basel: Karger, 1977. (Prog. Clin. Neurophysiol. Ser., vol. 1.)
 151. Desmedt, J. E. (editor). Auditory Evoked Potentials in Man. Psychopharmacology Correlates of EPs. Basel: Karger, 1977. (Prog. Clin. Neurophysiol. Ser., vol. 2.)
 152. Desmedt, J. E. (editor). Language and Hemispheric Specialization in Man: Cerebral Event‐Related Potentials. Basel: Karger, 1977. (Prog. Clin. Neurophysiol. Ser., vol. 3.)
 153. Desmedt, J. E. Some observations on the methodology of cerebral evoked potentials in man. In: Attention, Voluntary Contraction and Event‐Related Cerebral Potentials, edited by J. E. Desmedt. Basel: Karger, 1977, p. 12–29. (Prog. Clin. Neurophysiol. Ser., vol. 1.)
 154. Desmedt, J. E. (editor). Cognitive Components in Cerebral Event‐Related Potentials and Selective Attention. Basel: Karger, 1978. (Prog. Clin. Neurophysiol. Ser., vol. 6.)
 155. Desmedt, J. E., and D. Robertson. Search for right hemisphere asymmetries in event‐related potentials to somatosensory cueing signals. In: Language and Hemispheric Specialization in Man: Cerebral Event‐Related Potentials, edited by J. E. Desmedt. Basel: Karger, 1977, p. 172–187. (Prog. Clin. Neurophysiol. Ser., vol. 3.)
 156. De Villiers, J. Quantitative aspects of agrammatism in aphasias. Cortex 10: 36–54, 1974.
 157. Dimond, S. J. The Double Brain. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1972.
 158. Dimond, S. J. Depletion of attentional capacity after total commissurotomy in man. Brain 99: 347–356, 1976.
 159. Dimond, S. J. Introducing Neuropsychology: A Study of Brain and Mind. Springfield, IL: Thomas, 1978.
 160. Dimond, S. J., and J. G. Beaumont (editors). Hemispheric Function of the Human Brain. London: Paul Elek, 1974.
 161. Dimond, S. J., and D. A. Blizard (editors). Evolution and Lateralization of the Brain. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 299: 1977.
 162. Donaldson, M. Children's Minds. London: Fontana, 1978.
 163. Donchin, E. Event‐related brain potentials: a tool in the study of human information processing. In: Evoked Brain Potentials and Behavior, edited by H. Begleiter. New York: Plenum, 1979, p. 13–88. (Downstate Ser. Res. Psychiatry Psychol., vol. 2.)
 164. Donchin, E., E. Callaway, R. Cooper, J. E. Desmedt, W. R. Goff, S. A. Hillyard, and S. Sutton. Publication criteria for studies of evoked potentials (EP) in man. Report of a Committee. In: Attention, Voluntary Contraction and Event‐Related Cerebral Potentials, edited by J. E. Desmedt. Basel: Karger, 1977, p. 1–11. (Prog. Clin. Neurophysiol. Ser., vol. 1.)
 165. Donchin, E., R. Johnson, R. Hernong, and M. Kutas. Covariance of the magnitude of the CNV and P300 as a function of the subject's task. In: The Responsive Brain, edited by W. C. McCallum and J. R. Knott. Bristol, England: Wright, 1976, p. 76–80.
 166. Donchin, E., and D. B. Lindsley (editors). Averaged Evoked Potentials. Washington DC: NASA, 1969, SP–191.
 167. Donchin, E., G. McCarthy, and M. Kutas. Electroencephalographic investigations of hemispheric specialization. In: Language and Hemispheric Specialization in Man: Cerebral Event‐Related Potentials, edited by J. E. Desmedt. Basel: Karger, 1977, p. 212–242.
 168. Doyle, J. C., R. Ornstein, and D. Galin. Lateral specialization of cognitive mode: EEG frequency analysis. Psychophysiology 11: 567–578, 1974.
 169. Dumas, R., and A. Morgan. EEG asymmetry as a function of occupation, task and task difficulty. Neuropsychologia 13: 219–228, 1975.
 170. Durnford, M., and D. Kimura. Right hemisphere specialization for depth perception reflected in visual field differences. Nature London 231: 394–395, 1971.
 171. Eccles, J. C. The Brain and the Unity of Conscious Experience. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1965. (The 19th Arthur Stanley Eddington Memorial Lecture.)
 172. Efron, R. The effect of handedness on the perception of simultaneity and temporal order. Brain 86: 261–284, 1963.
 173. Efron, R. The effect of stimulus intensity on the perception of simultaneity in right and left‐handed subjects. Brain 86: 285–294, 1963.
 174. Eimas, P., E. Siqueland, P. Jusczyr, and J. Vigorito. Speech perception in infants. Science 171: 303–306, 1971.
 175. Ekman, P., W. V. Friesen, and P. Ellsworth. Emotion in the Human Face: Guidelines for Research and an Integration of Findings. New York: Pergamon, 1972.
 176. Ekman, P., J. C. Hager, and W. V. Friesen. The symmetry of emotional and deliberate facial actions. Psychophysiology 18: 101–106, 1981.
 177. Ellenberg, L., and R. W. Sperry. Capacity for holding sustained attention following commissurotomy. Cortex 15: 421–438, 1979.
 178. Ellis, H. D., and J. W. Shepherd. Recognition of abstract and concrete nouns presented in left and right visual fields. J. Exp. Psychol. 103: 1035–1036. 1974.
 179. Endo, M., A. Shimizu, and T. Hori. Functional asymmetry of visual fields for Japanese words in Kana (syllable‐based) writing and random shape‐recognition in Japanese subjects. Neuropsychologia 16: 291–297, 1978.
 180. Entus, A. K. Hemispheric asymmetry in processing of dichotically presented speech and nonspeech stimuli by infants. In: Language Development and Neurological Theory, edited by S. Segalowitz and F. Gruber. New York: Academic, 1977.
 181. Erdmann, B., and R. Dodge. Psychologische Untersuchungen über das lesen auf Experimentellan Grundlage. Halle: Neumeyer, 1898.
 182. Ertl, J. P., and E. W. P. Schafer. Cortical activity preceding speech. Life Sci. 6: 473–479, 1967.
 183. Ettlinger, G. Sensory deficits in visual agnosia. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 19: 297–307, 1956.
 184. Ettlinger, G., C. B. Blakemore, A. D. Milner, and J. Wilson. Agenesis of the corpus callosum: a behavioural investigation. Brain 95: 327–346, 1972.
 185. Ettlinger, G., C. V. Jackson, and O. L. Zangwill. Cerebral dominance in sinistrals. Brain 79: 569–588, 1956.
 186. Ferrier, D. The localization of function in the brain. Proc. R. Soc. London 22: 229–232, 1873/74.
 187. Filbey, R. A., and M. S. Gazzaniga. Splitting the normal brain with reaction time. Psychon. Sci. 17: 335–336, 1969.
 188. Flowers, K. Handedness and controlled movement. Br. J. Psychol. 66: 39–52, 1975.
 189. Frederiks, J. A. M. The agnosias: disorders of perceptual recognition. In: Handbook of Clinical Neurology, edited by P. J. Vinken and G. W. Bruyn. Amsterdam: North‐Holland, 1969, vol. 4, p. 13–47.
 190. French, J. W., R. B. Ekstrom, and L. A. Price. Manual for Kit of Reference Tests for Cognitive Factors. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 1963.
 191. French, L. A., D. R. Johnson, I. A. Brown, and F. B. Von Verben. Cerebral hemispherectomy for control in intractable convulsive seizures. J. Neurosurg. 12: 154–164, 1955.
 192. Finlay, D. C., and J. French. Visual field differences in a facial recognition task using signal detection theory. Neuropsychologia 16: 103–107, 1978.
 193. Flechsig, P. Die Leitungsbahnen im Gehirn und Ruckenmark des Menschen auf Grund Entwicklungsgeschichtlicher Untersuchungen. Leipzig: Engelmann, 1876.
 194. Fleminger, J. J., D. J. De L. Horne, and P. Nott. Unilateral electroconvulsive therapy and cerebral dominance: effect of right and left‐sided electrode placement on verbal memory. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 33: 408–411, 1970.
 195. Franco, L., and R. W. Sperry. Hemispheric localization of cognitive processing of geometry. Neuropsychologia 15: 107–114, 1977.
 196. Fredricks, J. A. M. Disorders of the body schema. In: Handbook of Clinical Neurology, edited by P. J. Vinken and G. W. Bruyn. Amsterdam: North‐Holland, 1969, vol. 4, p. 207–240.
 197. Freud, S. Zur Auffassung der Aphasien. Eine Kritische Studie. Leipzig: Denticke, 1891. (Republished as: On Aphasia. New York: International Universities Press, 1953.)
 198. Friedman, D., R. Simson, W. Ritter, and I. Rapin. Cortical evoked potentials elicited by real speech words and human sounds. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 38: 13–19, 1975.
 199. Friedman, D., R. Simson, W. Ritter, and I. Rapin. The late positive component (P300) and information processing in sentences. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 38: 255–262, 1975.
 200. Friedman, D., R. Simson, W. Ritter, and I. Rapin. CNV and P300 experimental paradigms for the study of language. In: Language and Hemispheric Specialization in Man: Cerebral Event‐Related Potentials, edited by J. E. Desmedt. Basel: Karger, 1977, p. 205–211. (Prog. Clin. Neurophysiol. Ser., vol. 3.)
 201. Fritsch, G., and E. Hitzig. Über die elektrische Erregbarkeit des Grosshirns. Arch. Anat. Physiol. Wiss. Med. 4: 300–332, 1870.
 202. Gainotti, G. Emotional behavior and hemispheric side of the lesion. Cortex 8: 41–55, 1972.
 203. Galaburda, A. M., M. LeMay, T. L. Kemper, and N. Geschwind. Right‐left asymmetrics in the brain. Science 199: 852–856, 1978.
 204. Galin, D., and R. R. Ellis. Indices of lateralized cognitive processes: relation of evoked potential asymmetry to EEG alpha asymmetry. In: Language and Hemispheric Specialization in Man: Cerebral Event‐Related Potentials, edited by J. E. Desmedt. Basel: Karger, 1977, p. 140–150. (Prog. Clin. Neurophysiol. Ser., vol. 3.)
 205. Galin, D., and R. Ornstein. Lateral specialization of cognitive mode: an EEG study. Psychophysiology 9: 412–418, 1972.
 206. Gall, F. J., and J. Spurzheim. Anatomie et physiologie du système nerveux en général et du cerveau en particulier. Paris: Schoell, 1810–1818.
 207. Gardiner, M. F., and D. O. Walter. Evidence for hemispheric specialization from infant EEG. In: Lateralization in the Nervous System, edited by S. Harnad, R. W. Doty, L. Goldstein, J. Jaynes, and G. Krauthamer. New York: Academic, 1977, p. 481–500.
 208. Gardner, H. The contribution of operativity to naming capacity in aphasic patients. Neuropsychologia 11: 213–220, 1973.
 209. Gardner, H. The Shattered Mind. London: Routledge and Kegan, Paul, 1977.
 210. Gardner, H., M. L. Albert, and S. Weintraub. Comprehending a word: the influence of speed and redundancy on auditory comprehension in aphasia. Cortex 11: 155–162, 1975.
 211. Gardner, W. J., L. S. Karnosh, C. C. McClure, and A. K. Gardner. Residual function following hemispherectomy for tumour and for infantile hemiplegia. Brain 78: 487–502, 1955.
 212. Gates, A., and J. L. Bradshaw. The role of the cerebral hemispheres in music. Brain Language 4: 403–431, 1977.
 213. Gazzaniga, M. S. The Bisected Brain. New York: Appleton, 1970.
 214. Gazzaniga, M. S., J. E. Bogen, and R. W. Sperry. Observations on visual perception after disconnection of the cerebral hemispheres in man. Brain 88: 221–236, 1965.
 215. Gazzaniga, M. S., J. E. Bogen, and R. W. Sperry. Dyspraxia following division of the cerebral commissures. Arch. Neurol. 16: 606–612, 1967.
 216. Gazzaniga, M. S., and R. W. Sperry. Language after section of the cerebral commissures. Brain 90: 131–148, 1967.
 217. Geffen, G., J. L. Bradshaw, and N. C. Nettleton. Hemispheric asymmetry: verbal and spatial encoding of visual stimuli. J. Exp. Psychol. 95: 25–31, 1972.
 218. Geffen, G., J. L. Bradshaw, and G. Wallace. Interhemispheric effects on reaction time to verbal and non verbal visual stimuli. J. Exp. Psychol. 87: 415–422, 1971.
 219. Geffner, D. S., and I. Hochberg. Ear laterality performance of children from low and middle socioeconomic levels on a verbal dichotic listening task. Cortex 7: 193–203, 1971.
 220. Geschwind, N. The anatomy of acquired disorders of reading. In: Reading Disability, edited by J. Money. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1962, p. 115–129.
 221. Geschwind, N. Disconnexion syndromes in animals and man, I and II. Brain 88: 237–294, 585–644, 1965.
 222. Geschwind, N. The varieties of naming errors. Cortex 3: 97–112, 1967.
 223. Geschwind, N. The anatomical basis of hemispheric differentiation. In: Hemisphere Function in the Human Brain, edited by S. J. Dimond and J. G. Beaumont. London: Paul Elek, 1974, p. 7–24.
 224. Geschwind, N. Preservation of axial movements to verbal command in cases of apraxia or comprehension deficit. In: Les Syndromes de disconnexion calleuse chez l'homme, edited by F. Michel and B. Schott. Lyon, France: Hopital Neurologique, 1975, p. 301–307.
 225. Geschwind, N., and M. Fusillo. Color‐naming defects in association with alexia. Arch. Neurol. Chicago 15: 137–146, 1966.
 226. Geschwind, N., and W. Levitsky. Human brain: left‐right asymmetries in temporal speech region. Science 161: 186–187, 1968.
 227. Gesell, A., and L. B. Ames. The development of handedness. J. Genet. Psychol. 70: 155–175, 1947.
 228. Gevins, A. S., G. M. Zeitlin, J. C. Doyle, C. D. Yingling, R. E. Schaffer, E. Callaway, and C. L. Yeager. Electroencephalogram correlates of higher cortical functions. Science 203: 665–667, 1979.
 229. Gibson, A. R., S. T. Dimond, and M. S. Gazzaniga. Left field superiority for word matching. Neuropsychologia 10: 463–466, 1972.
 230. Gilbert, C., and P. Bakan. Visual asymmetry in perception of faces. Neuropsychologia 11: 355–363, 1973.
 231. Glick, S. D., T. P. Jerussi, and B. Zimmerberg. Behavioral and neuropharmacological correlates of nigro‐striatal asymmetry in rats. In: Lateralization in the Nervous System, edited by S. Harnad, R. W. Doty, L. Goldstein, J. Jaynes, and G. Krauthamer. New York: Academic, 1977, p. 213–249.
 232. Gloning, I., K. Gloning, G. Haub, and R. Quatember. Comparison of verbal behaviour in right‐handed and non‐right handed patients with anatomically verified lesion of one hemisphere. Cortex 5: 41–52, 1969.
 233. Goldberg, S., and M. Lewis. Play behavior in the year‐old infant: early sex differences. Child Dev. 40: 21–32, 1969.
 234. Goldman, P. S. An alternative to developmental plasticity: heterology of CNS structures in infants and adults. In: Plasticity and Recovery of Function in the Central Nervous System, edited by D. G. Stein, J. J. Rosen, and N. Butters, New York: Academic, 1976, p. 149–174.
 235. Goldman, P. S. Neuronal plasticity in primate telencephalon: anomalous projections induced by prenatal removal of frontal cortex. Science 202: 768–770, 1978.
 236. Goldman, P. S., and W. J. H. Nauta. Columnar distribution of corticocortical fibers in the frontal association, limbic and motor cortex of the developing rhesus monkey. Brain Res. 122: 393–412, 1977.
 237. Goldstein, K. Language and Language Disturbances: Aphasic Symptom Complexes and Their Significance for Medicine and the Theory of Language. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1948.
 238. Goodglass, H., and N. Geschwind. Language disorders (aphasia). In: Handbook of Perception, edited by E. Carterette and M. Friedman. New York: Academic, 1976, vol. VII, p. 389–428.
 239. Goodglass, H., and E. Kaplan. The Assessment of Aphasia and Related Disorders. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1972.
 240. Goodglass, H., and F. Quadfastel. Language laterality in left‐handed aphaics. Brain 77: 521–548, 1954.
 241. Goodglass, H., F. A. Quadfasel, and W. H. Timberlake. Phrase length and type and severity of aphasia. Cortex 1: 133–153, 1964.
 242. Gordon, H. W. Hemispheric asymmetries in the perception of musical chords. Cortex 6: 387–398, 1970.
 243. Gordon, H. W. Auditory specialization of the right and left hemispheres. In: Hemispheric Disconnection and Cerebral Function, edited by M. Kinsbourne and W. L. Smith. Springfield, IL: Thomas, 1974, p. 126–136.
 244. Gordon, H. W. Olfaction and cerebral separation. In: Hemispheric Disconnection and Cerebral Function, edited by M. Kinsbourne and W. L. Smith. Springfield, IL: Thomas, 1974, p. 137–154.
 245. Gordon, H. W., and J. E. Bogen. Hemispheric lateralization of singing after intracarotid sodium amylobarbitone. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 37: 727–738, 1974.
 246. Gordon, H. W., and A. Carmon. Transfer of dominance in speed of verbal response to visually presented stimuli from right to left hemisphere. Percept. Mot. Skills 42: 1091–1100, 1976.
 247. Gordon, H. W., and R. W. Sperry. Lateralization of olfactory perception in the surgically separated hemispheres of man. Neuropsychologia 7: 111–120, 1969.
 248. Gott, P. S. Cognitive abilities following right and left hemispherectomy. Cortex 9: 266–274, 1973.
 249. Gott, P. Language following dominant hemispherectomy. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 36: 1082–1088, 1973.
 250. Gottschaldt, K. Über den Einfluss der Erfahrung auf die Wahrnehmung von Figuren. I. Psychol. Forsch. 8: 261–317, 1926.
 251. Gottschaldt, K. Über den Einfluss der Erfahrung auf die Wahrnehmung von Figuren. II. Psychol. Forsch. 12: 1–87, 1929.
 252. Grabow, J. D., and F. W. Elliott. The electrophysiologic assessment of hemispheric asymmetries during speech. J. Speech Hear. Res. 17: 64–72, 1974.
 253. Grewel, F. The acalculias. In: Handbook of Clinical Neurology, edited by P. J. Vinken and G. W. Bruyn. Amsterdam: North‐Holland, 1969, vol. 4, p. 181–194.
 254. Griffith, H., and M. Davidson. Long term changes in intellect and behaviour after hemispherectomy. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 29: 571–576, 1966.
 255. Gross, C. G. Visual functions of inferotemporal cortex. In: Handbook of Sensory Physiology, edited by R. Jung. Berlin: Springer‐Verlag, 1973, vol. 7, pt. 3B p. 451–482.
 256. Grozinger, B., H. H. Kornhuber, and J. Kriebel. Human cerebral potentials preceding speech production, phonation and movements of the mouth and tongue, with reference to respiratory and extracerebral potentials. In: Language and Hemispheric Specialization in Man: Cerebral Event‐Related Potentials, edited by J. E. Desmedt. Basel: Karger, 1977, p. 87–103.
 257. Halperin, Y., I. Nachshon, and A. Carmon. Shift of ear superiority in dichotic listening to temporally patterned nonverbal stimuli. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 53: 46–50, 1973.
 258. Halstead, W. C., and J. M. Wepman. The Halstead‐Wepman aphasia screening test. J. Speech Hear. Disord. 14: 9–15, 1949.
 259. Hannay, H. J., and D. R. Malone. Visual field recognition memory for right handed females as a function of familial handedness. Cortex 12: 41–48, 1976.
 260. Harcum, E. R., and M. E. Finkel. Explanation of Mishkin and Forgay's result as a directional‐reading conflict. Can. J. Psychol. 17: 224–234, 1963.
 261. Harnad, S., R. W. Doty, L. Goldstein, J. Jaynes, and G. Krauthamer (editors). Lateralization in the Nervous System. New York: Academic, 1977.
 262. Harnad, S., H. Steklis, and J. Lancaster (editors). Origins and Evolution of Language and Speech. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 280: 1976.
 263. Harris, L. J. Sex differences in spatial ability: possible environmental, genetic, and neurological factors. In: Asymmetrical Function of the Brain, edited by M. Kinsbourne. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1978, p. 405–522.
 264. Hartje, W., M. Kerschensteiner, K. Poeck, and B. Orgass. A cross‐validation study on the Token Test. Neuropsychologia 11: 119–121, 1973.
 265. Head, H. Studies in Neurology. London: Oxford, 1920, 2 vols.
 266. Head, H. Aphasia and Kindred Disorders of Speech. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1926, 2 vols.
 267. Hécaen, H. Suggestions for a typology of the apraxias. In: The Reach of Mind: Essays in Memory of Kurt Goldstein, edited by M. L. Simmel. New York: Springer, p. 37–56, 1968.
 268. Hécaen, H. Aphasic, apraxic and agnosic syndromes in right and left hemisphere lesions. In: Handbook of Clinical Neurology, edited by P. J. Vinken and G. W. Bruyn. Amsterdam: North‐Holland, 1969, vol. 4, p. 291–311.
 269. Hécaen, H. Acquired aphasia in children and the ontogenesis of hemispheric functional specification. Brain Language 3: 114–134, 1976.
 270. Hécaen, H., and J. De Ajuriaguerra. L'apraxie de l'habillage. Ses rapports avec la planotopokinésie et les troubles de la somatognosie. L'Encéphale 35: 133–144, 1945.
 271. Hécaen, H., and J. De Ajuriaguerra. Balint's syndrome (psychic paralysis of visual fixation) and its minor forms. Brain 77: 373–400, 1954.
 272. Hécaen, H., J. De Ajuriaguerra, and J. Massonet. Les troubles visuoconstructifs par lésion pariéto‐occipitale droite: role des perturbations vestibulaires. L'Encephale 1: 122–179, 1951.
 273. Hécaen, H., and M. L. Albert. Human Neuropsychology. New York: Wiley, 1978.
 274. Hécaen, H., and R. Angelergues. Agnosia for faces (prosopagnosia). Arch. Neurol Chicago 7: 92–100, 1962.
 275. Hécaen, H., and R. Angelergues. La cécité psychique. Paris: Masson, 1963.
 276. Hécaen, H., and R. Angelergues. Pathologie du langage. Paris: Larousse, 1965.
 277. Hécaen, H., R. Angelergues, and J. A. Douzenis. Les agraphies. Neuropsychologia 1: 179–208, 1963.
 278. Hécaen, H., M. C. Goldblum, M. C. Masure, and A. M. Ramiers. Une nouvelle observation d'agnosie d'object. Deficit de l'association ou de la categorisation, specifique de la modalité visuelle. Neuropsychologia 12: 447–464, 1974.
 279. Hécaen, H., and M. Piercy. Paroxysmal dysphasia and the problem of cerebral dominance. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 19: 194–201, 1956.
 280. Hécaen, H., and J. Sauget. Cerebral dominance in left‐handed subjects. Cortex 7: 19–48, 1971.
 281. Heilman, K. M., R. Scholes, and R. T. Watson. Auditory affective agnosia: disturbed comprehension of affective speech. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 38: 69–72, 1975.
 282. Heilman, K. M., and E. Valenstein. Frontal lobe neglect in man. Neurology 22: 660–664, 1972.
 283. Heilman, K. M., and R. T. Watson. The neglect syndrome—a unilateral defect of the orienting response. In: Lateralization in the Nervous System, edited by S. Harnad, R. W. Doty, L. Goldstein, J. Jaynes, and G. Krauthamer. New York: Academic, 1977, p. 285–302.
 284. Henley, N. M., H. L. Noyes, and J. Deese. Semantic structure in short‐term memory. J. Exp. Psychol. 77: 587–592, 1968.
 285. Henschen, S. E. Klinische und anatomische Beitrage zur Pathologie des Gehirns. Stockholm: Nordiska Bokhandeln, 1920–1922.
 286. Hermelin, B., and N. O'Connor. Functional asymmetry in the reading of Braille. Neuropsychologia 9: 431–435, 1971.
 287. Hermelin, B., and N. O'Connor. Right and left‐handed reading of Braille. Nature London 231: 470, 1971.
 288. Heron, W. Perception as a function of retinal locus and attention. Am. J. Psychol. 70: 38–48, 1957.
 289. Hewitt, W. The development of the human corpus callosum. J. Anat. 96: 355–358, 1962.
 290. Hicks, R. E., and M. Kinsbourne. Human handedness. In: Asymmetrical Function of the Brain, edited by M. Kinsbourne. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1978, p. 523–549.
 291. Hillier, W. F. Total left cerebral hemispherectomy for malignant glioma. Neurology 4: 718–721, 1954.
 292. Hillyard, S. A. The CNV and human behavior: a review. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 33 (Suppl.): 162–172, 1973.
 293. Hillyard, S. A., K. C. Squires, J. W. Bauer, and P. H. Lindsay. Evoked potential correlates of auditory signal detection. Science 172: 1357–1360, 1971.
 294. Hillyard, S. A., and D. L. Woods. Electrophysiological analysis of human brain function. In: Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology. Neuropsychology, edited by M. S. Gazzaniga. New York: Plenum, 1979, vol. 2, p. 345–378.
 295. Hines, D. Recognition of verbs, abstract nouns and concrete nouns from left and right visual half fields. Neuropsychologia 14: 211–216, 1976.
 296. Hines, D., and P. Satz. Cross‐modal asymmetries in perception related to asymmetry in cerebral function. Neuropsychologia 12: 239–247, 1974.
 297. Hirata, K. T., and R. Osaka. Tachistoscopic recognition of Japanese materials in left and right visual fields. Psychologia 10: 7–18, 1967.
 298. Hoffman, H. J., E. B. Hendrick, M. Dennis, and D. Armstrong. Hemispherectomy for Sturge‐Weber syndrome. In: Child's Brain, edited by A. J. Raimondi. Basel: Karger, 1979, vol. 5 (3), p. 233–248. (Am. Soc. Pediatr. Neurosurg., 1st Meeting.)
 299. Holmes, G. Disturbances of visual orientation. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 2: 449–468, 506–516, 1918.
 300. Holmes, J. M., J. C. Marshall, and F. Newcombe. Syntactic class as a determinant of word retrieval in normal and dyslexic subjects. Nature 234: 418, 1971.
 301. Hommes, O. R., and L. H. H. M. Panhuysen. Depression and cerebral dominance. A study of bilateral intracarotid amytal in eleven depressed patients. Psychiatr. Neurol. Neurochir. 74: 259–270, 1971.
 302. Howes, D., and N. Geschwind. Quantitative studies of aphasic language. Res. Publ. Assoc. Res. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 42: 229–244, 1964.
 303. Hublet, C., J. Morais, and P. Bertelson. Spatial effects in speech perception in the absence of spatial competition. Perception 6: 461–466, 1977.
 304. Humphrey, M. E., and O. L. Zangwill. Dysphasia in left handed patients with unilateral lesions. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 15: 184–193, 1952.
 305. Humphrey, M. E., and O. L. Zangwill. Effects of a right sided occipito‐parietal brain injury in a left handed man. Brain 75: 312–324, 1952.
 306. Innocenti, G. M. Two types of brain plasticity? In: Progress in Brain Research. Development and Chemical Specificity of Neurons, edited by M. Cuenod, G. W. Kreutzberg, and F. E. Bloom. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1980, vol. 51, p. 479–487.
 307. Iseroff, A., A. Carmon, and I. Nachshon. Dissociation of hemifield reaction time differences from verbal stimulus directionality. J. Exp. Psychol. 103: 145–149, 1974.
 308. Jackson, J. H. Clinical remarks on cases of defects of expression (by words, writing, signs, etc.) in diseases of the nervous system. Lancet 1: 604–605, 1864.
 309. Jackson, J. H. Case of large cerebral tumour without optic neuritis and with left hemiplegia and imperception. Rep. R. London Ophthalm. Hosp. 8: 434, 1876.
 310. Jackson, J. H. On the nature of the duality of the brain. In: Selected Writings of John Hughlings Jackson, edited by J. Taylor. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1932, vol. 2, p. 129–145.
 311. Jackson, J. H. Selected Writings, edited by J. Taylor. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1932.
 312. James, W. E., R. B. Mefferd, Jr., and B. Wieland. Repetitive psychometric measures: handedness and performance. Percept. Mot. Skills 25: 209–212, 1967.
 313. Joynt, R. J., and A. L. Benton. The memoir of Marc Dax on aphasia. Neurology 14: 851–854, 1964.
 314. Keller, L. A. Words on the right sound louder than words on the left in free field listening. Neuropsychologia 16: 221–223, 1977.
 315. Kerschensteiner, M., K. Poeck, and E. Brunner. The fluency‐nonfluency dimension in the classification of aphasic speech. Cortex 8: 233–247, 1972.
 316. Kerschner, J. R., and A. Gwan‐Rong Jeng. Dual functional hemispheric asymmetry in visual perception: effects of ocular dominance and post exposural processes. Neuropsychologia 10: 437–445, 1972.
 317. Kertesz, A., and N. Geschwind. Patterns of pyramidal decussation and their relationship to handedness. Arch. Neurol. Chicago 24: 326–332, 1971.
 318. Kertesz, A., D. Lesk, and P. McCabe. Isotope localization of infarcts in aphasia. Arch. Neurol. Chicago 34: 590–601, 1977.
 319. Kimura, D. Cerebral dominance and the perception of verbal stimuli. Can. J. Psychol. 15: 166–171, 1961.
 320. Kimura, D. Some effects of temporal lobe damage on auditory perception. Can. J. Psychol. 15: 156–165, 1961.
 321. Kimura, D. Right temporal lobe damage: perception of unfamiliar stimuli after damage. Arch. Neurol. Chicago 8: 264–271, 1963.
 322. Kimura, D. Speech lateralization in young children as determined by an auditory test. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 56: 899–902, 1963.
 323. Kimura, D. Left‐right differences in perception of melodies. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 16: 355–358, 1964.
 324. Kimura, D. Dual functional asymmetry of the brain in visual perception. Neuropsychologia 4: 275–285, 1966.
 325. Kimura, D. Functional asymmetry of the brain in dichotic listening. Cortex 3: 163–178, 1967.
 326. Kimura, D. Spatial localization in left and right visual fields. Can. J. Psychol. 23: 445–458, 1969.
 327. Kimura, D. Manual activity during speaking: 2. Left handers. Neuropsychologia 11: 51–55, 1973.
 328. Kimura, D. Manual activity in right‐handers associated with speaking. Neuropsychologia 11: 45–50, 1973.
 329. Kimura, D. Acquisition of a motor skill after left‐hemisphere damage. Brain 100: 527–542, 1977.
 330. Kimura, D. Neuromotor mechanisms in the evolution of human communication. In: Neurobiology of Social Communication in Primates: An Evolutionary Perspective, edited by H. D. Steklis and M. J. Raleigh. New York: Academic, 1979, p. 197–219.
 331. Kimura, D., and Y. Archibald. Motor Functions of the Left Hemisphere. London, Ontario: Univ. of Western Ontario, Dept. of Psychology, 1973. (Res. Bull. No. 266.)
 332. Kimura, D., and M. Durnford. Normal studies in the function of the right hemisphere in vision. In: Hemisphere Function in the Human Brain, edited by S. J. Dimond and J. G. Beaumont. London: Paul Elek, 1974, p. 25–47.
 333. Kimura, D., and S. Folb. Neural processing of backwards speech sounds. Science 161: 395–396, 1968.
 334. Kimura, D., and C. H. Vanderwolf. The relation between hand preference and the performance of individual finger movements by left and right hands. Brain 93: 769–774, 1970.
 335. King, F. D., and D. Kimura. Left‐ear superiority in dichotic perception of vocal non‐verbal sounds. Can. J. Psychol. 26: 111–116, 1972.
 336. Kinsbourne, M. The cerebral basis of lateral asymmetries in attention. Acta Psychol. 33: 193–201, 1970.
 337. Kinsbourne, M. Direction of gaze and distribution of cerebral thought processes. Neuropsychologia 12: 279–281, 1974.
 338. Kinsbourne, M. (editor). Asymmetrical Function of the Brain. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1978.
 339. Kinsbourne, M., and J. Cook. General and lateralized effects of concurrent verbalization on a unimanual skill. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 23: 341–345, 1971.
 340. Kinsbourne, M., and R. E. Hicks. Mapping cerebral functional space: competition and collaboration in human performance. In: Asymmetrical Function of the Brain, edited by M. Kinsbourne. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1978, p. 267–273.
 341. Kinsbourne, M., and W. L. Smith (editors). Hemispheric Disconnection and Cerebral Function. Springfield, IL: Thomas, 1974.
 342. Kinsbourne, M., and E. K. Warrington. Observations on colour agnosia. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 27: 296–299, 1964.
 343. Klatsky, R. L., and R. C. Atkinson. Specialization of the cerebral hemispheres in scanning for information in short term memory. Percept. Psychophys. 10: 335–338, 1971.
 344. Kleist, K. Gehirnpathologie vornehmlich auf Grund der Kriegserfahrungen. Leipzig: Barth, 1934.
 345. Kleist, K. Sensory Aphasia and Amnesia: The Myeloarchitectonic Basis. New York: Pergamon, 1962.
 346. Klima, E. S., and U. Bellugi. The Signs of Language. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1979.
 347. Knox, C., and D. Kimura. Cerebral processing of nonverbal sounds in boys and girls. Neuropsychologia 8: 227–237, 1970.
 348. Kohn, B., and M. Dennis. Patterns of hemispheric specialization after hemidecortication for infantile hemiplegia. In: Hemispheric Disconnection and Cerebral Function, edited by M. Kinsbourne and W. L. Smith. Springfield, IL: Thomas, 1974, p. 34–47.
 349. Kohn, B., and M. Dennis. Selective impairments of visuospatial abilities in infantile hemiplegics after right cerebral hemidecortication. Neuropsychologia 12: 505–512, 1974.
 350. Krashen, S. Lateralization, language learning and the critical period: some new evidence. Language Learn. 23: 63–74, 1973.
 351. Krashen, S. The critical period for language acquisition and its possible bases. In: Developmental Psycholinguistics and Communication Disorders, edited by D. R. Aaronson and R. W. Rieber. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 263: 211–224, 1975.
 352. Krynauw, R. A. Infantile hemiplegia treated by removing one cerebral hemisphere. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 13: 243–267, 1950.
 353. Krynicki, V. E. Hemispheric differences in form recognition. A behavioral and evoked potential study. New York: Columbia University, 1976. (Cited and discussed in ref. a.)
 354. Kurtzberg, D., and H. G. Vaughan, Jr. Electrocortical potentials associated with eye movement. In: The Oculomotor System and Brain Functions, edited by V. Zitzmund. Bratislava: Slovak Academy of Sciences, 1973, p. 135–145.
 355. Kussmaul, A. Die Störungen der Sprache. Leipzig: Vogel, 1877.
 356. Kutas, M., and E. Donchin. Studies of squeezing: handedness, responding hand, response force and asymmetry of readiness potential. Science 186: 545–548, 1974.
 357. Kutas, M., and S. A. Hillyard. Reading between the lines: event‐related brain potentials during natural sentence processing. Brain Language 11: 354–373, 1980.
 358. Kutas, M., G. McCarthy, and E. Donchin. Augmenting mental chronometry: The P300 as a measure of stimulus evaluation time. Science 197: 792–795, 1977.
 359. Lairy, G. C., A. Remond, H. Rieger, and N. Lesevre. The alpha average. Clinical application in children. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 26: 453–467, 1969.
 360. Land, E. H. The retinex theory of colour vision. Sci. Am. 237: 108–128, 1977.
 361. Lange, J. Agnosien und Apraxien. In: Handbuck der Neurologie, edited by O. Bumke and O. Foerster. Berlin: Springer‐Verlag, 1936, vol. 6, p. 807–960.
 362. Langhorne, M. C. The effects of maze rotation on learning. J. Gen. Psychol. 38: 191–205, 1948.
 363. Lansdell, H. Verbal and nonverbal factors in right hemisphere speech; relation to early neurological history. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 69: 734–738, 1969.
 364. Lecours, A. R. Myelogenetic correlates of the development of speech and language. In: Foundations of Language Development: A Multidisciplinary Approach, edited by E. H. Lenneberg and E. Lenneberg. New York: Academic, 1975, vol. 1, p. 121–135. (Proc. UNESCO Symp.)
 365. Lecours, A. R., and F. Lhermitte. Phonemic paraphasias: linguistic structures and tentative hypotheses. Cortex 5: 193–228, 1969.
 366. Lee, D. N. The functions of vision. In: Modes of Perceiving and Processing Information, edited by H. L. Pick and E. Saltzman. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1978, p. 159–170.
 367. Leehey, S., S. Carey, R. Diamond, and A. Cahn. Upright and inverted faces: the right hemisphere knows the difference. Cortex 14: 411–419, 1978.
 368. LeMay, M. Morphological cerebral asymmetries of modern man, fossil man and nonhuman primate. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 280: 349–366, 1976.
 369. LeMay, M. Asymmetries of the skull and handedness. J. Neurol. Sci. 32: 243–253, 1977.
 370. LeMay, M., and A. Culebras. Human brain: morphological differences in the hemispheres demonstrable by carotid angiography. N. Engl. J. Med. 287: 168–170, 1972.
 371. LeMay, M., and N. Geschwind. Hemispheric differences in the brains of great apes. Brain Behav. Evol. 11: 48–52, 1975.
 372. Lenneberg, E. H. Biological Foundations of Language. New York: Wiley, 1967.
 373. Levy, J. Possible basis for the evolution of lateral specialization of the human brain. Nature London 224: 614–615, 1969.
 374. Levy, J. Lateral specialization of the brain: behavioral manifestations and possible evolutionary basis. In: Proc. of the 32nd Annual Biology Colloquium on the Biology of Behavior, edited by J. A. Kiger. Corvallis: Oregon State Univ. Press, 1972.
 375. Levy, J. Cerebral asymmetries as manifested in split‐brain man. In: Hemispheric Disconnection and Cerebral Function, edited by M. Kinsbourne and W. L. Smith. Springfield, IL: Thomas, 1974, p. 165–183.
 376. Levy, J. Psychobiological implications of bilateral asymmetry. In: Hemisphere Function in the Human Brain, edited by S. Dimond and J. G. Beaumont. London: Paul Elek, 1974.
 377. Levy, J. A review of evidence for a genetic component in the determination of handedness. Behav. Genetics 6: 429–453, 1976.
 378. Levy, J., and T. Nagylaki. A model for the genetics of handedness. Genetics 72: 117–128, 1972.
 379. Levy, J., R. D. Nebes, and R. W. Sperry. Expressive language in the surgically separated minor hemisphere. Cortex 7: 49–58, 1970.
 380. Levy, J., and M. Reid. Variations in cerebral organization as a function of handedness, hand posture in writing, and sex. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 107: 119–144, 1978.
 381. Levy, J., and C. Trevarthen. Metacontrol of hemispheric function in human split‐brain patients. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 2: 299–312, 1976.
 382. Levy, J., and C. Trevarthen. Perceptual, semantic and phonetic aspects of elementary language processes in split‐brain patients. Brain 100: 105–118, 1977.
 383. Levy, J., and C. Trevarthen. Color‐matching, color‐naming and color‐memory in split‐brain patients. Neuropsychologia 19: 523–541, 1981.
 384. Levy, J., C. Trevarthen, and R. W. Sperry. Perception of bilateral chimeric figures following hemispheric deconnection. Brain 95: 61–78, 1972.
 385. Levy‐Agresti, J., and R. W. Sperry. Differential perceptual capacities in major and minor hemispheres. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 61: 1151, 1968.
 386. Lhermitte, F., and M. F. Beauvois. A visual‐speech disconnexion syndrome—report of a case with optic aphasia, agnosic alexia and colour agnosia. Brain 96: 695–714, 1973.
 387. Lhermitte, F., F. Chain, D. Aron, M. Leblanc, and O. Souty. Les troubles de la vision des couleurs dans les lésions postérieures du cerveau à propos de 42 observations. Rev. Neurol. 121: 5–29, 1969.
 388. Lhermitte, F., F. Chain, R. Escourolle, B. Ducarne, and B. Pillon. Étude anatomico‐clinique d'un cas de prosopagnosie. Rev. Neurol. 126: 329–346, 1972.
 389. Lhermitte, F., and J‐C. Gautier. Aphasia. In: Handbook of Clinical Neurology, edited by P. J. Vinken and G. W. Bruyn. Amsterdam: North‐Holland, 1969, vol. 4, p. 84–104.
 390. Liberman, A. M. The specialization of the language hemisphere. In: The Neurosciences. Third Study Program, edited by F. O. Schmitt and F. G. Worden. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1974, p. 43–56.
 391. Liepmann, H. Das Krankheitsbild der Apraxie (motorischen Asymbolic). Monatsschr. Psychol. 8: 15–44, 102–132, 182–197, 1900.
 392. Liepmann, H. Drei Aufsatze aus dem Apraxiegebiet. Berlin: Karger, 1908.
 393. Lindsley, D. B. Bilateral differences in brain potentials from the two cerebral hemispheres in relation to laterality and stuttering. J. Exp. Psychol. 26: 211–225, 1940.
 394. Lissauer, H. Fall von Seelenblindheit nebst einem Beitrag zur Theorie derselben. Arch. Psychiatr. Nervenkr. 21: 222, 1890.
 395. Loeser, J. D., and E. C. Alvord, Jr. Agenesis of the corpus callosum. Brain 91: 553–570, 1968.
 396. Luria, A. R. Disorders of simultaneous perception in a case of bilateral occipitoparietal brain injury. Brain 82: 437–449, 1959.
 397. Luria, A. R. The Higher Cortical Functions in Man (transl. by B. Haigh). New York: Basic Books, 1966.
 398. Luria, A. R. Traumatic Aphasia: Its Syndromes, Psychology and Treatment (transl. by D. Bowden). The Hague: Mouton, 1970.
 399. Luria, A. R. The Working Brain (transl. by H. Haigh). New York: Basic Books, 1973.
 400. Luria, A. R., and T. A. Karasseva. Disturbances of auditory speech memory in focal lesions of deep regions of the left temporal lobe. Neuropsychologia 6: 97–104, 1968.
 401. Luria, A. R., B. A. Karpov, and A. L. Yarbus. Disturbances of active visual perception with lesions of the frontal lobe. Cortex 2: 202–212, 1966.
 402. Luria, A. R., E. N. Pravdena‐Vinarskaya, and A. L. Yarbus. Disorders of the ocular movements in a case of simultagnosia. Brain 86: 219–228, 1963.
 403. MacNeilage, P., and P. Ladefoged. The production of speech and language. In: Handbook of Perception. Language and Speech, edited by E. C. Carterette and M. P. Friedman. New York: Academic, 1976, p. 75–120.
 404. Majkowski, J., Z. Bochenek, W. Bochenek, D. Knapik‐Fijalkowska, and J. Kopec. Latency of averaged evoked potentials to contralateral and ipsilateral auditory stimulation in normal subjects. Brain Res. 25, 416–419, 1971.
 405. Makita, K. The rarity of reading disability in Japanese children. Am. J. Orthopsychiatry 38: 599–614, 1968.
 406. Marcel, T., L. Katz, and M. Smith. Laterality and reading proficiency. Neuropsychologia 12: 131–139, 1974.
 407. Marcel, A. J., and K. E. Patterson. Word recognition and production: reciprocity in clinical and normal studies. In: Attention and Performance, edited by J. Requin. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1978, vol. 7, p. 209–226.
 408. Marie, P. Révision de la question de l'aphasie. Sem. Med. Paris 21: 241–247, 1906.
 409. Marie, P., and C. Foix. Les aphasies de guerre. Rev. Neurol. 24: 53–87, 1917.
 410. Marsh, J. T., and W. S. Brown. Evoked potential correlates of meaning in the perception of language. In: Language and Hemispheric Specialization in Man: Cerebral Event‐Related Potentials, edited by J. E. Desmedt. Basel: Karger, 1977, p. 60–72.
 411. Marshall, J. C., and F. Newcombe. Patterns of paralexia: a psycholinguistic approach. J. Psychololinguistic Res. 2: 175–199, 1973.
 412. Marzi, C. A., and G. Berlucchi. Right visual field superiority for accuracy of recognition of famous faces in normals. Neuropsychologia 15: 751–756, 1977.
 413. Marzi, C. A., D. Brizzolara, G. Rizzolatti, C. Umilta, and G. Berlucchi. Left hemisphere superiority for the recognition of well‐known faces. Brain Res. 66: 358–359, 1974.
 414. Marzi, C. A., M. Di Stephano, G. Tassinari, and F. Crea. Iconic storage in the two hemispheres. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 5: 31–41, 1979.
 415. Mateer, C., and D. Kimura. Impairment of non‐verbal oral movements in aphasia. Brain Language 4: 262–276, 1977.
 416. Matsumiya, Y., V. Tagiliasco, C. T. Lombroso, and H. Goodglass. Auditory evoked response: meaningfulness of stimuli and inherhemispheric asymmetry. Science 175: 790–792, 1972.
 417. Mazzocchi, F., and L. A. Vignolo. Computer assisted tomography in neuropsychological research: A simple procedure for lesion mapping. Cortex 14: 136–144, 1978.
 418. McAdam, D. W., and H. A. Whitaker. Language production: electroencephalographic localization in the normal human brain. Science 172: 499–502, 1971.
 419. McFie, J. Psychological testing in clinical neurology. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 131: 383–393, 1960.
 420. McFie, J. The diagnostic significance of disorders of higher nervous activity. In: Handbook of Clinical Neurology, edited by P. J. Vinken and G. W. Bruyn. Amsterdam: North‐Holland, 1969, vol. 4, p. 1–12.
 421. McFie, J. Factors of the brain. Bull. Br. Psychol. Soc. 25: 11–14, 1972.
 422. McFie, J., M. R. Piercy, and O. L. Zangwill. Visual spatial agnosia associated with lesions of the right cerebral hemisphere. Brain 73: 167–190, 1950.
 423. McFie, J., and O. L. Zangwill. Visual‐constructive disabilities associated with lesions of the left hemisphere. Brain 83: 243–260, 1960.
 424. McGlone, J. Sex differences in human brain asymmetry: a critical survey. Behav. Brain Sci. 3: 215–263, 1980.
 425. McKee, G., B. Humphrey, and D. W. McAdam. Scaled lateralization of alpha activity during linguistic and musical tasks. Psychophysiology 10: 441–443, 1973.
 426. McKeever, W. G., K. M. Gill, and A. D. Van Deventer. Letter versus dot stimuli as tools for “splitting the normal brain with reaction time.” Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 27: 363–374, 1975.
 427. McKeever, W., and M. Huling. Right hemisphere superiority in graphic production of briefly viewed dot figures. Percept. Mot. Skills 31: 201–202, 1970.
 428. McKenzie, K. G. The present status of a patient who had the right cerebral hemisphere removed. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 111: 168, 1938.
 429. Meadows, J. C. The anatomical basis of prosopagnosia. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 37: 489–501, 1974.
 430. Meltzoff, A. N., and M. H. Moore. Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. Science 198: 75–78, 1977.
 431. Michel, F., and B. Schott (editors). Les Syndromes de disconnexion calleuse chez l'homme. Lyon, France: Hopital Neurologique, 1975.
 432. Miller, E. Handedness and the pattern of human ability. Br. J. Psychol. 62: 111–112, 1971.
 433. Millikan, C. H., and F. L. Darley (editors). Brain Mechanisms Underlying Speech and Language. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1967.
 434. Milner, A. D., and M. A. Jeeves. A review of behavioural studies of agenesis of the corpus callosum. In: Structure and Function of the Cerebral Commissures, edited by I. S. Russell, M. W. van Hof, and G. Berlucchi. London: Macmillan, 1979, p. 428–448.
 435. Milner, B. Some effects of frontal lobectomy in man. In: The Frontal Granular Cortex and Behaviour, edited by J. M. Warren and K. Akert. New York: McGraw‐Hill, 1964, p. 313–334.
 436. Milner, B. Visually guided maze learning in man: effects of bilateral hippocampal, bilateral frontal, and unilateral cerebral lesions. Neuropsychologia 3: 317–338, 1965.
 437. Milner, B. Visual recognition and recall after right temporallobe excision in man. Neuropsychologia 6, 191–209, 1968.
 438. Milner, B. Hemispheric specialization: scope and limits. In: The Neurosciences. Third Study Program, edited by F. G. Worden and F. O. Schmitt. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1974, p. 75–89.
 439. Milner, B., C. Branch, and T. Rassmussen. Observations on cerebral dominance. In: Ciba Foundation Symposium on Disorders of Language, edited by A. V. S. de Reuck and M. O'Connor. London: Churchill, 1964, p. 200–214.
 440. Milner, B., L. B. Taylor, and R. W. Sperry. Lateralized suppression of dichotically presented digits after commissural section in man. Science 161: 184–186, 1968.
 441. Mishkin, M., and D. G. Forgays. Word recognition as a function of retinal locus. J. Exp. Psychol. 43: 43–48, 1952.
 442. Molfese, D. L. The ontogeny of cerebral asymmetry in man: auditory evoked potentials to linguistic and non‐linguistic stimuli in infants and children. In: Language and Hemispheric Specialization in Man: Cerebral Event‐Related Potentials, edited by J. E. Desmedt. Basel: Karger, 1977, p. 188–204. (Prog. Clin. Neurophysiol. Ser., vol. 3.)
 443. Molfese, D. L. Left and right hemisphere involvement in speech perception: electrophysiological correlates. Percept. Psychophys. 23: 237–243, 1978.
 444. Molfese, D. L. Cortical involvement in the semantic processing of coarticulated speech cues. Brain Language 7: 86–100, 1979.
 445. Molfese, D. L., and Erwin, R. J. Intrahemispheric differentiation of vowels: principal component analysis of auditory evoked responses to computer synthesized vowel sounds. Brain Language 13: 333–344, 1981.
 446. Molfese, D. L., R. B. Freeman, Jr., and D. S. Palermo. The ontogeny of brain lateralization for speech and non‐speech sounds. Brain Language 2: 356–368, 1975.
 447. Molfese, D. L., and T. M. Hess. Hemispheric specialization for VOT perception in the preschool child. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 26: 71–84, 1978.
 448. Molfese, D. L., and V. J. Molfese. Hemisphere and stimulus differences as reflected in the cortical responses of newborn infants to speech stimuli. Dev. Psychol. 15: 505–511, 1979.
 449. Money, J., D. Alexander, and H. T. Walker, Jr. A Standardized Road‐Map Test of Direction Sense. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1965.
 450. Monrad‐Krohn, G. H. Dysprosody or altered melody of language. Brain 70: 405–415, 1947.
 451. Morais, J. The effects of ventriloquism on the right‐side advantage for verbal material. Cognition 3: 127–139, 1975.
 452. Morais, J. Monaural ear differences for reaction times to speech with a many‐to‐one mapping paradigm. Percept. Psychophys. 19: 144–148, 1976.
 453. Morais, J., and P. Bertelson. Spatial position versus ear of entry as determinant of the auditory laterality effects: a stereophonic test. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 1: 253–262, 1975.
 454. Morais, J., and M. Landercy. Listening to speech while retaining music: What happens to the right‐ear advantage? Brain Language, 4: 295–308, 1977.
 455. Morgan, A. H., H. McDonald, and E. R. Hilgard. EEG alpha: lateral asymmetry related to task and hypnotizability. Psychophysiology 11: 275–282, 1974.
 456. Morgan, A. H., P. J. McDonald, and H. McDonald. Differences in bilateral alpha activity as a function of experimental task, with a note on lateral eye movements and hypnotizability. Neuropsychologia 9: 459–469, 1971.
 457. Morgan, K. J., and M. C. Corballis. On the biological basis of human laterality: II. The mechanism of inheritance. Behav. Brain Sci. 2: 270–336, 1978.
 458. Morgan, M. J. Embryology and inheritance of asymmetry. In: Lateralization in the Nervous System, edited by S. R. Harnad, R. W. Doty, L. Goldstein, J. Jaynes, and G. Krauthamer. New York: Academic, 1977, p. 173–194.
 459. Morley, M. E. The Development and Disorders of Speech in Childhood. London: Livingstone, 1957.
 460. Morrell, L. K., and D. A. Huntington. Cortical potentials time‐locked to speech production: evidence for probable cerebral origin. Life Sci. 11: 921–929, 1972.
 461. Morrell, L. K., and J. G. Salamy. Hemispheric asymmetry of electrocortical response to speech stimuli. Science 174: 164–166, 1971.
 462. Morton, J. Interaction of information in word recognition. Psychol. Rev. 76: 165–178, 1969.
 463. Morton, J. A functional model for memory. In: Models of Human Memory, edited by D. A. Norman. New York: Academic, 1970, p. 203–254.
 464. Moscovitch, M. A choice reaction time study assessing the verbal behaviour of the minor hemisphere in normal adult humans. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 80: 66–74, 1972.
 465. Moscovitch, M. Language and the cerebral hemispheres: reaction‐time studies and their implications for models of cerebral dominance. In: Communication and Affect: Language and Thought, edited by P. Pliner, T. Alloway, and L. Krames. New York: Academic, 1973, p. 89–126.
 466. Moscovitch, M., and J. Catlin. Interhemispheric transmission of information: measurement in normal man. Psychon. Sci. 18: 211–213, 1970.
 467. Moss, H. Sex, age and state as determinants of mother‐infant interaction. Merrill‐Palmer Q. 13: 19–36, 1967.
 468. Munk, H. Uber die Funktionen der Grosshirnrinde. Berlin: Hirschwald, 1881.
 469. Myers, T. F. Asymmetry and attention in phonic decoding. Acta Psychol. 33: 158–177, 1970.
 470. Nebes, R. D. Handedness and the perception of part‐whole relationship. Cortex 7: 350–356, 1971.
 471. Nebes, R. D. Superiority of the minor hemisphere in commissurotomized man for the preception of part‐whole relations. Cortex 7: 333–349, 1971.
 472. Nebes, R. D. Dominance of the minor hemisphere in commissurotomized man on a test of figural unification. Brain 95: 633–638, 1972.
 473. Nebes, R. D. Perception of dot patterns by the disconnected right and left hemisphere in man. Neuropsychologia 11: 285–290, 1973.
 474. Nebes, R. D. Dominance of the minor hemisphere in commissurotomized man for the perception of part‐whole relationships. In: Hemisphere Disconnection and Cerebral Function, edited by M. Kinsbourne and W. L. Smith. Springfield, IL: Thomas, 1975, p. 157.
 475. Nebes, R. D. Direct examination of cognitive function in the right and left hemispheres. In: Asymmetrical Function of the Brain, edited by M. Kinsbourne. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1978, p. 99–137.
 476. Nebes, R. D., and G. C. Briggs. Handedness and the retention of visual material. Cortex 10: 209–214, 1974.
 477. Neilson, J. M. Agnosia, Apraxia, Aphasia: The Value in Cerebral Localization (2nd ed.). New York: Haeber, 1946.
 478. Neisser, U. Cognitive Psychology. New York: Appleton, 1967.
 479. Nelson, K. Structure and Strategy in Learning to Talk. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1973. (Monogr. Soc. Res. Child Dev. Ser. No. 149, p. 88.)
 480. Neville, H. Electrographic correlates of lateral asymmetry in the processing of verbal and nonverbal auditory stimuli. J. Psychol. Res. 3: 151–163, 1974.
 481. Neville, H. J. Electrographic and behavioral cerebral specialization in normal and congenitally deaf children: a preliminary report. In: Language and Development and Neurological Theory, edited by S. Segalowitz and F. A. Gruber. New York: Academic, 1977, p. 121–131.
 482. Neville, H. J., and U. Bellugi. Patterns of cerebral specialization in congenitally deaf adults: a preliminary report. In: Understanding Language Through Sign Language Research, edited by P. Siple. New York: Academic, 1978, p. 239–257.
 483. Newcombe, F. Missile Wounds of the Brain: A Study of Psychological Deficits. Oxford, England: Clarendon, 1969.
 484. Newcombe, F., and G. Ratcliffe. Handedness, speech lateralization and ability. Neuropsychologia 11: 399–407, 1973.
 485. Newcombe, F., and W. R. Russell. Dissociated visual, perceptual and spatial deficits in focal lesions of the right hemisphere. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 32: 73–81, 1969.
 486. Norman, D. A. Memory and Attention: An Introduction to Human Information Processing. New York: Wiley, 1969.
 487. Ogle, J. W. Aphasia and agraphia in St. George's Hospital. Rep. Med. Res. Council London 2: 83–122, 1867.
 488. Ojemann, G., K. Blick, and A. A. Ward. Improvement and disturbance of short term verbal memory with human ventrolateral thalamic stimulation. Brain 94: 225–240, 1971.
 489. Ojemann, G., P. Fedio, and J. M. Van Buren. Anomia from pulvinar and subcortical parietal stimulation. Brain 91: 99–116, 1968.
 490. Ojemann, G. A., and C. Mateer. Human language cortex: localization of memory, syntax and sequential motor‐phoneme identification systems. Science 205: 1401–1403, 1979.
 491. Ojemann, G. A., and H. A. Whitaker. Language localization and variability. Brain Language 6: 239–260, 1978.
 492. Okonji, M. O. The differential effects of rural and urban upbringing on the development of cognitive styles. J. Int. Psychol. 4: 293–395, 1969.
 493. Orbach, J. Differential recognition of Hebrew and English words in right and left visual fields as a function of cerebral dominance and reading habits. Neuropsychologia 5: 127–134, 1967.
 494. Orgass, B., and K. Poeck. Clinical validation of a new test for aphasia: an experimental study on the Token Test. Cortex 2: 222–243, 1966.
 495. Orgass, B., K. Peock, M. Kerschensteiner, and W. Hartje. Visuocognitive performances in patients with unilateral hemispheric lesions. An investigation with three factorial reference tests. Z. Neurol. 202: 177–195, 1972.
 496. Orton, S. T. Reading, Writing and Speech Problems in Children. New York: Norton, 1937.
 497. Oxbury, J. M., S. M. Oxbury, and N. K. Humphrey. Varieties of colour anomia. Brain 92: 847–860, 1969.
 498. Paivio, A., and C. Ernest. Imagery ability and visual perception of verbal and non‐verbal stimuli. Percept. Psychophys. 10: 429–432, 1971.
 499. Papcun, G., S. Krashen, D. Terbeek, R. Remington, and R. Harshman. Is the left hemisphere specialized for speech, language and/or something else? J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 55: 328–333, 1974.
 500. Paterson, A., and O. L. Zangwill. Disorders of visual space perception associated with lesions of the right cerebral hemisphere. Brain 67: 331–358, 1944.
 501. Patterson, K., and J. L. Bradshaw. Differential hemispheric mediation of nonverbal visual stimuli. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 1: 246–252, 1975.
 502. Pawlik, K. Concepts in human cognition and aptitudes. In: Handbook of Multivariate Experimental Psychology, edited by R. B. Cattell. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1966, p. 535–562.
 503. Penfield, W., and L. Roberts. Speech and Brain‐Mechanisms. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1959.
 504. Perria, L., G. Rosadini, and G. F. Rossi. Determination of side of cerebral dominance with amobarbital. Arch. Neurol. Chicago 4: 173–179, 1961.
 505. Perry, N. W., and D. G. Childers. The Human Visual Evoked Response: Method and Theory. Springfield, IL: Thomas, 1969.
 506. Petrides, M., and B. Milner. Deficits on subject‐ordered tasks after frontal‐ and temporal‐lobe lesions in man. Neuropsychologia 20: 249–262, 1982.
 507. Piercy, M., H. Hécaen, and J. De Ajuriaguerra. Constructional apraxia associated with unilateral cerebral lesions. Brain 83: 225–242, 1960.
 508. Piercy, M., and V. O. Smyth. Right hemisphere dominance for certain non‐verbal intellectual skills. Brain 85: 775–790, 1962.
 509. Pizzamiglio, L., and M. Cecchini. Development of the hemispheric dominance in children from 5 to 10 years of age and their relations with the development of cognitive processes (Abstract). Brain Res. 31: 363, 1971.
 510. Poeck, K., M. Kerschensteiner, W. Hartje, and B. Orgass. Impairment in visual recognition of geometric figures in patients with circumscribed retrorolandic brain lesions. Neuropsychologia 11: 311–317, 1973.
 511. Poeck, K., and B. Orgass. Gerstmann's syndrome and aphasia. Cortex 2: 421–437, 1966.
 512. Poeck, K., and B. Orgass. An experimental investigation of finger agnosia. Neurology 19: 801–807, 1969.
 513. Poeck, K., and B. Orgass. The concept of the body schema. A critical review and some experimental results. Cortex 7: 254–277, 1971.
 514. Poeck, K., and B. Orgass. Gerstmann syndrome without aphasia: comments on the paper by Strub and Geschwind. Cortex 11: 291–295, 1975.
 515. Poeck, K., B. Orgass, M. Kerschensteiner, and W. Hartje. A qualitative study of Token Test performance in aphasic and non‐aphasic brain damaged patients. Neuropsychologia 12: 49–54, 1974.
 516. Poffenberger, A. T. Reaction time to retinal stimulation with special reference to the time lost in conduction through nerve centers. Arch. Psychol. 23: 1–73, 1912.
 517. Poizner, H., R. Battison, and H. Lane. Cerebral asymmetry for American sign language: the effects of moving stimuli. Brain Language 7: 351–362, 1979.
 518. Poizner, H., and H. Lane. Cerebral asymmetry in the perception of American sign language. Brain Language 7: 210–226, 1979.
 519. Popper, K. R., and J. C. Eccles. The Self and Its Brain. Berlin: Springer‐Verlag, 1977.
 520. Poppelreuter, W. De Psychischen Schadigungen durch Kopfschuss in Kriege 1914–1916. Leipzig: Voss, 1917.
 521. Porteus, S. D. Porteus Maze Test: Fifty Years' Application. Palo Alto, CA: Pacific Books, 1965.
 522. Pratt, R. T. C., and E. K. Warrington. The assessment of cerebral dominance with unilateral ECT. Br. J. Psychiatry 121: 327–328, 1972.
 523. Pratt, R. T. C., E. K. Warrington, and A. M. Halliday. Unilateral ECT as a test for cerebral dominance, with a strategy for treating left handers. Br. J. Psychiatry 119: 78–83, 1971.
 524. Rasmussen, K. J., and B. Milner. Clinical and surgical studies of the cerebral speech areas in man. In: Otfrid Foerster Symposium on Cerebral Localization, edited by K. J. Zulch, O. D. Creutzfeldt, and G. C. Galbraith. Berlin: Springer‐Verlag, 1975, 238–257.
 525. Rasmussen, T., and B. Milner. The role of early left‐brain injury in determining lateralization of cerebral speech functions. In: Evolution and Lateralization of the Brain, edited by S. J. Dimond and D. A. Blizard. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 299: 355–369, 1977.
 526. Ratcliff, G., and F. Newcombe. Spatial orientation in man: effects of left, right and bilateral posterior lesions. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 36: 448–454, 1973.
 527. Raven, J. C. Comparative assessment of intellectual ability. Br. J. Psychol. 39: 12–19, 1948.
 528. Reuck, A. V. S., and M. O'Connor (editors). Ciba Foundation Symposium: Disorders of Language. London: Churchill, 1964.
 529. Rhodes, L. E., R. E. Dustman, and E. C. Beck. The visual evoked response: a comparison of bright and dull children. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 27: 364–372, 1969.
 530. Richlin, M., M. Wienstein, and M. Wiesinger. Development of neurophysiological indices of retardation: interhemispheric asymmetry of visual evoked cortical response. Int. J. Neurosci. 6: 257–261, 1976.
 531. Rizzolatti, G., C. Umilta, and G. Berlucchi. Opposite superiorities of the right and left cerebral hemispheres in discriminative reaction time to physiognomical and alphabetical material. Brain 94: 431–442, 1971.
 532. Robbins, K. I., and D. W. McAdam. Interhemispheric alpha asymmetry and imagery mode. Brain Language 1: 189–193, 1974.
 533. Roberts, L. Aphasia, apraxia and agnosia in abnormal states of cerebral dominance. In Handbook of Clinical Neurology, edited by P. J. Vinken and G. W. Bruyn. Amsterdam: North‐Holland, 1969, vol. 4, p. 312–326.
 534. Robinson, G. M., and D. J. Solomon. Rhythm is processed by the speech hemisphere. J. Exp. Psychol. 102: 508–554, 1974.
 535. Roemer, R. A., and T. J. Teyler. Auditory evoked potential asymmetries related to word meaning. In: Language and Hemispheric Specialization in Man: Cerebral Event‐Related Potentials, edited by J. E. Desmedt. Basel: Karger, 1977, p. 48–59. (Prog. Clin. Neurophysiol. Ser., vol. 3.)
 536. Rondot, P., and A. Tzavaras. La prosopagnosie apres vingt années d'études cliniques et neuropsychologiques. J. Psychol. Norm. Pathol. 66: 133–166, 1969.
 537. Rosadini, G., and G. F. Rossi. On the suggested cerebral dominance for consciousness. Brain 90: 101–112, 1967.
 538. Rosenzweig, M. R. Cortical correlates of auditory localization and of related perceptual phenomena. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 47: 269–276, 1954.
 539. Rozin, P., S. Poritsky, and R. Sotsky. American children with reading problems can easily learn to read English represented by Chinese characters. Science 171: 1264–1267, 1971.
 540. Rubens, A. B. Anatomical asymmetries of human cerebral cortex. In: Lateralization in the Nervous System, edited by S. Harnad, R. W. Doty, L. Goldstein, J. Jaynes, and G. Krauthamer. New York: Academic, 1977, p. 503–516.
 541. Rudel, R. G., M. B. Denckla, and E. Spalten. The functional asymmetry of Braille letter learning in normal sighted children. Neurology 24: 733–738, 1974.
 542. Russell, W. R., and M. L. E. Espir. Traumatic Aphasia: A Study of Aphasia in War Wounds of the Brain. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1961.
 543. Russo, M., and L. A. Vignolo. Visual figure‐ground discrimination in patients with unilateral cerebral disease. Cortex 3: 113–127, 1967.
 544. Rutledge, L. T., and T. T. Kennedy. Brain‐stem and cortical interaction in the interhemispheric delayed response. Exp. Neurol. 4: 470–483, 1961.
 545. Sackeim, H. A., and R. C. Gur. Lateral asymmetry in intensity of emotional expression. Neuropsychologia 16: 473–481, 1978.
 546. Sackeim, H. A., R. C. Gur, and M. C. Saucy. Emotions are expressed more intensely on the left side of the face. Science 202: 434–436, 1978.
 547. Saffran, E. M., and O. S. M. Marin. Reading without phonology: evidence from aphasia. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 29: 515–525, 1977.
 548. Sand, P. L., and N. Taylor. Handedness: evaluation of binomial distribution hypothesis in children and adults. Percept. Mot. Skills 36: 1343–1346, 1973.
 549. Sarno, M. T. The Functional Communication Profile: Manual of Directions. New York: New York Univ. Sch. Med., 1966. (Inst. Rehab. Med. Monogr.)
 550. Satz, P. Pathological left‐handedness: an explanatory model. Cortex 8: 121–135, 1972.
 551. Satz, P. Left handedness and early brain insult: an explanation. Neuropsychologia 11: 115–117, 1973.
 552. Saul, R. E., and R. W. Sperry. Absence of commissurotomy symptoms with agenesis of the corpus callosum. Neurology 18: 307, 1968.
 553. Schmitt, F. O. (editor). The Neurosciences: Second Study Program. New York: Rockefeller Univ. Press, 1970.
 554. Schmitt, F. O., and Worden, F. G. (editors). The Neurosciences: Third Study Program. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1974.
 555. Schuell, H. Differential Diagnosis of Aphasia With the Minnesota Test. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1965.
 556. Schuell, H., J. J. Jenkins, and E. Jimeniz‐Pabon. Aphasia in Adults. New York: Harper & Row, 1964.
 557. Schwartz, G. E., R. J. Davidson, F. Maer, and E. Bromfield. Patterns of Hemispheric Dominance in Musical, Emotional, Verbal and Spatial Tasks. New Orleans, LA: Soc. Psychophysiol. Res., 1973.
 558. Schwartz, G. E., R. J. Davidson, and F. Maer. Right hemisphere localization for emotion in the human brain: interaction with cognition. Science 190: 286–288, 1975.
 559. Scotti, G., and H. Spinnler. Impaired performance on colour tasks in patients with hemispheric damage. Cortex 3: 194–217, 1967.
 560. Segalowitz, S., and F. Gruber (editors). Language Development and Neurological Theory. New York: Academic, 1977.
 561. Semmes, J., S. Weinstein, L. Ghent, and H.‐L. Teuber. Spatial orientation in man: analysis by locus of lesion. Am. J. Psychol. 39: 227–244, 1955.
 562. Semmes, J., S. Weinstein, L. Ghent, and H.‐L. Teuber. Correlates of impaired orientation in personal and extrapersonal space. Brain 86: 747–772, 1963.
 563. Serafetinides, E. A. Auditory recall and visual recognition following intracarotid sodium amytal injections. Cortex 2: 367–372, 1966.
 564. Shankweiller, D., and M. Studdert‐Kennedy. Identification of consonants and vowels presented to left and right ears. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 19: 59–63, 1967.
 565. Shankweiler, D., and M. Studdert‐Kennedy. A continuum of lateralization for speech perception? Brain Language 2: 212–225, 1975.
 566. Silverman, A. J., G. Adevai, and E. W. McGough. Some relationships between handedness and perception. J. Psychon. Res. 10: 151–158, 1966.
 567. Simon, J. R. Ear preference in a simple reaction‐time task. J. Exp. Psychol. 75: 49–55, 1967.
 568. Smith, A. Speech and other functions after left (dominant) hemispherectomy. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 29: 467–471, 1966.
 569. Smith, A. Nondominant hemispherectomy. Neurology 19: 442–445, 1969.
 570. Smith, A. Dominant and non‐dominant hemispherectomy. In: Hemispheric Disconnection and Cerebral Function, edited by M. Kinsbourne and W. L. Smith. Springfield, IL: Thomas, 1974, p. 5–33.
 571. Smith, A., and O. Sugar. Development of above normal language and intelligence 21 years after hemispherectomy. Neurology 25: 813–818, 1975.
 572. Smith, F. Understanding Reading. New York: Holt, 1971.
 573. Sparks, R., and N. Geschwind. Dichotic listening in man after section of neocortical commissures. Cortex 4: 3–16, 1968.
 574. Sperry, R. W. Cerebral organization and behavior. Science 133: 1749–1757, 1961.
 575. Sperry, R. W. Mental unity following surgical disconnection of the cerebral hemispheres. Harvey Lect. 62: 293–323, 1967.
 576. Sperry, R. W. Hemisphere deconnection and unity in conscious awareness. Am. Psychol. 23: 723–733, 1968.
 577. Sperry, R. W. Perception in absence of the neocortical commissures. Res. Publ. Assoc. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 48: 123–138, 1970.
 578. Sperry, R. W. Lateral specialization in the surgically separated hemispheres. In: The Neurosciences. Third Study Program, edited by F. O. Schmitt and F. G. Worden. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1974, p. 5–20.
 579. Sperry, R. W. Science and the problem of values. Zygon 9: 7–21, 1974.
 580. Sperry, R. W. Budging science and values: a unifying view of mind and brain. Am. Psychol. 32: 237–245, 1977.
 581. Sperry, R. W., and M. S. Gazzaniga. Language following surgical disconnection of the commissures. In: Brain Mechanisms Underlying Speech and Language, edited by F. L. Darley. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1967.
 582. Sperry, R. W., M. S. Gazzaniga, and J. E. Bogen. Interhemispheric relationships: the neocortical commissures; syndromes of hemisphere disconnection. In: Handbook of Clinical Neurology, edited by P. J. Vinken and G. W. Bruyn. Amsterdam: North‐Holland, 1969, vol. 4, p. 273–290.
 583. Sperry, R. W., E. Zaidel, and D. Zaidel. Self‐recognition and social awareness in the deconnected minor hemisphere. Neuropsychologia 17: 153–166, 1979.
 584. Stachowiak, F.‐J., W. Huber, K. Poeck, and M. Kerschensteiner. Text comprehension in aphasia. Brain Language 4: 177–195, 1977.
 585. Studdert‐Kennedy, M., and D. Shankweiler. Hemispheric specialization for speech perception. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 48: 579–594, 1970.
 586. Subirana, A. The relationship between handedness and cerebral dominance. Int. J. Neurol. 4: 215–234, 1964.
 587. Subirana, A. Handedness and cerebral dominance. In: Handbook of Clinical Neurology, edited by P. J. Vinken and G. W. Bruyn. Amsterdam: North‐Holland, 1969, vol. 4, p. 248–272.
 588. Sutton, S., M. Braren, and J. Zubin. Evoked potential correlates of stimulus uncertainty. Science 150: 1187–1188, 1965.
 589. Sutton, S., M. Braren, J. Zubin, and E. R. John. Information delivery and the sensory evoked potential. Science 155: 1436–1439, 1967.
 590. Swanson, J., A. Ledlow, and M. Kinsbourne. Lateral asymmetries revealed by simple reaction time. In: Asymmetrical Function of the Brain, edited by M. Kinsbourne. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1978, p. 274–291.
 591. Swisher, L. P., J. G. Dudley, and D. G. Doehring. Influence of contralateral noise on auditory intensity discrimination. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 45: 1532–1536, 1969.
 592. Taylor, A. M., and E. K. Warrington. Visual agnosia: a single case report. Cortex 7: 152–161, 1971.
 593. Taylor, D. C. Differential rates of cerebral maturation between sexes and between hemispheres. Lancet 2: 140–142, 1969.
 594. Taylor, M. L. A measurement of functional communication in aphasia. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 46: 101–107, 1965.
 595. Templin, M. C. Norms on a screening test of articulation for ages three through eight. J. Speech Hear. Disord. 18: 323–331, 1953.
 596. Terzian, H. Behavioral and EEG effects of intracarotid sodium amytal injection. Acta Neurochir. 12: 230–239, 1964.
 597. Tessner, D., A. Tzavaras, J. Gruner, and H. Hécaen. L'asymetrie droite‐gauche du planum temporale: à propos de l'étude anatomique de 100 cerveaux. Revue Neurol. 126: 4444, 1972.
 598. Teuber, H.‐L. The premorbid personality and reaction to brain damage. Am. J. Orthopsychiatry 1960: 322–329, 1960.
 599. Teuber, H.‐L. Alterations of perception after brain injury. Pontificia Accademia Sci. Scripta Varia 30: 269–310, 1965.
 600. Teuber, H.‐L. Lacunae and research approaches to them. In: Brain Mechanisms Underlying Speech and Language, edited by C. H. Millikan and F. L. Darley. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1967, p. 204–216.
 601. Teuber, H.‐L., W. S. Battersby, and M. B. Bender. Visual Field Defects After Penetrating Missile Wounds of the Brain. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1960.
 602. Teuber, H.‐L., and S. Weinstein. Ability to discover hidden figures after cerebral lesions. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry 76: 369–379, 1956.
 603. Thatcher, R. W. Evoked potential correlates of hemispheric lateralization during semantic information processing. In: Lateralization in the Nervous System, edited by S. Harnad, R. W. Doty, L. Goldstein, J. Jaynes, and G. Krauthamer. New York: Academic, 1977, p. 429–449.
 604. Thompson, L. J. Language disabilities in men of eminence. J. Learn. Disabil. 4: 39–50, 1971.
 605. Thurstone, L. L. A Factorial Study of Perception. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1944. (Psychometric Monogr., No. 4.)
 606. Travis, L. E., and J. R. Knott. Bilaterally recorded brain potentials from normal speakers and stutterers. J. Speech Hear. Disord. 2: 239–241, 1937.
 607. Trevarthen, C. Behavioral embryology. In: Handbook of Perception, edited by E. C. Carterette and M. P. Friedman. New York: Academic, 1973, vol. 3, p. 89–117.
 608. Trevarthen, C. Analysis of cerebral activities that generate and regulate consciousness in commissurotomy patients. In: Hemisphere Function in the Human Brain, edited by S. J. Dimond and J. G. Beaumont. London: Paul Elek, 1974, p. 235–263.
 609. Trevarthen, C. Cerebral embryology and the split brain. In: Hemispheric Disconnection and Cerebral Function, edited by M. Kinsbourne and W. L. Smith. Springfield, IL: Thomas, 1974, p. 208–236.
 610. Trevarthen, C. Functional relations of disconnected hemispheres with the brain stem and with each other: monkey and man. In: Hemispheric Disconnection and Cerebral Function, edited by M. Kinsbourne and W. L. Smith. Springfield, IL: Thomas, 1974, p. 187–207.
 611. Trevarthen, C. Psychological activities after forebrain commissurotomy in man. Concepts and methodological hurdles in testing. In: Les Syndromes de disconnection calleuse chez l'homme, edited by F. Michel and B. Schott. Lyon, France: Hopital Neurologique, 1975, p. 181–210.
 612. Trevarthen, C. Manipulative strategies of baboons and the origins of cerebral asymmetry. In: The Asymmetrical Function of the Brain, edited by M. Kinsbourne. London: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1978, p. 329–391.
 613. Trevarthen, C. Neuroembryology and the development of perception. In: Human Growth: A Comprehensive Treatise, edited by F. Falkner and J. M. Tanner. New York: Plenum, 1979, vol. III, p. 3–96.
 614. Trevarthen, C. Cerebral mechanisms for language: prenatal and postnatal development. In: Neuropsychology of Language, Reading and Spelling, edited by U. Kirk. New York: Academic, 1982, p. 47–82.
 615. Trevarthen, C., L. Murray, and P. Hubley. Psychology of Infants. In: Scientific Foundations of Clinical Pediatrics, edited by J. Davis and J. Dobbing. London: Heinemann's Medical Books, 1982, p. 217–274.
 616. Trevarthen, C., and R. W. Sperry. Perceptual unity of the ambient visual field in human commissurotomy patients. Brain 96: 547–570, 1973.
 617. Triesman, A., and G. Geffen. Selective attention in perceiving and responding to speech messages. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 20: 139–149, 1968.
 618. Trousseau, A. De l'aphasie, maladie decrite recemment sous le nom impropre d'aphemie. Gaz. Hopitaux 37: 13–14, 1864.
 619. Tucker, D. M., R. T. Watson, and K. M. Heilman. Discrimination and evocation of affectively intoned speech in patients with right parietal disease. Neurology 27: 947–950, 1977.
 620. Turkewitz, G. The development of lateral differences in the human infant. In: Lateralization in the Nervous System, edited by S. Harnad, R. W. Doty, L. Goldstein, J. Jaynes, and G. Krauthamer. New York: Academic, 1977, p. 251–259.
 621. Tzavaras, A., H. Hécaen, and H. Le Bras. Le problème de la specificité du deficit de la reconnaissance du visage humain lors des lesions hémisphèriques unilaterales. Neuropsychologia 8: 403–416, 1970.
 622. Umilta, C., V. Frost, and R. Hyman. Interhemispheric effects on choice reaction times to one‐ or two‐ and three‐letter displays. J. Exp. Psychol. 93: 198–204, 1972.
 623. Varney, N. R., and A. L. Benton. Tactile perception of direction in relation to handedness and familial handedness. Neuropsychologia 13: 449–454, 1975.
 624. Vaughan, H. G., L. D. Costa, and W. Ritter. Topography of the human motor potential. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 25: 1–10, 1968.
 625. Vella, E. J., S. R. Butler, and A. Glass. Electrical correlate of right hemisphere function. Nature New Biol. 236: 125–126, 1972.
 626. Vernon, M. D. Characteristics of proof reading. Br. J. Psychol. 21: 368–381, 1931.
 627. Vinken, P. J., and G. W. Bruyn (editors) Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Amsterdam: North‐Holland, 1969, vol. 4.
 628. Von Bonin, G. Anatomical asymmetries of the cerebral hemispheres. In: Interhemispheric Relations and Cerebral Dominance, edited by V. B. Mountcastle. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1962, p. 1–6. (Conf. Interhemispheric Relat. Cerebral Dominance.)
 629. Von Economo, C., and L. Horn. Uber Windungsrelief, Masse and Rindenarchitektonik der Supratemporalflache. Z. Gesamte Neurol. Psychiatr. 130: 678–757, 1930.
 630. Wada, J. A., R. Clarke, and A. Hamm. Cerebral hemispheric asymmetry in humans: cortical speech zones in 100 adult and 100 infant brains. Arch. Neurol. Chicago 32: 239–246, 1975.
 631. Wada, J. A., and A. E. Davis. Fundamental nature of human infants brain asymmetries. Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 4: 203–207, 1977.
 632. Wada, J., and T. Rasmussen. Intracarotid injection of sodium amytal for the lateralization of cerebral speech dominance. J. Neurosurg. 17: 266–282, 1960.
 633. Walshe, K. W. Neuropsychology: A Clinical Approach. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1978.
 634. Warrington, E. K. Constructional apraxia. In: Handbook of Clinical Neurology, edited by P. J. Vinken and G. W. Bruyn. Amsterdam: North‐Holland, 1969, vol. 4, p. 67–83.
 635. Warrington, E. K. Neurological disorders of memory. Br. Med. Bull. 27: 243–247, 1971.
 636. Warrington, E. K. Selective impairment of semantic memory. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 27: 635–657, 1975.
 637. Warrington, E. K., and M. James. Disorders of visual perception in patients with localized cerebral lesions. Neuropsychologia 5: 253–266, 1967.
 638. Warrington, E. K., and M. James. An experimental investigation of facial recognition in patients with unilateral cerebral lesions. Cortex 3: 317–326, 1967.
 639. Warrington, E. K., M. James, and M. Kinsbourne. Drawing disability in relation to laterality of cerebral lesion. Brain 89: 53–82, 1966.
 640. Warrington, E. M., V. Logue, and R. T. C. Pratt. The anatomical localization of selective impairment of auditory short term memory. Neuropsychologia 9: 377–387, 1971.
 641. Warrington, E. K., and R. T. C. Pratt. Language laterality in left handers assessed by unilateral ECT. Neuropsychologia 11: 423–428, 1973.
 642. Warrington, E. K., and P. Rabin. Perceptual matching in patients with cerebral lesions. Neuropsychologia 8: 475–487, 1970.
 643. Warrington, E. K., and T. Shallice. The selective impairment of auditory verbal short‐term memory. Brain 92: 885–896, 1969.
 644. Warrington, E. K., and A. M. Taylor. The contribution of the right parietal lobe to object recognition. Cortex 9: 152–164, 1973.
 645. Warrington, E. K., and A. M. Taylor. Two categorical stages of object recognition. Perception 7: 695–705, 1978.
 646. Wechsler, D. The Measurement and Appraisal of Adult Intelligence (4th ed.). Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1958.
 647. Weinstein, S. Differences in effects of brain wounds implicating right or left hemispheres: differential effects on certain intellectual and complex perceptual functions. In: Interhemispheric Relations and Cerebral Dominance, edited by V. H. Mountcastle. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins Univ. Press, 1962, p. 159–176. (Conf. Interhemispheric Relat. Cerebral Dominance.)
 648. Weisenberg, T. H., and K. E. McBride. Aphasia: A Clinical and Psychological Study. New York: Hafner, 1935.
 649. Wepman, J. M., R. D. Bock, L. V. Jones, and D. Van Pelt. Psycholinguistics study of aphasia: a revision of the concept of anomia. J. Speech Hear. Res. 21: 468–471, 1956.
 650. Wernicke, C. Der Aphasische Symptomencomplex. Eine Psychologische Studie auf Anatomische Basis. Leipzig: Thieme, 1874.
 651. Wernicke, C. Der Aphasische Symptomenkomplex. Breslau: Cohn and Weigart, 1874.
 652. Wertheimer, M. Experimentelle Studien über das Sehen von Bewegung. Z. Psychol. 61: 161–265, 1912.
 653. Whitaker, H. A., and J. D. Noll. Some linguistic parameters of the Token Test. Neuropsychologia 10: 395–404, 1972.
 654. White, H. H. Cerebral hemispherectomy in the treatment of infantile hemiplegia. Confin. Neurol. 21: 1–50, 1961.
 655. White, M. J. Laterality differences in perception: a review. Psychol. Bull. 72: 387–405, 1969.
 656. White, M. J. Signal detection analysis of laterality differences: some preliminary data, free of recall and report sequence characteristics. J. Exp. Psychol. 83: 174–176, 1970.
 657. White, M. J. Does cerebral dominance offer a sufficient explanation for laterality differences in tachistoscopic recognition? Percept. Mot. Skills 36: 479–485, 1973.
 658. Wickelgren, L. W. Convergence in the human newborn. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 5: 74–85, 1967.
 659. Wilbrand, H. Ein Fall von Seelenblindheit und Hemianopsie mit Sectionsbefund. Dtsch. Z. Nervenheilk. 2: 361–387, 1892.
 660. Wilson, P. J. E. Cerebral hemispherectomy for infantile hemiplegia. Brain 93: 147–180, 1970.
 661. Witelson, S. F. Sex and the single hemisphere: specialization of the right hemisphere for spatial processing. Science 193: 425–427, 1976.
 662. Witelson, S. F., and W. Pallie. Left hemisphere specialization for language in the newborn. Neuroanatomical evidence of asymmetry. Brain 96: 641–646, 1973.
 663. Witkin, H. A., D. R. Goodenough, and S. A. Karp. Stability of cognitive style from childhood to young adulthood. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 7: 291–300, 1967.
 664. Wolff, W. The experimental study of forms of expression. Char. Pers. 2: 168–176, 1933.
 665. Wood, C. C., W. R. Goff, and R. S. Day. Auditory evoked potentials during speech perception. Science 173: 1248–1251, 1971.
 666. Woods, B. T. Restricted effects of right hemisphere lesions after age one: Wechsler Test data. Neuropsychologia 18: 65–70, 1980.
 667. Woodworth, R. S. Experimental Psychology, New York: Holt, 1938.
 668. Wyke, M. Dysphasia: A review of recent progress. Br. Med. Bull. 2: 211–217, 1971.
 669. Wyke, M., and G. Ettlinger. Efficiency of recognition in left and right visual fields. Arch. Neurol. Chicago 5: 659–665, 1961.
 670. Yakovlev, P. I., and P. Rakic. Patterns of decussation of bulbar pyramids and distribution of pyramidal tracts on two sides of the spinal cord. Trans. Am. Neurol. Assoc. 91: 366–367, 1966.
 671. Yeni‐Komshian, G., and D. Benson. Anatomical study of cerebral asymmetry in the temporal lobe of humans, chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys. Science 192: 387–389, 1976.
 672. Yingling, C. D. Lateralization of cortical coupling during complex verbal and spatial behaviors. In: Language and Hemispheric Specialization in Man: Cerebral Event‐Related Potentials, edited by J. E. Desmedt. Basel: Karger, 1977, p. 151–160.
 673. Young, G. Manual specialization in infancy: implications for lateralization of brain function. In: Language Development and Neurological Theory, edited by S. J. Segalowitz and F. A. Gruber. New York: Academic, 1977, p. 289–311.
 674. Zaidel, D., and R. W. Sperry. Performance on the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices by subjects with cerebral commissurotomy. Cortex 9: 34–39, 1973.
 675. Zaidel, D., and R. W. Sperry. Memory impairment after commissurotomy in man. Brain 97: 263–272, 1974.
 676. Zaidel, D., and R. W. Sperry. Some long‐term motor effects of cerebral commissurotomy in man. Neuropsychologia 15: 193–204, 1977.
 677. Zaidel, E. Linguistic Competence and Related Functions in the Right Cerebral Hemisphere of Man Following Commissurotomy and Hemispherectomy. Pasadena: California Inst. of Technology, 1973. Dissertation.
 678. Zaidel, E. A technique for presenting lateralized visual input with prolonged exposure. Vision Res. 15: 283–289, 1975.
 679. Zaidel, E. Unilateral auditory language comprehension on the Token Test following cerebral commissurotomy and hemispherectomy. Neuropsychologia 15: 1–18, 1977.
 680. Zaidel, E. Auditory language comprehension in the right hemisphere following cerebral commissurotomy and hemispherectomy. A comparison with child language and aphasia. In: Language Acquisition and Language Breakdown: Parallels and Divergencies, edited by A. Caramazza and E. B. Zurif. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1978, p. 229–275.
 681. Zaidel, E. Concepts of cerebral dominance in the split brain. In: Cerebral Correlates of Conscious Experience, edited by P. Buser and A. Rougeul‐Buser. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1978, p. 263–284.
 682. Zaidel, E. Lexical organization in the right hemisphere. In: Cerebral Correlates of Conscious Experience, edited by P. Buser and A. Rougeul‐Buser. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1978, p. 177–197.
 683. Zangwill, O. L. Cerebral Dominance and its Relation to Psychological Function. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 1960.
 684. Zangwill, O. L. Speech and the minor hemisphere. Acta Neurol. Psychiatr. Belg. 67: 1013–1020, 1967.
 685. Zangwill, O. L. Consciousness and the cerebral hemispheres. In: Hemisphere Function in the Human Brain, edited by S. J. Dimond and J. G. Beaumont. London: Paul Elek, 1974, p. 264–278.
 686. Zangwill, O. L. Two cases of crossed aphasia in dextrals. Neuropsychologia 17: 167–172, 1979.
 687. Zangwill, O. L., and C. Blakemore. Dyslexia: reversal of eye‐movements during reading. Neuropsychologia 10: 317–373, 1972.
 688. Zeki, S. M. Colour coding in rhesus monkey prestriate cortex. Brain Res. 53: 422–427, 1973.
 689. Zollinger, R. Removal of left cerebral hemisphere. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry 34: 1055–1064, 1935.
 690. Zurif, E. B. Auditory lateralization: prosodic and syntactic factors. Brain Language 1: 391–404, 1974.
 691. Zurif, E. B., and M. P. Bryden. Familial handedness and left‐right differences in auditory and visual perception. Neuropsychologia 7: 179–188, 1969.
 692. Zurif, E. B., and G. Carson. Dyslexia in relation to cerebral dominance and temporal analysis. Neuropsychologia 8: 351–361, 1970.
 693. Zurif, E. B., and P. E. Sait. The role of syntax in dichotic listening. Neuropsychologia 8: 239–244, 1970.

Related Articles:

Sex Differences

Contact Editor

Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite

Colwyn Trevarthen. Hemispheric Specialization. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 3: Handbook of Physiology, The Nervous System, Sensory Processes: 1129-1190. First published in print 1984. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp010325