Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Peripheral Circulation: Historical Aspects

Full Article on Wiley Online Library


The sections in this article are:

1 Harvey's Proof of the Circulation
2 Pressures in the Cardiovascular System
3 Windkessel, Wave Velocity, Arterial Pulse, and Blood Flow
4 Development of Knowledge of Artery and Capillary Structure
5 Nervous Control of the Circulation
6 Myogenic Hypothesis
7 Adrenal Sympathetic Effects on the Cardiovascular System
8 Chemoreceptor Reflexes
9 Capillary Circulation
10 Venous Tone
11 Venous Pressure and Venous Capacity
12 Summary
 1. Abel, J. J., and A. C. Crawford. On the blood‐pressure‐raising constituent of the suprarenal capsule. Johns Hopkins Hosp. Bull. 8: 151–157, 1897.
 2. Addison, T. On the Constitutional and Local Effects of the Suprarenal Capsules. London: S. Highley, 1855.
 3. Adrian, E. D. Afferent impulses in the vagus and their effect on respiration. J. Physiol. London 79: 271–287, 1933.
 4. Alexander, R. S. Tonic and reflex functions of medullary sympathetic cardiovascular centers. J. Neurophysiol. 9: 205–217, 1946.
 5. Angell‐James, J. E., and M. de B. Daly. Role of the arterial chemoreceptors in the control of the cardiovascular responses to breath hold diving. In: Peripheral Arterial Chemoreceptors, edited by M. J. Purves. London: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1975, p. 387–405.
 6. Apéria, A. Haemodynamical studies. Skand. Arch. Physiol. 83, Suppl: 1–230, 1940.
 7. Arnold, J. Ein Beitrag zu der feineren Struktur und dem Chemismus der Nebennieren. Arch. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 35: 64–107, 1866.
 8. Axelrod, J. Methylation reactions in the formation and metabolism of catecholamines and other biogenic amines. Pharmacol. Rev. 18: 95–113, 1966. (Int. Catecholamine Symp., 2nd, Milan.)
 9. Bacq, Z. M. Chemical Transmission of Nerve Impulses: A Historical Sketch. Oxford, UK: Pergamon, 1976.
 10. Barcroft, H. (editor) The peripheral circulation. Br. Med. Bull. 19: 97–168, 1963.
 11. Barcroft, H. Factors affecting arterial blood flow and its measurement. Angiology 17: 443–450, 1966.
 12. Barcroft, H., and H. J. C. Swann. Sympathetic Control of Human Blood Vessels. London: Arnold, 1953.
 13. Barcroft, H., and J. F. Talbot. Oliver and Schäfer's discovery of the cardiovascular action of suprarenal extract. Postgrad. Med. J. 44: 6–8, 1968.
 14. Barger, G., and H. H. Dale. Chemical structure and sympathomimetic action of amines. J. Physiol. London 41: 19–59, 1910.
 15. Bayliss, L. E. Rheology of blood and lymph. In: Deformation and Flow in Biological Systems, edited by A. Frey‐Wyssling. Amsterdam: North‐Holland, 1952, p. 355–420.
 16. Bayliss, W. M. On the local reactions of the arterial wall to changes of internal pressure. J. Physiol. London 28: 220–231, 1902.
 17. Bayliss, W. M. On reciprocal innervation in vasomotor reflexes and the action of strychnine and of chloroform thereon. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 80: 339–375, 1908.
 18. Bayliss, W. M. Principles of General Physiology. London: Longmans Green, 1915.
 19. Bayliss, W. M. The Vasomotor System. London: Longmans Green, 1923.
 20. Bernard, C. An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine, trans, by H. C. Greene. New York: Henry Schumann, 1849.
 21. Bernard, C. Sur les effets de la section de la portion cephalique du grand sympathique. C. R. Soc. Biol. 4: 168–170, 1852.
 22. Bernard, C. De l'influence du système nerveux grand sympathique sur la chaleur animate. C. R. Acad. Sci. 34: 472–475, 1852.
 23. Bernard, C. Recherches expérimentales sur le grand sympathique et spécialement sur l'influence que la section de ce nerf exerce sur la chaleur animate. Mem Soc. Biol. 5: 77–107, 1853.
 24. Bernard, C. Introduction à l'étude de la médecine expérimentale. Paris: Baillière, 1865.
 25. Bernard, C. Leçons sur la chaleur animate, sur les effets de la chaleur et sur la fièvre. Paris: Baillière, 1876, p. 78.
 26. Bernard, C. Leçons de physiologie operatoire. Paris: Bailière, 1879.
 27. Bernard, C. Cahier de Notes 1850–1860. Présenté et commentée par Mirko Drazen Grmek. Paris: Gallimard, 1965.
 28. Bert, P. Leçons sur la physiologie de la respiration. Paris: Baillière, 1870.
 29. Biedl, A. Innere Sekretion, ihre physiologische Grundlagen und ihre Bedeutung für die Pathologie (2nd ed.). Berlin: Urban & Schwarzenburg, 1913, 2 vols.
 30. Blaschko, H. Amine oxidase and amine metabolism. Pharmacol. Rev. 4: 415–458, 1952.
 31. Bohr, C. Overs. K. Dan. Vidensk. Selsk. Forh. 2: 207, 1897. [Quoted by Scholander (197).]
 32. Boyle, R. A Continuation of New Experiments Physico‐Mechanical Touching the Spring and Weight of the Air, and Their Effects. The Second Part. London: Miles Flesher, 1682.
 33. Boyle, R. A Disquisition About the Final Causes of Natural Things. London: Taylor, 1688.
 34. Brecher, G. A. Venous Return. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1956.
 35. Bronk, D. W., and G. Stella. Afferent impulses in the carotid sinus nerve. I. The relation of the discharge from single end organs to arterial blood pressure. J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 1: 113–130, 1932.
 36. Brown‐Séquard, C. E. Experimental researches applied to physiology and pathology. Phila. Med. Examiner 8: 481–504, 1852.
 37. Brown‐Séquard, C. E. Sur les résultats de la section et de la galvanisation du nerf grand sympathique au cou. C. R. Acad. Sci. 38: 72–76, 1853.
 38. Brown‐Séquard, C. E. Recherches expérimentales sur la physiologie et la pathologie des capsules surrénales. C. R. Acad. Sci. 43: 422–425, 1856.
 39. Budge, J. L. Sympathetic vasomotor nerves. C. R. Acad. Sci. 36: 377–389, 1853. [Quoted by Langley .]
 40. Bülbring, E. Correlation between membrane potential, spike discharge and tension in smooth muscle. J. Physiol. London 128: 200–221, 1955.
 41. Bülbring, E., A. F. Brading, A. W. Jones, and T. Tomita (editors). Smooth Muscle. London: Arnold, 1970.
 42. Cannon, W. B., and A. Rosenblueth. Studies on conditions of activity in endocrine organs XXIX. Sympathin E and Sympathin I. Am. J. Physiol. 104: 557–574, 1933.
 43. Cannon, W. B., and J. E. Uridil. Studies on the conditions of activity in endocrine glands VIII. Some effects on the denervated heart of stimulating the nerves of the liver. Am. J. Physiol. 58: 353–354, 1921.
 44. Caro, C. G., T. J. Pedley, R. C. Schroter, and W. A. Seed. The Mechanics of the Circulation. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press, 1978.
 45. Chauveau, A., C. Bertolus, and F. Laroyenne. Mémoire sur la vitesse de la circulation dans les artères du cheval. J. Physiol. Homme Animaux 3: 695–711, 1860.
 46. Comroe, J. H., Jr. Retrospectroscope. Insights Into Medical Discovery. Menlo Park, CA: Von Gehr, 1977.
 47. Cournand, A. Measurement of the cardiac output in man using the right heart catheterization. Federation Proc. 4: 207–212, 1945.
 48. Cournand, A. Air and blood. In: Circulation of the Blood. Men and Ideas, edited by A. P. Fishman and D. W. Richards. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1964, p. 3–70.
 49. Cournand, A. Cardiac catheterization. Acta Med. Scand. Suppl. 579: 7–32, 1975.
 50. Cournand, A., and H. A. Ranges. Catheterization of the right auricle. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 46: 462–466, 1941.
 51. Cyon, E. de, and C. Ludwig. Die Reflexe eines der sensiblen Nerven des Herzens auf die motorischen der Blutgefässe. Ber. Sachs. Ges. Akad. Wiss. 18: 307–328, 1866.
 52. Dale, H. H. On some physiological actions of ergot. J. Physiol. London 34: 163–206, 1906.
 53. Dale, H. H. Adventures in Physiology; With Excursions Into Autopharmacology. London: Pergamon, 1953.
 54. Dawes, G. S., J. C. Mott, and J. R. Vane. The density flowmeter, a direct method for the measurement of the rate of blood flow. J. Physiol. London 121: 72–79, 1953.
 55. Dittmar, C. Ein neuer Beweis fur die Reizbarkeit der centripetalen Endfasern des Rückenmarks. Akad. Wiss. Leipzig Math.‐Phys. Kl. Ber. 22: 18–45, 1870.
 56. Dittmar, C. Der Sitz des Vasomotorischen Centrums. Ber. Sachs. Ges. Akad. Wiss. 25: 449–469, 1873.
 57. Dogiel, J. Die Ausmessung der Stromenden Blutvolumina. Arb. Physiol. Anst. Leipzig 2: 196–271, 1867.
 58. Donegan, J. F. The physiology of veins. J. Physiol. London 55: 226–245, 1921.
 59. Ead, H. W., J. H. Green, and E. Neil. A comparison of the effects of pulsatile and non‐pulsatile blood flow through the carotid sinus on the reflexogenic activity of the sinus barore‐ceptors in the cat. J. Physiol. London 118: 509–519, 1952.
 60. Eckhard, C. Untersuchungen über die Erection des Penis beim Hunde. Beitr. Anat. Physiol. Giessen 3: 123–170, 1863.
 61. Elliott, T. R. On the action of adrenin. J. Physiol. London 31: 20P–21P, 1904.
 62. Elliott, T. R. The action of adrenaline. J. Physiol. London 32: 401–467, 1905.
 63. Elliott, T. R. The control of the suprarenal glands by the splanchnic nerves. J. Physiol. London 44: 374–409, 1912.
 64. Elsner, R., J. E. Angell‐James, and M. de B. Daly. Carotid body chemoreceptor reflexes and their interactions in the seal. Am. J. Physiol. 232 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 1): H517–H525, 1977.
 65. Eränkö, O. Histochemistry of noradrenaline in the adrenal medulla of rats and mice. Endocrinology 57: 363–368, 1955.
 66. Eränkö, O., and L. Eränkö. Small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells in vivo and in vitro. In: Frontiers in Catecholamine Research, edited by E. Usdin and S. H. Snyder. Oxford, UK: Pergamon, 1973, p. 431–436.
 67. Euler, L. Oeuvres Compl. 1747, Ser. II, vol. 10, p. 98. [Cited by Lambossy .]
 68. Euler, L. Principia pro motu sanguinis per arterias determinando (Opera Posthuma). Petropoli, 1862, vol. II, p. 814–823.
 69. Euler, U. S. von. Noradrenaline. Chemistry, Physiology, Pharmacology and Clinical Aspects. Springfield, IL: Thomas, 1956.
 70. Fabricius, Hieronymus ab Aquapendente. De Venarum ostiolis (1603). (Reprinted in Opera Omnia, Padua: Meglietti, 1625).
 71. Falck, B. Observations on the possibilities of the cellular localisation of monoamines by a fluorescence method. Acta Physiol. Scand. Suppl. 197: 1–25, 1962.
 72. Fick, A. Ueber die Messung des Blutquantums in den Herzventrikeln. Sitzungsber. Phys.‐Med. Ges. Würzburg July 9, 1870.
 73. Folkow, B. Intravascular pressure as a factor regulating the tone of the small vessels. Acta Physiol. Scand. 17: 289–310, 1949.
 74. Folkow, B. Description of myogenic hypothesis. Cir. Res. 14–15, Suppl. 1: 279–287, 1964.
 75. Folkow, B., and C. Heymans. Vasomotor control and the regulation of blood pressure. In: Circulation of the Blood. Men and Ideas, edited by A. P. Fishman and D. W. Richards. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1964.
 76. Folkow, B., C. Heymans, and E. Neil. Integrated aspects of cardiovascular regulation. In: Handbook of Physiology. Circulation, edited by W. F. Hamilton. Washington, DC: Am. Physiol. Soc., 1965, sect. 2, vol. III, chapt. 49, p. 1787–1823.
 77. Folkow, B., and E. Neil. Circulation. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1971.
 78. Frank, M. H. The physiological influence of Carl Ludwig in the English speaking countries. Wiss. Z. Karl Marx Univ. Leipzig Math. Naturwiss. Reihe 19, H2: 325–331, 1970. (Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. Biocybernetics.)
 79. Frank, O. Die Grundform des arteriellen Pulses. Erste Abhandlung. Math. Anal. Z. Biol. 37: 483–526, 1899.
 80. Frank, O. Kritik der Elastischen Manometer. Z. Biol. Munich 44: 445–613, 1903.
 81. Frank, O. Die Puis in den Arterien. Z. Biol. Munich 46: 441–553, 1905.
 82. Frank, O. Die Theorie der Pulswellen. Z. Biol. Munich 85: 91–130, 1927.
 83. Franklin, K. J. The work of Richard Lower (1631–1691). Proc. R. Soc. Med. 25: 113–118, 1931.
 84. Franklin, K. J. A Monograph on Veins. Springfield, IL: Thomas, 1937.
 85. Franklin, K. J. Movement of the Heart and Blood in Animals. An Anatomical Essay by William Harvey. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 1957. (Transl. from Latin.)
 86. Fulton, J. F., and J. G. Wilson. Selected Readings in the History of Physiology (2nd ed.). Springfield, IL: Thomas, 1966.
 87. Funaki, S. Spontaneous spike‐discharges of vascular smooth muscle. Nature London 191: 1102–1103, 1960.
 88. Gaskell, W. H. The salivary glands. In: Text Book of Physiology, edited by E. A. Schäfer. Edinburgh: Young J. Pentland, 1898, vol. I, p. 475–530.
 89. Gaskell, W. H. The Involuntary Nervous System. London: Longmans Green, 1916.
 90. Gauer, O. H., and J. P. Henry. Neurohormonal control of plasma volume. In: Cardiovascular Physiology II, edited by A. C. Guyton, and A. W. Cowley. Baltimore: University Park, 1976, vol. 9. (Int. Rev. Physiol. Ser.)
 91. Gaunt, R. History of the adrenal cortex. In: Handbook of Physiology. Endocrinology. Adrenal Gland, edited by R. O. Greep and E. B. Astwood. Bethesda, MD: Am. Physiol. Soc., 1975, sect. 7, vol. VI, chapt. 1, p. 1–12.
 92. Gollwitzer‐Meier, K., and Schulte, H. Der Einfluss der Sinus nerven auf Venen system und Herzminuten volumen. Pfluegers Arch. Gesamte Physiol. Menschen Tiere 229: 264–277, 1932.
 93. Goltz, F. Ueber den Tonus der Gefässe und seine Bedeutung für die Blutbewegung. Virchows Arch. B 29: 394–432, 1864.
 94. Gréhant, N., and C. E. Quinquaud. Recherches expérimentales sur la mesure du volume du sang qui traverse le poumon en un temps donné. C. R. Soc. Biol. 5, Ser. 8: 159–173, 1886.
 95. Grmek, M. D. Claude Bernard, Traducteur et Critique du Traité de Carl Ludwig. In: J. E. Purkyne, 1787–1869, Centenary Symposium, edited by V. Kruta. Brno, Czechoslovakia: Universita Jana Evangelista Purkyne Brno, 1971, p. 57–63.
 96. Hagenbach, E. Über die Bestimmung der Tätigkeit einer Flüssigkeit durch den Ausfluss aus Röhren. Ann. Phys. Leipzig 109: 385–426, 1860.
 97. Hales, S. Vegetable Staticks. London: Innys & Woodward, 1727.
 98. Hales, S. Statical Essays: Containing Haemastaticks. London: Innys, Manby, & Woodward, 1733, vol. 2.
 99. Hall, M. A Critical and Experimental Essay on the Circulation of the Blood. London: Selley & Burnside, 1831.
 100. Hamilton, W. F. The physiology of the cardiac output. Circulation 8: 527–543, 1953.
 101. Hamilton, W. F., J. W. Moore, J. M. Kinsman, and R. G. Spurling. Studies on the circulation. IV. Further analysis of the injection method, and of changes in hemodynamics under physiological and pathological conditions. Am. J. Physiol. 99: 534–551, 1932.
 102. Hamilton, W. F., and D. W. Richards. The output of the heart. In: Circulation of the Blood. Men and Ideas, edited by A. P. Fishman and D. W. Richards. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1964, chapt. 2, p. 71–126.
 103. Hamilton, W. F., R. L. Riley, A. M. Attyah, A. Cournand, D. M. Fowell, A. Himmelstein, R. P. Noble, J. W. Remington, D. W. Richards, Jr., N. C. Wheeler, and A. C. Witham. Comparison of the Fick and dye injection methods of measuring the cardiac output in man. Am. J. Physiol. 153: 309–321, 1948.
 104. Hartman, F. A. The general physiology and experimental pathology of the suprarenal glands. In: Endocrinology and Metabolism, edited by L. F. Barker. New York: Appleton, 1922, vol. II, p. 119.
 105. Harvey, W. Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus. Frankfurt: William Fitzer, 1628.
 106. Hatschek, E. The Viscosity of Liquids. London: Bell, 1928.
 107. Henle, J. Ueber die Contractilität der Gefässe. Wochenschr. Ges. Heilk. 329–336, 1840.
 108. Henle, J. Allgemeine Anatomie. Leipzig, East Germany: Voss, 1841.
 109. Henriques, V. Über die Verteilung des Blutes vom linken Herzen zwischen dem Herzen und die übrigen Organisms. Biochem. Z. 56: 230–251, 1913.
 110. Hering, H. E. Die Karotissinusreflexe auf Herz und Gefässe vom normalphysiologischen, patho‐physiologischen und klinischen Standpunkt. Dresden, East Germany: Steinkopff, 1927.
 111. Herrick, J. F. Poiseuille's observations on blood flow lead to a law in hydrodynamics. Am. J. Phys. 10: 33–39, 1942.
 112. Heymans, C. Le sinus carotidien et les autres zones vasosensibles réflexogènes. London: Lewis, 1929.
 113. Heymans, C., J. J. Bouckaert, and P. Regniers. Le sinus carotidien et la zone homologue cardioaortique. Paris: Doin, 1933.
 114. Heymans, C., and E. Neil. Reflexogenic Areas of the Cardiovascular System. London: Churchill, 1958
 115. Heymans, J. F., and C. Heymans. Sur les modifications directes et sur la régulation réflexe de l'activité du centre respiratoire de la tête isolée du chien. Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 33: 273–372, 1927.
 116. Hill, L. Effect of gravity on the circulation. J. Physiol. London 18: 15–53, 1895.
 117. Hill, L. The mechanism of the circulation of the blood. In: Text Book of Physiology, edited by E. A. Schäfer. Edinburgh: Young J. Pentland, 1900, vol. II, p. 1–168.
 118. Hilton, S. M. Supramedullary organization of vasomotor control. Brain Res. 47: 77–84, 1974.
 119. Hilton, S. M. Ways of viewing the central nervous control of circulation—old and new. Brain Res. 87: 213–219, 1975.
 120. Hilton, S. M. and K. M. Spyer. C. N. S. regulation of vascular resistance. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 42: 399–411, 1980.
 121. Hooker, D. R. The veno‐pressor mechanism. Am. J. Physiol. 46: 591–598, 1918.
 122. Hoskins, R. G. The relation of the adrenals to the circulation. Physiol. Rev. 2: 343–360, 1922.
 123. Houssay, B., and J. T. Lewis. The relative importance to life of cortex and medulla of the adrenal glands. Am J. Physiol. 64: 513–521, 1923.
 124. Iversen, L. L. The Uptake and Storage of Noradrenaline in Sympathetic Nerves. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1967.
 125. Jarisch, A. Kreislauffragen. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 54: 1171–1173, 1211–1213, 1928.
 126. Johansson, B., O. Jonsson, J. Axelson, and B. Wahlström. Electrical and mechanical characteristics of vascular smooth muscle response to norepinephrine and isoproterenol. Circ. Res. 21: 619–633, 1967.
 127. Johnson, P. C. (editor). Autoregulation of Blood Flow. Am. Heart Assoc. Monogr. 8, 1964.
 128. Keele, K. D. William Harvey; Man, Physician and Scientist. London: Nelson, 1965.
 129. Kirchheim, H. R. Systemic arterial baroreceptor reflexes. Physiol. Rev. 56: 100–176, 1976.
 130. Koch, E. Die reflektorische Selbsteuerung des Kreislaufes. Dresden, East Germany: Steinkopff, 1931.
 131. Koizumi, K., and C. M. Brooks. The integration of autonomic system reactions: a discussion of autonomic reflexes, their control and their association with somatic reactions. Ergeb. Physiol. Biol. Chem. Exp. Pharmakol. 67: 2–68, 1972.
 132. Kolin, A. An electromagnetic flow meter. Principles of the method and its application to blood flow measurements. Federation Proc. 35: 53–56, 1936.
 133. Kolin, A. Electromagnetic flow meters. Science 130: 1088–1097, 1959.
 134. Korteweg, D. J. Über die Fortplanzungs‐geschwindigkeit des Schalles in elastischen Röhren. Ann. Phys. Chem. 5: 525–571, 1878.
 135. Köster, G., and A. Tschermak von. Ueber Ursprung und Endigung des N. depressor und N. laryngeus superior beim Kaninchen. Arch. Anat. Physiol. Physiol. Abt. Suppl.: 255–294, 1902.
 136. Köster, G., and A. von Tschermak. Ueber den N. depressor als Reflexnerv der Aorta. Pfluegers Arch. Gesamte Physiol. Menschen Tiere 93: 24–39, 1903.
 137. Krause, C. Haut. In: R. Wagner. Handwörterbuch der Physiologie. Braunschweig: F. Vieweg, 1844, vol. 2, p. 108–164.
 138. Kries, J. von. Über den Druck in den Blut capillaren der menschlicher Haut. Ber. Sachs Ges. Akad. Wiss. 25: 148–160, 1875.
 139. Kries, J. von. Carl Ludwig. Freiburg im Breisgau: J. C. B. Mohr, 1895.
 140. Krogh, A. The number and distribution of capillaries in muscles with calculation of the oxygen pressure head necessary for supplying the tissue. J. Physiol. London 52: 409–415, 1919.
 141. Krogh, A. The supply of oxygen to the tissues and the regulation of the capillary circulation. J. Physiol. London 52: 457–474, 1919.
 142. Krogh, A. The Anatomy and Physiology of Capillaries. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press, 1922.
 143. Krogh, A. Reminiscences of work on capillary circulation. Isis 41: 14–20, 1950.
 144. Ladenburg, A. Lectures on the History of the Development of Chemistry Since the Time of Lavoisier. Edinburgh: James Thin, 1905. (Transl. from 2nd German ed. by Leonard Dobbin.)
 145. Lambossy, P. Aperçu historique et critique sur le problème de la propagation des ondes dans un liquide compressible enfermé dans un tube élastique. Helv. Physiol. Pharmacol. Acta 8: 209–227, 1950.
 146. Landis, E. M. The capillary pressure in frog mesentery as determined by micro‐injection methods. Am. J. Physiol. 75: 548–570, 1925–26.
 147. Landis, E. M. Factors controlling the movement of fluid through the human capillary wall. Yale J. Biol. Med. 5: 201–225, 1933.
 148. Landis, E. M. Capillary pressure and capillary permeability. Physiol. Rev. 14: 404–481, 1934.
 149. Landis, E. M. The capillary circulation. In: Circulation of the Blood. Men and Ideas, edited by A. P. Fishman and D. W. Richards. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1964, p. 355–406.
 150. Landis, E. M., and J. R. Pappenheimer. Exchange of substances through capillary walls. In: Handbook of Physiology. Circulation, edited by W. F. Hamilton. Washington, DC: Am. Physiol. Soc., 1963, sect. 2, vol. II, chapt. 29, p. 961–1034.
 151. Langley, J. N. A short history of the sympathetic nervous system. In: Proc. Int. Congr. Physiol. 3rd, Berne, 1895. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1896, p. 1–8.
 152. Langley, J. N. The sympathetic and other related systems of nerves. In: Text Book of Physiology, edited by E. A. Schäfer. Edinburgh: Young J. Pentland, 1900, vol. 2, p. 616–696.
 153. Lavoisier, A.‐L. Mémoire sur la nature du principe qui se combine avec les métaux pendant leur calcination et qui en augmente le poids. Mem. Hist. Acad. R. Sci. Paris (1775). 520–526, 1778.
 154. Lavoisier, A.‐L., and P. Simon (Marquis de La Place). Mémoire sur la chaleur. Mem. Hist. Acad. R. Sci. Paris 355–408, 1784.
 155. Leake, C. D. The historical development of cardiovascular physiology. In: Handbook of Physiology. Circulation, edited by W. F. Hamilton. Washington, DC: Am. Physiol. Soc., 1962, sect. 2, vol. I, chapt. 2, p. 11–22.
 156. Leeuwenhoek, A. van. Den Waaragtigen Omloop des Bloeds, als mede dat de Arterien en venae gecontinueerde Bloed‐Vaten zijn Klaar voor de Oogen gestelt. Verhandelt in een Brief, geschreven aan de Koninglijke Societeit tot London. 65th Missive. Sept. 7, 1688. Opusc. Selecta Neerl. Arte Med. 1: 45, 1907.
 157. Loewi, O. Über humorale Übertragbarkeit der Herznervenwirkung. Pfluegers Arch. Gesamte Physiol. Menschen Tiere 189: 239–242, 1921.
 158. Lombard, W. P. The life and work of Carl Ludwig. Science 44: 363–375, 1916.
 159. Lower, R. Tractatus de corde item de motu et colore sanguinis et chyli in eum transitu. London: Allestry, 1669.
 160. Ludwig, C. Beitrage zur Kenntnis des Einflusses der Respirations Bewegungen auf den Blutlauf im Aortensystem. Arch. Anat. Physiol. Leipzig 6: 242–302, 1847.
 161. Ludwig, C., and L. Thiry. Ueber den Einfluss des Halsmarkes auf den Blustrom (Abstract 2). Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien. Math. Naturwiss Kl. Abt. 2 49: 421–428, 1864.
 162. Magnus, H. G. Über die im Blute enthaltenen Gase, Sauerstoffe stickstoff und Kohlensaure. Ann. Phys. Chem. Leipzig 12: 583–606, 1837.
 163. Malpighi, M. De pulmonibus. Observationes anatomicae. Epistola altera. Bologna, Italy: Baptista Ferronius, 1661, p. 1–9. [Translated by L. G. Wilson (see ref. 86).]
 164. Marey, E. J. Physiologie Medicate de la Circulation du Sang. Paris: Adrien Delahaye, 1863.
 165. Marey, E. J. Le circulation du sang à l'état physiologique et dans des maladies. Paris: Masson, 1881.
 166. McDonald, D. A. Blood Flow in Arteries (2nd ed.). London: Arnold, 1974.
 167. McDonald, D. A., and M. G. Taylor. The hydrodynamics of the arterial circulation. Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 9: 107–173, 1959.
 168. McDowall, R. J. S. The Control of the Circulation of the Blood. London: Longmans Green, 1938.
 169. Mellander, S. Comparitive studies on the adrenergic neurohumoral control of resistance and capacitance blood vessels in the cat. Acta Physiol. Scand. 50, Suppl. 176: 1–86, 1960.
 170. Moens, A. I. Die pulskurve. Leiden: 1878. [Cited by Apéria (6) and Lambossy .]
 171. Müller, J. Elements of Physiology, transl. by William Baly. London: Taylor & Walton, 1838, vol. 1, p. 226–229.
 172. Neil, E. Carl Ludwig and his pupils. Circ. Res. 9: 971–978, 1961.
 173. Neil, E. The Life and Work of William Harvey. Hove, UK: Wayland, 1975.
 174. Newton, I. The circular motion of liquids. Principia Mathematica (2nd ed.). 1713, vol. II, sect. IX, proposition LI, theorem XXXIX.
 175. Öberg, B. Overall cardiovascular regulation. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 38: 537–70, 1976.
 176. Oliver, G. The action of animal extracts on the peripheral vessels. J. Physiol. London 21: 22P–23P, 1897.
 177. Oliver, G., and E. A. Schäfer. On the physiological action of extract of the suprarenal capsules. J. Physiol. London 16: 1P–4P, 1894.
 178. Oliver, G., and E. A. Schäfer. On the physiological action of the suprarenal capsules. J. Physiol. London 17: 9P–14P, 1895.
 179. Oliver, G., and E. A. Schäfer. The physiological effects of extracts of the suprarenal capsules. J. Physiol. London 18: 230–276, 1895.
 180. Olmsted, J. M. D., and E. H. Olmsted. Claude Bernard and the Experimental Method in Medicine. New York: Schumann, 1952.
 181. Owsjannikow, P. H. Die tonischen und reflektorischen Centren der Gefässnerven. K. Sachs. Ges. Wiss. Math. Phys. Kl. Ber. 23: 135–147, 1871.
 182. Pappenheimer, J. R. Passage of molecules through capillary walls. Physiol. Rev. 33: 387–423, 1953.
 183. Pappenheimer, J. R., E. M. Renkin, and L. M. Borrero. Filtration, diffusion and molecular sieving through peripheral capillary membranes. A contribution to the pore theory of capillary permeability. Am. J. Physiol. 167: 13–46, 1951.
 184. Pappenheimer, J. R., and A. Soto‐Rivera. Effective osmotic pressure of the plasma proteins and other quantities associated with the capillary circulation in the hindlimbs of cats and dogs. Am. J. Physiol. 152: 471–491, 1948.
 185. Pavlov, I. P. Über den Einfluss des Vagus auf die Arbeit der linken Herzkammer. Arch. Anat. Physiol. Physiol. Abt.: 452–468, 1887.
 186. Poiseuille, J.‐L.‐M. Recherches sur la force du coeur aortique (Thèse 166). Paris: Didot, 1828.
 187. Poiseuille, J.‐L.‐M. Recherches expérimentales sur le mouvement des liquides dans les tubes de très petits diamètres. Mém. Savant Étrangers Paris 9: 433–544, 1846.
 188. Pollack, A. A., and E. H. Wood. Venous pressure in the saphenous vein at the ankle in man during exercise and changes in posture. J. Appl. Physiol. 1: 649–662, 1948–49.
 189. Porter, W. T., and F. H. Pratt. The reactions of peripheral vasomotor areas. Am. J. Physiol. 21: xvi, 1908.
 190. Pourfour du Petit, F. Mémoire dans lequel il est demontré que les nerfs intercostaux fournissent des rameaux qui portent des esprits dans les yeux. Hist. Acad. R. Sci. Paris 1: 1–19, 1727.
 191. Priestley, J. Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air. London: J. Johnson, 1774.
 192. Ranson, S. W., and P. R. Billingsley. Vasomotor reactions from stimulation of the floor of the fourth ventricle. Studies in vasomotor reflex arcs. III. Am. J. Physiol. 41: 85–90, 1916.
 193. Recklinghausen, F. von. Die Lymphgefässe und ihre Beziehung zum Bindgewebe. Berlin: A. Hirschwald, 1862.
 194. Rothschuh, K. E. Geschichte der Physiologie. Berlin: Springer‐Verlag, 1953.
 195. Schäfer, E. A. (editor). Text Book of Physiology. Edinburgh: Young J. Pentland, 1898 and 1900, vols. I and II.
 196. Schäfer, E. A. The Oliver‐Sharpey lectures on the present condition of our knowledge regarding the functions of the suprarenal capsules. Reprinted from Br. Med. J. 30th May and 6th June, p. 1–10, 1908.
 197. Scholander, P. F. Physiological adaptation to diving in animals and man. Harvey Lect. 57: 93–110, 1962.
 198. Sherrington, C. S. The Endeavour of Jean Fernel. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1946.
 199. Sleight, P. (editor). Baroreceptors and Hypertension. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press, 1980.
 200. Spyer, K. M. Neural organisation and control of the baroreceptor reflex. Rev. Physiol. Biochem. Pharmacol. 88: 23–124, 1981.
 201. Starling, E. H. On the absorption of fluids from the connective tissue spaces. J. Physiol. London 19: 312–326, 1896.
 202. Starling, E. H. The Fluids of the Body. London: Constable, 1909.
 203. Stewart, G. N. Researches on the circulation time and on the influences which affect it. IV. The output of the heart. J. Physiol. London 22: 159–183, 1897.
 204. Stilling, B. Physiologische, Pathologische und Medezinischpraktische Untersuchungen über die Spinal Irritation. Leipzig, East Germany: Wignand, 1840, p. 163, 164, 275.
 205. Stolnikow, L. Die Aichung des Bluströmes in der Aorta des Hundes. Arch. Anat. Physiol. Physiol Abt.: 1–66, 1886.
 206. Stolz, F. Ueber Adrenalin und Alkylaminoaceto‐brenzcatechin. Chem. Ber. 37: 4149–4154, 1904.
 207. Takamine, Y. The isolation of the active principle of the suprarenal gland. J. Physiol. London 27: 29P–30P, 1901.
 208. Taylor, M. G. An introduction to some recent developments in arterial haemodynamics. Australas. Ann. Med. 15: 71–86, 1966.
 209. Thiers, M. A. The History of the French Revolution, transl. by Frederick Shoberl. London: Richard Bentley, 1838, 5 vols.
 210. Tiffenau, M. M. Sur les effets hypertenseurs de quelques dérives de la series de l'ephedrine et de l'adrénaline—considerations sur le determinisme de la formation de l'adrénaline dans l'organisme animal. Ann. Physiol. Physicochim. Biol. 5: 571–577, 1929.
 211. Tigerstedt, R. Die Physiologie des Kreislaufes. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1923, vol. IV.
 212. Tschermak, J. N. Über mechanische Vagus‐Reizung beim Menschen. Jena Z. Med. Naturwiss. 2: 384–386, 1865–66.
 213. Uvnäs, B. Sympathetic vasodilator system and blood flow. Physiol. Rev. 40, Suppl. 4: 69–76, 1960.
 214. Vanhoutte, P. M., and I. Leusen (editors). Mechanisms of Vasodilatation. Basel: Karger, 1978.
 215. Vierordt, K. Die Erscheinungen und Gesetze der Stromgeschwindigkeit des Blutes. Frankfurt: Meidinger Sohn, 1858.
 216. Vincent, S. Internal Secretion and the Ductless Glands (3rd ed.). London: Arnold, 1924.
 217. Volkmann, A. W. Die Haemodynamik nach Versuchen. Leipzig, East Germany: Breitkopff & Härtel, 1850.
 218. Waller, A. V. Neuvième mémoire sur le système nerveux. C. R. Acad. Sci. 36: 378–383, 1853.
 219. Weber, E. H. Nutzen der Elasticität der Arterien. In: Hildebrandt, Handbuch der Anatomie (4th ed.). 1831, pt. III. [Cited in ref. 6.]
 220. Weber, E. H., and E. F. Weber. Experiments, quibus probatur nervos vagos rotatione machinae galvano‐magneticae irritates motus cordis retardate et adeo intercipere. Ann. Universali Med. 116: 227–228, 1845. (Ser. 3, vol. 20, p. 347).
 221. Weber, E. H., and W. E. Weber. Wellenlehre. Leipzig, East Germany: Fleischer, 1825.
 222. Wetterer, E. Eine neue Methode zur Registrierung der Blutströmungs geschwindigkeit am uneröffneten Gefäss. Z. Biol. Munich 98: 26–36, 1937.
 223. Wetterer, E. Flowmeters: their theory, construction, and operation. In: Handbook of Physiology. Circulation, edited by W. F. Hamilton. Washington, DC: Am. Physiol. Soc., 1963, sect. 2, vol. II, chapt. 38, p. 1294–1324.
 224. Wheeler, T. D., and S. Vincent. The question as to the relative importance to life of cortex and medulla of the adrenal bodies. Trans. R. Soc. Can. 11: 125–127, 1917.
 225. Wiedeman, M. P. Effect of venous flow on frequency of venous vasomotion in the bat's wing. Circ. Res. 5: 641–644, 1957.
 226. Wiedemann, G. Ann. der Physik. 99: 221.
 227. [Quoted by E. Hatschek in The Viscosity of Liquids. London: Bell, 1928, on p. 239.].
 228. Wiggers, C. J. The Pressure Pulses in the Cardiovascular System. London: Longmans Green, 1928.
 229. Willis, R. The Works of William Harvey, M. D. London: Sydenham Soc., 1847.
 230. Willis, T. Cerebri Anatome. Geneva: De Tournes, 1680.
 231. Young, T. Hydraulic investigations subservient to an intended Croonian lecture on the motion of the blood. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 98: 164–186, 1808.
 232. Young, T. On the functions of the heart and arteries. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 99: 1–31, 1809.
 233. Zuntz, N., and O. Hagemann. Untersuchungen über den Stoffwechsel des Pferdes bei Ruhe und Arbeit. Landw. Jb. 27, Suppl. 3: 1–438, 1898.

Contact Editor

Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite

Eric Neil. Peripheral Circulation: Historical Aspects. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 8: Handbook of Physiology, The Cardiovascular System, Peripheral Circulation and Organ Blood Flow: 1-19. First published in print 1983. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp020301