Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Hyperbaria: Breath‐hold Diving

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Professional Breath‐Hold Divers
1.1 Brief History
1.2 Geographical Distribution
1.3 Equipment
1.4 Work Patterns
1.5 Diving Patterns
1.6 Energy Expenditure
2 Duration
2.1 Diving Time
2.2 Time Course of a Breath‐Hold Dive
2.3 Breaking Point
3 Depth Limit
4 Alveolar Gas Exchange
5 Blood N2 and O2 Profile
5.1 Venous Blood N2 Tension During Repetitive Breath‐Hold Diving
5.2 Arterial Blood O2 and CO2 Tensions During a Breath‐Hold Dive
6 Danger of Hyperventilation
7 Diving Responses
7.1 Head‐Out Water Immersion
7.2 Cardiovascular Responses
8 Adaptation
8.1 Lung Volume and Maximal Respiratory Pressure
8.2 CO2 Adaptation
8.3 Adaptation to Hypoxia
8.4 Other Adaptations
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Time course of breath‐hold. Record shows intraesophageal pressure (IEP) during a course of breath‐hold. Events are A, beginning of breath‐hold; B, onset of involuntary ventilatory activity; and C, termination of breath‐hold. Period between A and B was 39 s and between B and C 31 s. Subject was exercising at 167 kg‐m/min while breath‐holding. A similar result was observed during breath‐hold at rest but with a longer breath‐hold time. Modified from Lin et al. .

Figure 2. Figure 2.

Record depths of breath‐hold diving. Maximal depth records for breath‐hold diving before 1967 obtained from Craig . Modified from Hong and Lin .

Figure 3. Figure 3.

Breath‐hold bradycardiac response in humans at rest and during exercise. FI and FO are breath‐hold with and without face immersion in water, respectively.

Reproduced from Lin with permission


Figure 1.

Time course of breath‐hold. Record shows intraesophageal pressure (IEP) during a course of breath‐hold. Events are A, beginning of breath‐hold; B, onset of involuntary ventilatory activity; and C, termination of breath‐hold. Period between A and B was 39 s and between B and C 31 s. Subject was exercising at 167 kg‐m/min while breath‐holding. A similar result was observed during breath‐hold at rest but with a longer breath‐hold time. Modified from Lin et al. .



Figure 2.

Record depths of breath‐hold diving. Maximal depth records for breath‐hold diving before 1967 obtained from Craig . Modified from Hong and Lin .



Figure 3.

Breath‐hold bradycardiac response in humans at rest and during exercise. FI and FO are breath‐hold with and without face immersion in water, respectively.

Reproduced from Lin with permission
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Yu‐Chong Lin, Suk Ki Hong. Hyperbaria: Breath‐hold Diving. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 14: Handbook of Physiology, Environmental Physiology: 979-995. First published in print 1996. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp040242