Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Sphincteric function

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Upper Esophageal Sphincter
2 Lower Esophageal Sphincter
2.1 Innervation
2.2 Functional Characteristics
2.3 Basal tone
2.4 Effect of Neurotransmitters on Lower Esophageal Sphincter tone
2.5 Role of Humoral and Hormonal Factors in Lower Esophageal Sphincter Regulation
3 Pyloric Sphincter
3.1 Anatomy and Innervation
3.2 Functional Characteristics
3.3 Regulation of Pyloric Sphincter
4 Ileocecal Sphincter
4.1 Anatomy and Innervation
4.2 Functional Characteristics
4.3 Regulation of Ileocecal Sphincter
5 Anal Sphincter
5.1 Anatomy and Innervation
5.2 Internal Anal Sphincter
6 Conclusion
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Changes (18 h) in contractile activity in lower esophageal sphincter and stomach. Arrow, feeding. Note significant differences in contractile pattern before and after feeding. In interdigestive state, simultaneous occurrence of contractile episodes are observed at regular intervals.

From Itoh et al.
Figure 2. Figure 2.

Increased lower esophageal sphincter (LES) excitability produced by tetraethylammonium (TEA). Effect of inward current. T, tension; MP, membrane potential; C, current. TEA, 5 mmol/1. Recording made by sucrose gap method.

From Papasova and Lolova
Figure 3. Figure 3.

Dependence between the changes in the tone (P) and membrane potential (MP) of lower esophageal sphincter. Recording made by a sucrose‐gap method.

From Papasova and Lolova
Figure 4. Figure 4.

Response of lower esophageal sphincter (LES) to electrical field stimulation (0.2 ms; 2 Hz; supramaximal current) depending on the place of removal. A: removal distally from B; B: removal from the middle of LES; and C: removal proximally from B. Down arrows, beginning of stimulation; up arrows, end of stimulation.

From Velkova et al.
Figure 5. Figure 5.

Relationship between changes in membrane potential (MP) and lower esophageal sphincter pressure in response to acetylcholine (ACh). T, tension. A: ACh 10−5 g/cm3; B: ACh 15 min after treatment with atropine 10−5 g/cm3.

From Velkova et al.
Figure 6. Figure 6.

Effect of PG on the response of lower esophageal sphincter smooth muscle strips to electrical field stimulation (0.2 ms; 2 Hz; supramaximal current) before (•) and after (○) treatment with PG; and after (ø) washout. Duration of PG treatment is 5 min.

From Papasova and Lolova
Figure 7. Figure 7.

Coordination between the electrical activity of stomach, pyloric sphincter (PS), and duodenum. A: pacesetter potentials typical of stomach are recorded simultaneously from PS; B: pacesetter potentials typical both of stomach and duodenum are recorded simultaneously from PS. Designations: 1: electrode implanted in stomach wall; 2: electrode implanted in PS; 3: electrode implanted in duodenum.

From Papasova and Lolova
Figure 8. Figure 8.

Coupling between spike activity of stomach and pyloric sphincter (PS). A: spike potentials from stomach spread only in PS; B: spike activity occurs successively in stomach, PS, and duodenum. Designations: 1: electrode implanted in stomach wall; 2: electrode implanted in PS; 3: electrode implanted in duodenum.

From Papasova and Lolova
Figure 9. Figure 9.

Effect of frequency of stimulations on pyloric sphincter. A: at low frequency (0.5 ms; 2 Hz; supramaximal current); B: at high frequency (12 Hz). Down arrows, beginning of stimulation; up arrows, end of stimulation.

From Papasova et al.
Figure 10. Figure 10.

Dependence of pyloric sphincter relaxation (%) on frequency of electrical field stimulation. Relaxation is expressed in percentage to maximal response (n = 10). Designations: 1: control; 2: after atropine 10−6 g/cm3; 3: after atropine 10–6 g/cm3, phenoxy‐benzamine 10−5 g/cm3, and propranolol 10−5 g/cm3.

From Papasova et al.
Figure 11. Figure 11.

Effect of prostaglandin (PGE1) on pyloric sphincter smooth‐muscle strips to electrical field stimulation (0.2 ms; 2 Hz; supramaximal current) before (•) and after (○) treatment with PGE. Duration of treatment is 5 min.

From Papasova and Lolova
Figure 12. Figure 12.

Specific features in the propagation of the excitatory process in the ileocecal region. A: spike activity propagates from ileum through ileocecal sphincter to colon; B: isolated spike activity in colon. Arrows, direction of propagation of electrical activity.

From Papasova and Mizhorkova
Figure 13. Figure 13.

Spike‐dependent phasic contraction of ileocecal sphincter (ICS). Recording made by sucrose‐gap method. T, tension; MP, membrane potential.

From Papasova and Lolova
Figure 14. Figure 14.

A: length‐tension curves for feline circular muscle from ileocecal sphincter (ICS), ileum, and colon. Tension as percent of maximum ICS tension is measured during graded increments of stretch (L/Li). The ICS muscle developed greater tension than adjacent ileum or colon. B: active tension as percent of maximum colonic muscle tension in response to acetylcholine (ACh, 10−4 M) at each increment of stretch (L/Li). Ileum and colon developed greater peak active tension (P0) in response to ACh than ICS. However, ICS peak tension occurred at a lesser degree of stretch. Maximum combined tension due to stretch and stimulation with ACh was similar for each muscle. All responses are normalized for muscle cross‐sectional area for studies performed on minimum of 20 muscle strips.

From Cardwell et al.
Figure 15. Figure 15.

Mechanisms of conditioning ICS responses to electrical field stimulation. A: control; B: on background of atropine 10−6 g/cm3; C: on background of atropine 10−6 g/cm3, phenoxybenzamine 10−5 g/cm3, and propranolol 10−5 g/cm3. Down arrows, beginning of stimulation; up arrows, end of stimulation.

From Papasova and Lolova
Figure 16. Figure 16.

Spontaneous electric (MP, membrane potential) and contractile (T, tension) activity of smooth muscle strips of cat internal anal sphincter. Recording with single sucrose‐gap method. A: waxing and waning pattern type. Every contraction corresponds to slow change of MP; B: MP changes equal in amplitude and duration and concomitant contractions.

From Todorov
Figure 17. Figure 17.

Maximal anal pressure at rest with and without anesthesia. High spinal anesthesia decreases anal pressure significantly more than low spinal anesthesia or pudendal block.

From Frenckner and Ihre
Figure 18. Figure 18.

Effect of acetylcholine, nicotine, and carbachol on the contractile activity of the smooth muscle from cat internal anal sphincter (A, B, and C) and rectum (D).

From Todorov and Papasova
Figure 19. Figure 19.

Character of the acetylcholine (ACh) and carbachol‐induced relaxation of internal anal sphincter before and after treatment with atropine and hexamethonium.

From Todorov and Papasova


Figure 1.

Changes (18 h) in contractile activity in lower esophageal sphincter and stomach. Arrow, feeding. Note significant differences in contractile pattern before and after feeding. In interdigestive state, simultaneous occurrence of contractile episodes are observed at regular intervals.

From Itoh et al.


Figure 2.

Increased lower esophageal sphincter (LES) excitability produced by tetraethylammonium (TEA). Effect of inward current. T, tension; MP, membrane potential; C, current. TEA, 5 mmol/1. Recording made by sucrose gap method.

From Papasova and Lolova


Figure 3.

Dependence between the changes in the tone (P) and membrane potential (MP) of lower esophageal sphincter. Recording made by a sucrose‐gap method.

From Papasova and Lolova


Figure 4.

Response of lower esophageal sphincter (LES) to electrical field stimulation (0.2 ms; 2 Hz; supramaximal current) depending on the place of removal. A: removal distally from B; B: removal from the middle of LES; and C: removal proximally from B. Down arrows, beginning of stimulation; up arrows, end of stimulation.

From Velkova et al.


Figure 5.

Relationship between changes in membrane potential (MP) and lower esophageal sphincter pressure in response to acetylcholine (ACh). T, tension. A: ACh 10−5 g/cm3; B: ACh 15 min after treatment with atropine 10−5 g/cm3.

From Velkova et al.


Figure 6.

Effect of PG on the response of lower esophageal sphincter smooth muscle strips to electrical field stimulation (0.2 ms; 2 Hz; supramaximal current) before (•) and after (○) treatment with PG; and after (ø) washout. Duration of PG treatment is 5 min.

From Papasova and Lolova


Figure 7.

Coordination between the electrical activity of stomach, pyloric sphincter (PS), and duodenum. A: pacesetter potentials typical of stomach are recorded simultaneously from PS; B: pacesetter potentials typical both of stomach and duodenum are recorded simultaneously from PS. Designations: 1: electrode implanted in stomach wall; 2: electrode implanted in PS; 3: electrode implanted in duodenum.

From Papasova and Lolova


Figure 8.

Coupling between spike activity of stomach and pyloric sphincter (PS). A: spike potentials from stomach spread only in PS; B: spike activity occurs successively in stomach, PS, and duodenum. Designations: 1: electrode implanted in stomach wall; 2: electrode implanted in PS; 3: electrode implanted in duodenum.

From Papasova and Lolova


Figure 9.

Effect of frequency of stimulations on pyloric sphincter. A: at low frequency (0.5 ms; 2 Hz; supramaximal current); B: at high frequency (12 Hz). Down arrows, beginning of stimulation; up arrows, end of stimulation.

From Papasova et al.


Figure 10.

Dependence of pyloric sphincter relaxation (%) on frequency of electrical field stimulation. Relaxation is expressed in percentage to maximal response (n = 10). Designations: 1: control; 2: after atropine 10−6 g/cm3; 3: after atropine 10–6 g/cm3, phenoxy‐benzamine 10−5 g/cm3, and propranolol 10−5 g/cm3.

From Papasova et al.


Figure 11.

Effect of prostaglandin (PGE1) on pyloric sphincter smooth‐muscle strips to electrical field stimulation (0.2 ms; 2 Hz; supramaximal current) before (•) and after (○) treatment with PGE. Duration of treatment is 5 min.

From Papasova and Lolova


Figure 12.

Specific features in the propagation of the excitatory process in the ileocecal region. A: spike activity propagates from ileum through ileocecal sphincter to colon; B: isolated spike activity in colon. Arrows, direction of propagation of electrical activity.

From Papasova and Mizhorkova


Figure 13.

Spike‐dependent phasic contraction of ileocecal sphincter (ICS). Recording made by sucrose‐gap method. T, tension; MP, membrane potential.

From Papasova and Lolova


Figure 14.

A: length‐tension curves for feline circular muscle from ileocecal sphincter (ICS), ileum, and colon. Tension as percent of maximum ICS tension is measured during graded increments of stretch (L/Li). The ICS muscle developed greater tension than adjacent ileum or colon. B: active tension as percent of maximum colonic muscle tension in response to acetylcholine (ACh, 10−4 M) at each increment of stretch (L/Li). Ileum and colon developed greater peak active tension (P0) in response to ACh than ICS. However, ICS peak tension occurred at a lesser degree of stretch. Maximum combined tension due to stretch and stimulation with ACh was similar for each muscle. All responses are normalized for muscle cross‐sectional area for studies performed on minimum of 20 muscle strips.

From Cardwell et al.


Figure 15.

Mechanisms of conditioning ICS responses to electrical field stimulation. A: control; B: on background of atropine 10−6 g/cm3; C: on background of atropine 10−6 g/cm3, phenoxybenzamine 10−5 g/cm3, and propranolol 10−5 g/cm3. Down arrows, beginning of stimulation; up arrows, end of stimulation.

From Papasova and Lolova


Figure 16.

Spontaneous electric (MP, membrane potential) and contractile (T, tension) activity of smooth muscle strips of cat internal anal sphincter. Recording with single sucrose‐gap method. A: waxing and waning pattern type. Every contraction corresponds to slow change of MP; B: MP changes equal in amplitude and duration and concomitant contractions.

From Todorov


Figure 17.

Maximal anal pressure at rest with and without anesthesia. High spinal anesthesia decreases anal pressure significantly more than low spinal anesthesia or pudendal block.

From Frenckner and Ihre


Figure 18.

Effect of acetylcholine, nicotine, and carbachol on the contractile activity of the smooth muscle from cat internal anal sphincter (A, B, and C) and rectum (D).

From Todorov and Papasova


Figure 19.

Character of the acetylcholine (ACh) and carbachol‐induced relaxation of internal anal sphincter before and after treatment with atropine and hexamethonium.

From Todorov and Papasova
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Maria Papasova. Sphincteric function. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 16: Handbook of Physiology, The Gastrointestinal System, Motility and Circulation: 987-1023. First published in print 1989. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp060126