Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Gastrointestinal lymphatics

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Historical Aspects
2 Anatomical Considerations
2.1 Interstitium
2.2 Structure of Lymphatics
2.3 Lymphaticovenous Anastomoses
2.4 Lymphatics of Gastrointestinal Organs
3 General Physiological Considerations
3.1 Formation of Lymph
3.2 Filling of Initial Lymphatics
3.3 Role of Lymph in Tissue Homeostasis
3.4 Composition of Lymph
3.5 Modification of Lymph by Lymphatic Vessels and Nodes
3.6 Propulsion of Lymph in Collecting Vessels
4 Investigative Techniques
4.1 Cannulation of Lymph Vessels
4.2 Lymph Fistula Studies in the Human
4.3 In Vitro Studies of Gastrointestinal Lymphatics
4.4 Micropuncture of Intestinal Mucosal Lymphatics
5 Lymph from Gastrointestinal Organs
5.1 Salivary Glands
5.2 Esophagus and Stomach
5.3 Small Intestine
6 Colon
7 Pancreas
8 Liver
8.1 Liver Microcirculation
8.2 Liver Lymph Flow
8.3 Proteins of Liver Lymph
8.4 Formation of Liver Lymph
8.5 Lipids of Liver Lymph
8.6 Pathophysiology of Liver Lymph
9 Pathophysiology of Gastrointestinal Lymphatics
9.1 Primary Intestinal Lymphangiectasia
9.2 Secondary Intestinal Lymphangiectasia
9.3 Intestinal Lymphangiectasia Secondary to Heart Disease
9.4 Experimental Interruption of Intestinal Lymphatics
9.5 Inflammatory Bowel Disease
9.6 Acute Pancreatitis
9.7 Miscellaneous Conditions Involving Gastrointestinal Lymphatics
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Chylomicrons in rat small intestine entering lymphatic vessels (Ly) by moving between gaps (arrow) that develop between cytoplasmic extensions of endothelial lining of vessel. x 30,600.

From Sabesin and Frase
Figure 2. Figure 2.

Lymphatic valves in slightly dilated lymphatic vessels in rabbit mesentery. Low‐power magnification.

From Kalima
Figure 3. Figure 3.

Relations between lymph flow, interstitial fluid volume, and interstitial fluid pressure in small intestine of cat.

From Granger and Barrowman
Figure 4. Figure 4.

Effects of net fluid absorption rate on intestinal interstitial volume, interstitial hydraulic conductivity, and excluded volume fraction of albumin.

From Granger et al.
Figure 5. Figure 5.

Influence of net fluid absorption rate on intestinal interstitial oncotic (πt) and hydrostatic (Pt) pressures. Micropuncture data (X) obtained in rats.

From Granger et al.
Figure 6. Figure 6.

Steady‐state relations between rate of removal of absorbed fluid by intestinal capillaries and lymphatics and net fluid absorption rate.

From Granger et al.
Figure 7. Figure 7.

Anatomical scheme of blood and lymph microcirculation in an intestinal villus.

From Granger
Figure 8. Figure 8.

Chylomicrons accumulating in distended intercellular space (ICS) between two enterocytes. Intact basement membrane (arrow) forms barrier separating absorptive epithelial cells and intercellular space from lamina propria. x 27,600.

From Sabesin and Frase
Figure 9. Figure 9.

Relation between lymph‐to‐plasma protein concentration ratio (L/P) normalized to albumin ratio and reciprocal of molecular radius (MR) in cat liver.

Data from Granger et al.
Figure 10. Figure 10.

Turnover of 131I‐labeled albumin in patient with intestinal lymphangiectasia. Closed circles represent decay while patient was on 70 g/day fat diet. Open circles and crosses represent albumin decay on low‐fat diet (5 g/day).

From Jeffries et al.


Figure 1.

Chylomicrons in rat small intestine entering lymphatic vessels (Ly) by moving between gaps (arrow) that develop between cytoplasmic extensions of endothelial lining of vessel. x 30,600.

From Sabesin and Frase


Figure 2.

Lymphatic valves in slightly dilated lymphatic vessels in rabbit mesentery. Low‐power magnification.

From Kalima


Figure 3.

Relations between lymph flow, interstitial fluid volume, and interstitial fluid pressure in small intestine of cat.

From Granger and Barrowman


Figure 4.

Effects of net fluid absorption rate on intestinal interstitial volume, interstitial hydraulic conductivity, and excluded volume fraction of albumin.

From Granger et al.


Figure 5.

Influence of net fluid absorption rate on intestinal interstitial oncotic (πt) and hydrostatic (Pt) pressures. Micropuncture data (X) obtained in rats.

From Granger et al.


Figure 6.

Steady‐state relations between rate of removal of absorbed fluid by intestinal capillaries and lymphatics and net fluid absorption rate.

From Granger et al.


Figure 7.

Anatomical scheme of blood and lymph microcirculation in an intestinal villus.

From Granger


Figure 8.

Chylomicrons accumulating in distended intercellular space (ICS) between two enterocytes. Intact basement membrane (arrow) forms barrier separating absorptive epithelial cells and intercellular space from lamina propria. x 27,600.

From Sabesin and Frase


Figure 9.

Relation between lymph‐to‐plasma protein concentration ratio (L/P) normalized to albumin ratio and reciprocal of molecular radius (MR) in cat liver.

Data from Granger et al.


Figure 10.

Turnover of 131I‐labeled albumin in patient with intestinal lymphangiectasia. Closed circles represent decay while patient was on 70 g/day fat diet. Open circles and crosses represent albumin decay on low‐fat diet (5 g/day).

From Jeffries et al.
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J. A. Barrowman, P. Tso. Gastrointestinal lymphatics. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 16: Handbook of Physiology, The Gastrointestinal System, Motility and Circulation: 1733-1777. First published in print 1989. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp060148