Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Ion Transport Across Mammalian Small Intestine

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Transport of Monovalent Ions: General Considerations
2 Absorptive Processes for Sodium and Chloride
2.1 Na/H and Cl/HCO3 Exchanges
2.2 Is There NaCl Symport in Ileal Brush Border?
2.3 Role of Nutrients and Bile Salts
3 Secretion of Chloride and Bicarbonate
3.1 Cl Secretion
3.2 HCO3 Secretion
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Two permeation routes across intestinal epithelium can be represented by transcellular resistance (Rc) in parallel with paracellular shunt path resistance (Rs). Rc and Rs are each made up of two resistances in series: Ra and Rb are the resistances of the apical and basolateral cell membranes, whereas Rtj and Rics are the resistances of the tight junction and the intercellular space, respectively. Relationships between various resistances and their reciprocals, conductances (G), given by analysis of simple electrical circuits.

[From Powell .]
Figure 2. Figure 2.

Double exchange model to explain Na and Cl absorption and HCO3 secretion in ileum.

[From Turnberg et al. .]
Figure 3. Figure 3.

Ileal transport pathways demonstrated in membrane vesicle studies.

[From Knickelbein et al. .]
Figure 4. Figure 4.

Effects of Na‐free and Cl‐free media and of theophylline on lumen‐to‐mucosa influxes of Na and Cl measured radioisotopically over 30–45 s.

[From Nellans et al. .]
Figure 5. Figure 5.

Model for active Cl secretion.

[From Field et al. .]
Figure 6. Figure 6.

Alternative apical and basolateral acid/base transport mechanisms that may be involved in rabbit ileal bicarbonate secretion. At apical membrane, electrogenic Na(HCO3)3 cotransport and HCO3 conductance are shown. At basolateral membrane, Na/H exchange and Na(HCO3)n cotransport, where n = 1 or 2, are shown. Not shown: Na‐dependent and Na‐independent forms of Cl/HCO3 exchange.



Figure 1.

Two permeation routes across intestinal epithelium can be represented by transcellular resistance (Rc) in parallel with paracellular shunt path resistance (Rs). Rc and Rs are each made up of two resistances in series: Ra and Rb are the resistances of the apical and basolateral cell membranes, whereas Rtj and Rics are the resistances of the tight junction and the intercellular space, respectively. Relationships between various resistances and their reciprocals, conductances (G), given by analysis of simple electrical circuits.

[From Powell .]


Figure 2.

Double exchange model to explain Na and Cl absorption and HCO3 secretion in ileum.

[From Turnberg et al. .]


Figure 3.

Ileal transport pathways demonstrated in membrane vesicle studies.

[From Knickelbein et al. .]


Figure 4.

Effects of Na‐free and Cl‐free media and of theophylline on lumen‐to‐mucosa influxes of Na and Cl measured radioisotopically over 30–45 s.

[From Nellans et al. .]


Figure 5.

Model for active Cl secretion.

[From Field et al. .]


Figure 6.

Alternative apical and basolateral acid/base transport mechanisms that may be involved in rabbit ileal bicarbonate secretion. At apical membrane, electrogenic Na(HCO3)3 cotransport and HCO3 conductance are shown. At basolateral membrane, Na/H exchange and Na(HCO3)n cotransport, where n = 1 or 2, are shown. Not shown: Na‐dependent and Na‐independent forms of Cl/HCO3 exchange.

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Stephen K. Sullivan, Michael Field. Ion Transport Across Mammalian Small Intestine. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 19: Handbook of Physiology, The Gastrointestinal System, Intestinal Absorption and Secretion: 287-301. First published in print 1991. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp060410