Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Cutaneous Allergic Response

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Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Obligatory Damaging Factors
2 Nonobligatory Damaging Factors
3 The Immune System
4 Sequence of Events in Allergic Sensitization
5 Requirements for Antigenicity
5.1 Incomplete Antigens
5.2 Carrier Molecules
6 Lymphocytes
6.1 B and T Cells
7 Macrophages
8 Immediate Hypersensitivity
8.1 Antibodies
8.2 Pharmacological Mediators
9 Delayed Hypersensitivity
9.1 Lymphocyte Transformation
9.2 Lymphokines
10 Delayed Versus Immediate Hypersensitivity
11 Route of Exposure
12 Role of Peripheral Sensitization and of Lymph Nodes
13 Amplification
14 Sensitizing and Tolerogenic Effects
15 Immunologic State of the Host
15.1 Genetic Factors
15.2 Conditions of Exposure
15.3 Immunologic Deficiencies
16 Environmental Allergenic Substances
16.1 Small Molecular Allergens in Nature
16.2 Man‐Made Small Molecular Allergens
16.3 Microorganisms
16.4 Allergens from Flora and Fauna
17 Clinical Expressions of Cutaneous Allergic Reactions
17.1 Eczematous Allergic Reactions
17.2 Indurated Inflammatory Reactions
17.3 Urticarial Reactions and Angioneurotic Edemas
18 Combined Effects of Environmental Allergens and Radiant Energy
19 Autoimmune Cutaneous Reactions
20 Conclusions
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Biopsy specimen from an allergic eczematous contact reaction, showing intraepidermal vesicle formation and a superficial perivascular infiltrate, consisting of lymphocytes and histiocytes, × 65.

Figure 2. Figure 2.

Biopsy specimen from a delayed skin‐test reaction (elicited with lymphogranuloma venereum skin‐test antigen) at 48 h, showing dense aggregates of inflammatory cells, including lymphocytes, histiocytes, and neutrophils around blood vessels at all levels of the dermis. There is edema in the papillary dermis. The epidermis is not significantly involved, × 70.

Figure 3. Figure 3.

Biopsy specimen from a zirconium‐induced skin lesion, showing epithelioid tubercles with histiocytes and giant cells in the upper part of the dermis. The epidermis is not significantly involved, × 65.

Figure 4. Figure 4.

Biopsy specimen from an allergic urticarial reaction, showing wide separation between collagen bundles at all levels of the dermis, caused by sudden edema. The epidermis is not involved, × 65.

Figure 5. Figure 5.

Proposed role of light in photoantigen formation (based on halogenated salicylanilide reactions).

From Harber et al.
Figure 6. Figure 6.

Antibodies against intercellular substances of epithelial structures in the serum of a patient with pemphigus vulgaris. Bright fluorescence, indicating presence of antibodies, is seen only in the intercellular areas of the section of guinea pig esophagus, a stratified squamous epithelium which is used as the substrate, × 65.



Figure 1.

Biopsy specimen from an allergic eczematous contact reaction, showing intraepidermal vesicle formation and a superficial perivascular infiltrate, consisting of lymphocytes and histiocytes, × 65.



Figure 2.

Biopsy specimen from a delayed skin‐test reaction (elicited with lymphogranuloma venereum skin‐test antigen) at 48 h, showing dense aggregates of inflammatory cells, including lymphocytes, histiocytes, and neutrophils around blood vessels at all levels of the dermis. There is edema in the papillary dermis. The epidermis is not significantly involved, × 70.



Figure 3.

Biopsy specimen from a zirconium‐induced skin lesion, showing epithelioid tubercles with histiocytes and giant cells in the upper part of the dermis. The epidermis is not significantly involved, × 65.



Figure 4.

Biopsy specimen from an allergic urticarial reaction, showing wide separation between collagen bundles at all levels of the dermis, caused by sudden edema. The epidermis is not involved, × 65.



Figure 5.

Proposed role of light in photoantigen formation (based on halogenated salicylanilide reactions).

From Harber et al.


Figure 6.

Antibodies against intercellular substances of epithelial structures in the serum of a patient with pemphigus vulgaris. Bright fluorescence, indicating presence of antibodies, is seen only in the intercellular areas of the section of guinea pig esophagus, a stratified squamous epithelium which is used as the substrate, × 65.

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How to Cite

Rudolf L. Baer, David R. Bickers. Cutaneous Allergic Response. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 26: Handbook of Physiology, Reactions to Environmental Agents: 323-336. First published in print 1977. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp090120