Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Gastroenterologic Response to Environmental Agents — Absorption and Interactions

Full Article on Wiley Online Library


The sections in this article are:

1 General Principles of Interaction Between Environmental Agents and the Gut Mucosa
1.1 Morphological Considerations
1.2 General and Selected Physicochemical Principles
2 Enteric Absorption and Mucosal Effects of Trace Elements
2.1 Lead
2.2 Nickel and Tin
2.3 Mercury‐Containing Compounds
2.4 Zinc and Cadmium
2.5 Copper and Molybdenum
2.6 Selenium
2.7 Fluorine and Other Halogens
2.8 Miscellaneous Trace Elements
3 Mucosal Effects of Chemicals and Corrosives
4 Gastrointestinal Absorption of Pesticides
5 Absorption and Enteric Surface Effects of Miscellaneous Industrial Agents
5.1 Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Triphenyls
5.2 Polyglycerol Esters
5.3 Organic Sulfonates and Other Surface‐Active Agents
5.4 Dimethylsulfoxide
5.5 Polyvinylchloride Stabilizers and Plasticizers
6 Absorption and Enteric Surface Effects of Natural Environmental Contaminants
6.1 Tannic Acid
6.2 Miscellaneous Natural Compounds
7 Ingestion of Carcinogenic Agents
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Microvillous surface of epithelial cell of ferret jejunum. The intestinal lumen is at the upper left, and the insert (lower right) illustrates the cross‐sectional appearance of microvilli. It is across this type of membranous surface, covered by a glycocalyx material, that all environmental agents must pass to exert local or systemic effects, × 35,600.

From Pfeiffer et al. 235
Figure 2. Figure 2.

Surface perspective of human gastric epithelial cells, as shown by scanning electron microscopy. Note the appearance of short microvilli which greatly increase the surface area of the stomach. At the right, many of the microvilli are obscured by mucus, × 6,500.

From Pfeiffer 231
Figure 3. Figure 3.

Concentration of mercury compounds by pike liver. Tank experiments with fish have shown the ability of hepatic tissue to greatly concentrate several mercury compounds: ‐—○‐—, methyl mercury in fresh water; —‐□‐—, methyl mercury in brackish water; —○—, methoxyethyl mercury in fresh water; and —□— methoxyethyl mercury in brackfish water.

Redrawn from data of Hannerz 116
Figure 4. Figure 4.

Comparative transport rates of four trace elements by everted, perfused rat intestinal segments. Manganese is most readily transported. Initial mucosal concentration of each metal was 10−4 m, and the serosal concentration was 0. A Ca‐free Krebs‐Ringer solution (pH 7.4, Tris buffer with glucose) was used with 100% O2.

Redrawn from data of Sahagian et al. 253
Figure 5. Figure 5.

Gastrointestinal absorption of selenium in sheep, as measured by blood selenium levels after administration of dietary, isotopically labeled selenium pellets. Group 5, 10% Se.; Group 4, 5% Se; Group 3, 2.5% Se; Group 2, 1.25% Se; and Group 1, control 0% Se.

From data of Kuchel and Buckley as depicted in Underwood 324
Figure 6. Figure 6.

Gastrointestinal absorption of radioactive fluoride solution in the lamb after oral administration of 18F and 22Na.

Redrawn from data of Perkinson, et al. 229

Figure 1.

Microvillous surface of epithelial cell of ferret jejunum. The intestinal lumen is at the upper left, and the insert (lower right) illustrates the cross‐sectional appearance of microvilli. It is across this type of membranous surface, covered by a glycocalyx material, that all environmental agents must pass to exert local or systemic effects, × 35,600.

From Pfeiffer et al. 235

Figure 2.

Surface perspective of human gastric epithelial cells, as shown by scanning electron microscopy. Note the appearance of short microvilli which greatly increase the surface area of the stomach. At the right, many of the microvilli are obscured by mucus, × 6,500.

From Pfeiffer 231

Figure 3.

Concentration of mercury compounds by pike liver. Tank experiments with fish have shown the ability of hepatic tissue to greatly concentrate several mercury compounds: ‐—○‐—, methyl mercury in fresh water; —‐□‐—, methyl mercury in brackish water; —○—, methoxyethyl mercury in fresh water; and —□— methoxyethyl mercury in brackfish water.

Redrawn from data of Hannerz 116

Figure 4.

Comparative transport rates of four trace elements by everted, perfused rat intestinal segments. Manganese is most readily transported. Initial mucosal concentration of each metal was 10−4 m, and the serosal concentration was 0. A Ca‐free Krebs‐Ringer solution (pH 7.4, Tris buffer with glucose) was used with 100% O2.

Redrawn from data of Sahagian et al. 253

Figure 5.

Gastrointestinal absorption of selenium in sheep, as measured by blood selenium levels after administration of dietary, isotopically labeled selenium pellets. Group 5, 10% Se.; Group 4, 5% Se; Group 3, 2.5% Se; Group 2, 1.25% Se; and Group 1, control 0% Se.

From data of Kuchel and Buckley as depicted in Underwood 324

Figure 6.

Gastrointestinal absorption of radioactive fluoride solution in the lamb after oral administration of 18F and 22Na.

Redrawn from data of Perkinson, et al. 229
 1. Alexander, W. D., R. Mc G. Harden, M. T. Harrison, and J. Shimmins. Some aspects of the absorption and concentration of iodide by the alimentary tract in man. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 26: 62–67, 1967.
 2. Allcroft, R., K. N. Burns, and G. Lewis. Effect of high levels of copper in rations for pigs. Vet. Rec. 73: 714–718, 1961.
 3. Allen, J. R., and D. H. Norback. Polychlorinated biphenyl‐ and triphenyl‐induced gastric mucosal hyperplasia in primates. Science 179: 498–499, 1973.
 4. Allen, R. E., M. J. Thoshinsky, R. J. Stallone, and T. K. Hunt. Corrosive injuries of the stomach. Arch. Surg. 100: 409–413, 1970.
 5. Anderson, H. D., and A. L. Moxon. The excretion of selenium by rats on a seleniferous wheat ration. J. Nutr. 22: 103–108, 1941.
 6. Anderson, T. W., and W. H. Le Riche. Sudden death from ischemic heart disease in Ontario and its correlation with water hardness and other factors. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 105: 155–160, 1971.
 7. Andreoli, T. E., and S. L. Troutman. An analysis of unstirred layers in series with “tight” and “porous” lipid bi‐layer membranes. J. Gen. Physiol. 57: 464–478, 1971.
 8. Andrysek, O., J. Setka, P. Georgi, H. J. Gutz, J. Altenbrunn, and H. Berndt. Passage of 198Au through the small intestine. Rev. Czech. Med. 12: 225–229, 1966.
 9. Angelillo, B., and U. Alamanni. Cardiovascular disease and water hardness in Sardinia. Igiene Sanita Pubblica 20: 429–435, 1964.
 10. Aries, V., J. S. Crowther, B. S. Drasar, M. J. Hill, and R. E. O. Williams. Bacteria and the aetiology of cancer of the large bowel. Gut 10: 334–335, 1969.
 11. Backstrom, J. Distribution studies of mercuric pesticides in quail and some fresh‐water fishes. Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol. 27: 5–98, 1969.
 12. Badger, G. M., R. W. L. Kimber, and T. M. Spotswood. Mode of formation of 3,4‐benzopyrene in human environment. Nature 187: 663–665, 1960.
 13. Baetjer, A. M. in Chromium, edited by M. J. Udy. New York: Reinhold, 1956. (Am. Chem. Soc. Mon. 132)
 14. Bakir, F., S. F. Damluji, L. Amin‐Zaki, M. Murtadha, A. Khalidi, N. Y. Al‐Rawi, S. Tikriti, H. I. Dhahir, T. W. Clarkson, J. C. Smith, and R. A. Doherty. Methylmercury poisoning in Iraq. Science 181: 230–241, 1973.
 15. Barka, T., P. J. Scheuer, F. Schaffner, and H. Popper. Structural changes of liver cells in copper intoxication. Arch. Pathol. 78: 331–349, 1964.
 16. Bastrup‐Madsen, P. Dimercaprol in acute lead poisoning. Lancet 2: 171–172, 1950.
 17. Beck, R. N. The effect of cortisone and corticotropin on the release and peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormone. Endocrinology 62: 9–14, 1958.
 18. Becker, D. E., J. M. Griffith, C. S. Hobbs, and W. H. MacIntire. The alleviation of fluorine toxicosis by means of certain aluminum compounds. J. Animal Sci. 9: 647, 1950.
 19. Bellini, F., and M. Finulli. Gastroduodenite ed ulcera peptica nel saturnismo. Med. Lavoro 51: 369–375, 1960.
 20. Bennett, J. R. Smoking and the gastrointestinal tract. Gut 13: 658–665, 1972.
 21. Biorck, G., H. Bostrom, and A. Widstrom. On the relationship between water hardness and death rates in cardiovascular disease. Acta Med. Scand. 178: 239–252, 1965.
 22. Birke, G., L. Plantin, A. G. Johnels, B. Sjostrand, and T. Westermark. Hg i livsmedel : methylkvicksilverforgiftning genom fortaring av fisk. Lakartidningen 64: 3628–3637, 1967.
 23. Birkhaug, K. E. Phenyl‐mercuric‐nitrate. J. Infect. Diseases 53: 250–261, 1933.
 24. Bolanouslanouska, W. Distribution and excretion of triethyllead in rats. Brit. J. Ind. Med. 25: 203–208, 1968.
 25. Bond, A. M., and J. N. Hunt. The effect of sodium fluoride on the output of some electrolytes from the gastric mucosa of cats. J. Physiol., London 133: 317–329, 1956.
 26. Borowitz, J. L., P. F. Moore, G. K. W. Yim, and T. S. Miya. Mechanism of enhanced drug effects produced by dilution of the oral dose. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 19: 164–168, 1971.
 27. Bowie, J. Y., G. Darlow, and M. M. Murray. The effect of sodium fluoride on gastric secretion. J. Physiol., London 122: 203–208, 1953.
 28. Boyd, E. M., K. Bereczky, and I. Godi. The acute toxicity of tannic acid administered intragastrically. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 92: 1292–1297, 1965.
 29. Boyd, E. M., and M. A. Boulanger. Acute oral toxicity of cottonseed oil. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 14: 432–438, 1969.
 30. Brodie, B. B., and C. A. M. Hogben. Some physico‐chemical factors in drug action. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 6: 345–380, 1957.
 31. Brown‐Grant, K. Extrathyroidal iodide concentrating mechanisms. Physiol. Rev. 41: 189–213, 1961.
 32. Browning, E. Toxicity of Industrial Metals. London: Butterworths, 1961.
 33. Buehler, E. V., E. A. Newmann, and W. R. King. Two‐year feeding and reproduction study in rats with linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS). Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 18: 83–91, 1971.
 34. Bunn, C. R., and G. Matrone. In vivo interactions of cadmium, copper, zinc and iron in the mouse and rat. J. Nutr. 90: 395–399, 1966.
 35. Buntain, D. Deaths in pigs on a high copper diet. Vet. Rec. 73: 707–713, 1961.
 36. Burk, R. F., Jr., R. Whitney, H. Frank, and W. N. Pearson. Tissue selenium levels during the development of dietary liver necrosis in rats fed torula yeast diets. J. Nutr. 95: 420–428, 1968.
 37. Buschke, A., and B. Peiser. Epithelwucherungen am Vormagen der Ratten durch experimentelle Thalliumwirkung. Z. Krebsforsch. 21: 11–18, 1923.
 38. Cartwright, G. E., and M. M. Wintrobe. Copper metabolism in normal subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 14: 224–232, 1964.
 39. Cartwright, G. E., and M. M. Wintrobe. The question of copper deficiency in man. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 15: 94–110, 1964.
 40. Casarotto, G. Ricerche sperimentali sull'azione tossica del carbonato di berillio sui denti. Clin. Odontoiatr. 7: 113–115, 1952.
 41. Cassidy, M. M., and C. S. Tidball. Cellular mechanism of intestinal permeability alterations produced by chelation depletion. J. Cell Biol. 32: 685–698, 1967.
 42. Castigliano, S. G. Influence of continued smoking on the incidence of second primary cancers involving mouth, pharynx, and larynx. J. Am. Dental Assoc. 77: 580–584, 1968.
 43. Chavez, J. F., and W. G. Jaffe. Nivel toxico de selenio en dietas para ratas. Arch. Latinoam. Nutr. 17: 69–76, 1967.
 44. Chernick, S. S., S. Lepkovsky, and I. L. Chaikoff. A dietary factor regulating the enzyme content of the pancreas: changes induced in size and proteolytic activity of the chick pancreas by the ingestion of raw soy bean meal. Am. J. Physiol. 155: 33–41, 1948.
 45. Chuttani, H. K., P. S. Gupta, S. Gulati, and D. N. Gupta. Acute copper sulfate poisoning. Am. J. Med. 39: 849–854, 1965.
 46. Cikrt, M. The uptake of Hg203, Cu64, Mn52, and Pb212 by the intestinal wall of the duodenal and ileal segment in vitro. Intern. Z. Klin. Pharmakol. Therap. Toxicol. 4: 351–357, 1970.
 47. Clarkson, T. W., H. Small, and T. Norseth. The effect of a thiol containing resin on the gastrointestinal absorption and fecal excretion of methyl‐mercury compounds in experimental animals. Federation Proc. 30: 543, 1971.
 48. Clearfield, H. R., Y. H. Shin, and B. K. Schreibman. Emphysematous gastritis secondary to lye ingestion. Am. J. Digest. Diseases 14: 195–199, 1969.
 49. Clifford, P. A. Pesticide residues in fluid market milk. Public Health Rept. US 72: 729–734, 1957.
 50. Clifford, P. A., J. L. Bassen, and P. A. Mills. Chlorinated organic pesticide residues in fluid milk. Public Health Rept. US. 74: 1109–1114, 1959.
 51. Code, C. F. (editor). Intestinal absorption. In: Handbook of Physiology. Alimentary Canal. Washington, D.C.: Am. Physiol. Soc., 1968, sect. 6, vol. III.
 52. Comar, C. L., L. Singer, and G. K. Davis. Molybdenum metabolism and interrelationships with copper and phosphorus. J. Biol. Chem. 180: 913–922, 1949.
 53. Conn, L. W., H. L. Webster, and A. H. Johnston. Chromium toxicology. Absorption of chromium by rat when milk containing chromium was fed. Am. J. Hyg. 15: 760–765, 1932.
 54. Coulson, E. J., R. E. Remington, and K. M. Lynch. Metabolism in rat of naturally occurring arsenic of shrimp as compared with arsenic trioxide. J. Nutr. 10: 255–261, 1935.
 55. Cousins, R. J., A. K. Barber, and J. R. Trout. Cadmium toxicity in growing swine. J. Nutr. 103: 964–972, 1973.
 56. Crane, R. K. Digestive‐absorptive surface of small bowel mucosa. Ann. Rev. Med. 19: 57–68, 1968.
 57. Crawford, M. D. Hardness of drinking water and cardiovascular disease. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 31: 347–353, 1972.
 58. Crawford, M. D., M. J. Gardner, and J. N. Morris. Mortality and hardness of local water supplies. Lancet 1: 827–831, 1968.
 59. Cremer, J. E. Biochemical studies on the toxicity of tetraethyllead and other organolead compounds. Brit. J. Ind. Med. 16: 191–199, 1959.
 60. Cremer, J. E., and S. Callaway. Further studies on the toxicity of some tetra‐ and trialkyllead compounds. Brit. Med. J. 18: 277–282, 1961.
 61. Darlow, G., and A. N. Smith. Experimentally induced gastric ulceration and antisecretory property of sodium fluoride in the stomachs of young guinea pigs. Gastroenterology 33: 929–936, 1957.
 62. Davenport, H. W. Destruction of the gastric mucosal barrier by detergents and urea. Gastroenterology 54: 175–180, 1968.
 63. Davies, R. E., B. L. Reid, A. A. Kurnick, and J. R. Couch. The effect of sulfate on molybdenum toxicity in the chick. J. Nutr. 70: 193–198, 1960.
 64. Davies, W., and J. R. Wilmshurst. Carcinogens formed in the heating of foodstuffs. Formation of 3,4‐benzopyrene from starch at 370‐390°C. Brit. J. Cancer 14: 295–299, 1960.
 65. Davis, P. N., L. C. Norris, and F. H. Kratzer. Interference of soybean proteins with the utilization of trace minerals. J. Nutr. 77: 217–223, 1962.
 66. Decker, W. J., W. A. Goldsmith, R. C. Mills, and R. J. Banez. Systemic absorption of copper after oral administration of radioactive copper sulfate emetic in rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 31: 331–334, 1972.
 67. Dick, A. T. The effect of diet and of molybdenum on copper metabolism in sheep. Australian Vet. J. 28: 30–33, 1952.
 68. Dick, A. T. The control of copper storage in the liver of sheep by inorganic sulphate and molybdenum. Australian Vet. J. 29: 233–239, 1953.
 69. Dick, A. T. Preliminary observations on the effect of high intakes of molybdenum and of inorganic sulphate on blood copper and on fleece character in crossbred sheep. Australian Vet. J. 30: 196–202, 1954.
 70. Dietschy, J. M., V. L. Sallee, and F. A. Wilson. Unstirred water layers and absorption across the intestinal mucosa. Gastroenterology 61: 932–934, 1971.
 71. Dixon, M., and E. C. Webb. Enzymes (2nd ed.). New York: Academic, 1964, p. 423.
 72. Donaldson, R. M., and R. F. Baueras. Intestinal absorption of trace quantities of chromium. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 68: 484–493, 1966.
 73. Drasar, B. S., and M. J. Hill. Intestinal bacteria and cancer. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 25: 1399–1404, 1972.
 74. Drinker, K. R., L. T. Fairhall, G. B. Ray, and C. K. Drinker. The hygienic significance of nickel. J. Ind. Hyg. 6: 307–356, 1924.
 75. Druckrey, H., and A. Lange. Carcinogenicity of azoxymethane dependent on age in BD rats. Federation Proc. 31: 1482–1484, 1972.
 76. Dudley, E. F., R. A. Beldin, and B. C. Johnson. Climate, water hardness and coronary heart disease. J. Chronic Diseases 22: 25–48, 1969.
 77. Durham, W. F. Pesticide residues in foods in relation to human health. Residue Rev. 4: 33–81, 1963.
 78. Durham, W. F., J. F. Armstrong, and G. E. Quinby. DDT and DDE content of complete prepared meals. Arch. Environ. Health 11: 641–647, 1965.
 79. Durham, W. F., J. F. Armstrong, W. M. Upholt, and C. Heller. Insecticide content of diet and body fat of Alaskan natives. Science 134: 1880–1881, 1961.
 80. Eichhorn, G. L., P. Clark, and E. Tarien. The interaction of metal ions with polynucleotides and related compounds: Part 13. J. Biol. Chem. 244: 937–942, 1969.
 81. Ellis, R. W., and S. C. Fang. Elimination, tissue accumulation and cellular incorporation of mercury in rats receiving an oral dose of 203Hg‐labelled phenyl mercuric acetate and mercuric acetate. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 11: 104–113, 1967.
 82. Ericsson, Y. The state of fluorine in milk and its absorption and retention when administered in milk. Acta Odontol. Scand. 16: 51–77, 1958.
 83. Ericsson, Y. Influence of sodium chloride and certain other food components on fluoride absorption in the rat. J. Nutr. 96: 60–68, 1968.
 84. Fairhall, L. T., R. C. Dunn, N. E. Sharpless, and E. A. Pritchard. The toxicity of molybdenum. U.S. Public Health Serv. Public Health Bull. 293: 1945.
 85. Ferguson, H. C. Dilution of dose and acute oral toxicity. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 4: 759–762, 1962.
 86. Ferguson, W. S., A. H. Lewis, and S. J. Watson. Action of molybdenum in nutrition of milking cattle. Nature 141: 553, 1938.
 87. Filehne, W. Beitrage zur Lehre von der acuten und chronischen Kupfervergiftung. Deut. Med. Wochschr. 21: 297–315, 1895.
 88. Fitzhugh, O. G., and A. A. Nelson. Chronic oral toxicities of surface‐active agents. J. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 37: 29–32, 1948.
 89. Fitzhugh, O. G., A. A. Nelson, E. P. Laug, and F. M. Kunze. Chronic oral toxicities of mercuri‐phenyl and mercuric salts. Arch. Environ. Health 2: 433–442, 1950.
 90. Flinn, F. B., and W. C. Von Glahn. A chemical and pathologic study of the effects of copper on the liver. J. Exptl. Med. 49: 5–20, 1929.
 91. Fodor, J. G., C. J. Pfeiffer, and V. S. Papezik. Relationship of drinking water quality (hardness‐softness) to cardiovascular mortality in Newfoundland. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 108: 1369–1373, 1973.
 92. Fogelson, S. J., and D. E. Shock. Treatment of gastroduodenal ulcerative disease with sodium alkyl sulfate. Arch. Internal Med. 73: 212–216, 1944.
 93. Forbes, G. Poisoning with a preparation of iron, copper, and manganese. Brit. Med. J. 1: 4498–4501, 1947.
 94. Franke, K. W., and E. P. Painter. A study of the toxicity and selenium content of seleniferous diets: with statistical consideration. Cereal Chem. 15: 1–24, 1938.
 95. Frant, S., and I. Kleeman. Cadmium “food poisoning” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 117: 86–89, 1941.
 96. Freeman, S., M. W. Burrill, T. W. Li, and A. C. Ivy. The enzyme inhibitory action of an alkyl aryl sulfonate and studies on its toxicity when ingested by rats, dogs and humans. Gastroenterology 4: 332–343, 1945.
 97. Gandhi, R. K., and F. H. Robarts. Hour‐glass stricture of the stomach and pyloric stenosis due to ferrous sulphate poisoning. Brit. J. Surg. 49: 613–617, 1962.
 98. Gibbins, R. L., and T. J. John. Attempts to modify the intestinal villus architecture in mice. J. Pathol. 103: 57–60, 1971.
 99. Glaser, A. Ulzerrationen im Magen‐Darmkanal und chronische Bleivergiftung. Berlin Klin Wochschr. 4: 111–152, 1921.
 100. Glick, Z., and M. A. Joslyn. Food intake depression and other metabolic effects of tannic acid in the rat. J. Nutr. 100: 509–515, 1970.
 101. Goldwater, L. J., M. B. Jacobs, and A. C. Ladd. Absorption and excretion of mercury in man. I. Relationship of mercury in blood and urine. Arch. Environ. Health. 5: 537–541, 1962.
 102. Goldwater, L. J., M. B. Jacobs, and A. C. Ladd. Absorption and excretion of mercury in man. IV. Tolerance to mercury. Arch. Environ. Health 7: 568–573, 1963.
 103. Gonzalez, L. L., M. M. Zinninger, and W. A. Altemeier. Cicatricial gastric stenosis caused by ingestion of corrosive substances. Ann. Surg. 156: 84–89, 1962.
 104. Gonzalez, T. A., M. Vance, M. Helpern, and C. J. Umberger. Legal Medicine, Pathology and Toxicology (2nd ed.). New York: Appleton, p. 766–767.
 105. Gordon, W. A. M., and D. Luke. Copper poisoning in the pig. Vet. Rec. 69: 37, 1957.
 106. Gorelova, N. D., and P. P. Deekoon. Detection of 3:4‐benzpyrene in several species of smoked fish. Vopr. Onkol. 4: 398–405, 1958.
 107. Gortner, R. A. Chronic selenium poisoning of rats as influenced by dietary protein. J. Nutr. 19: 105–112, 1940.
 108. Gourley, D. R. H. Interactions of Drugs with Cells. Springfield, III.: Thomas, 1971, p. 5–100.
 109. Gray, I. Gastrointestinal disease in relation to occupational hazards. Gastroenterology 4: 61–71, 1945.
 110. Greenberg, D. M., and W. W. Campbell. Studies in mineral metabolism with aid of induced radioactive isotopes; manganese. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. US 26: 448–452, 1940.
 111. Greenberg, D. M., H. D. Copps, and E. M. Cuthbertson. Studies in mineral metabolism with aid of artificial radioactive isotopes; distribution and excretion, particularly by way of bile, of iron, cobalt and manganese. J. Biol. Chem. 147: 749–756, 1943.
 112. Greer, M. A., and E. B. Astwood. The antithyroid effect of certain foods in man as determined with radioactive iodine. Endocrinology 43: 105–119, 1948.
 113. Hagen, U. Toxikologie organischer Quecksilberverbindungen. Arch. Exptl. Pathol. Pharmakol. 224: 193–205, 1955.
 114. Hagstrom, R. M., H. A. Sprague, and E. Landau. The Nashville air pollution study. VII. Mortality from cancer in relation to air pollution. Arch. Environ. Health 15: 237–248, 1967.
 115. Hannerz, L. Experimental investigations on the accumulation of mercury in water organisms. Inst. Freshwater Res.‐Drottingholm Reps. 47: 120–130, 1967.
 116. Hannerz, L. Experimental investigations on the accumulation of mercury in water organisms. Inst. Freshwater Res.‐Drottingholm Reps. 49: 144–176, 1969.
 117. Hanson, L. E., L. E. Carpenter, W. J. Aunan, and E. F. Ferrin. The use of arsanilic acid in the production of market pigs. J. Animal Sci. 14: 513–524, 1955.
 118. Harr, J. R., J. H. Exon, and P. D. Whanger. Effect of dietary selenium on N‐2‐fluorenylacetamide (FAA) induced cancer in vitamin E supplemented selenium depleted rats. Clin. Toxicol. 5: 187–194, 1972.
 119. Harris, D. I. M., and A. Sass‐Kortsak. The influence of amino acids on copper uptake by rat liver slices. J. Clin. Invest. 46: 659–667, 1967.
 120. Harrison, M. T., S. McFarlane, R. McG. Harden, and E. Wayne. Nature and availability of iodine in fish. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 17: 73–77, 1965.
 121. Harvey, J. M. Chronic endemic fluorosis of merino sheep in Queensland. Queensland J. Agr. Sci. 9: 46–141, 1952.
 122. Harvey, J. M. Flock management to control fluorosis of merino sheep in Queensland. Queensland J. Agr. Sci. 10: 127–159, 1953.
 123. Heath, D. F., and M. Vandekar. Toxicity and metabolism of dieldrin in rats. Brit. J. Ind. Med. 21: 269–279, 1964.
 124. Hein, J. W., J. F. Bonner, F. Brudevold, F. A. Smith, and H. C. Hodge. Distribution in the soft tissue of the rat of radioactive fluoride administered as sodium fluoride. Nature 178: 1295–1296, 1956.
 125. Herrington, J. L., Jr. Stenosis of the gastric antrum and proximal duodenum resulting from the ingestion of a corrosive agent. Am. J. Surg. 107: 580–585, 1964.
 126. Higgins, E. S., D. A. Richert, and W. W. Westerfeld. Molybdenum deficiency and tungstate inhibition studies. J. Nutr. 59: 539–559, 1956.
 127. Hill, C. H., G. Matrone, W. L. Payne, and C. W. Barber. In vivo interactions of cadmium with copper, zinc and iron. J. Nutr. 80: 227–235, 1963.
 128. Hill, M. J., and V. C. Aries. Faecal steroid composition and its relationship to cancer of the large bowel. J. Pathol. 104: 129–139, 1971.
 129. Hodgson, J. H. Corrosive stricture of the stomach. Brit. J. Surg. 46: 358–361, 1958‐59.
 130. Hogben, C. A. M., L. S. Schanker, D. J. Tocco, and B. B. Brodie. Absorption of drugs from the stomach. II. The human. J. Pharmacol. Exptl. Therap. 120: 540–545, 1957.
 131. Hogben, C. A. M., D. J. Tocco, B. B. Brodie, and L. S. Schanker. On the mechanism of intestinal absorption of drugs. J. Pharmacol. Exptl. Therap. 125: 275–282, 1959.
 132. Holtzman, N. A., D. A. Elliott, and R. H. Heller. Copper intoxication: report of a case with observations on ceruloplasmin. New Engl. J. Med. 275: 347–352, 1966.
 133. Homburger, F., S. S. Hsueh, C. S. Kerr, and A. B. Russfield. Inherited susceptibility of inbred strains of Syrian hamsters to induction of subcutaneous sarcomas and mammary and gastrointestinal carcinomas by subcutaneous and gastric administration of polynuclear hydrocarbons. Cancer Res. 32: 360–366, 1972.
 134. Hopkins, L. L., A. L. Pope, and C. A. Baumann. Distribution of microgram quantities of selenium in the tissues of the rat, and effects of previous selenium intake. J. Nutr. 88: 61–65, 1966.
 135. Hucker, H. B., J. K. Miller, A. Hochberg, R. D. Brobyn, F. H. Riordan, and B. Calesnick. Studies on the absorption, excretion and metabolism of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) in man. J. Pharmacol. Exptl. Therap. 155: 309–317, 1967.
 136. Hueper, W. C. The potential role of non‐nutritive food additives and contaminants as environmental carcinogens. Acta Unio Intern Contra Cancrum 13: 220–252, 1957.
 137. Hughes, W. L. A physicochemical rationale for the biological activity of mercury and its compounds. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 65: 454–460, 1957.
 138. Hunter, C. G., A. Rosen, R. T. Williams, J. G. Reynolds, and A. N. Worden. Studies of the fate of aldrin, dieldrin and endrin in the mammal. Mededel. Landbouwhogeschool Opzoekingssta. Staat Gent 25: 1296–1307, 1960.
 139. Hursh, J. B., and J. Suomela. Absorption of 212Pb from the gastrointestinal tract of man. Proc. Bioassay Anal. Chem. Mtg. (Berkeley) Univ. Calif. Res. Lab. 18140: 217–233, 1967.
 140. Ivy, A. C. Experimental observations on the etiology of gastric carcinoma. II. The effect of heat, browned overheated fats, food dyes and carcinogenic hydrocarbons on the gastric mucosa. Gastroenterology 28: 345–359, 1955.
 141. Janicki, R., and W. Kinter. DDT inhibition of intestinal salt and water absorption in teleosts. Am. Zool. 10: 510–511, 1970.
 142. Janower, M. L., L. L. Robbins, F. S. Tomchik, and W. T. Weylman. Tannic acid and the barium enema. Radiology 85: 887–894, 1965.
 143. Janower, M. L., L. L. Robbins, and D. E. Wenlund. A review of the use of tannic acid in patients with ulcerative colitis. Radiology 89: 42–43, 1967.
 144. Jones, L. H. P., and K. A. Handreck. The relation between the silica content of the diet and the excretion of silica by sheep. J. Agr. Sci. 65: 129–134, 1965.
 145. Jovicic, B. Ulcer and gastritis in the professions exposed to lead. Arch. Environ. Health 21: 526–528, 1970.
 146. Kaplan, H. M., N. Yee, and S. S. Glaczenski. Toxicity of fluorine for frogs. Lab. Animal Care 14: 185–188, 1964.
 147. Kapp, V. H. Ulcus duodeni als Unfallserkrankung. Gastroenterologia 64: 290–298, 1939.
 148. Karpatkin, S. Lead poisoning after taking Pb acetate with suicidal intent. Arch. Environ. Health 2: 679–684, 1961.
 149. Kehoe, R. A. The metabolism of lead in man in health and disease. The metabolism of lead under abnormal conditions. J. Public Health Hyg. 24: 101–121, 1961.
 150. Kehoe, R. A. The metabolism of lead in man in health and disease. The normal metabolism of lead. J. Public Health Hyg. 24: 81–97, 1961.
 151. Kehoe, R. A. The metabolism of lead in man in health and disease. The metabolism of lead under abnormal conditions. J. Public Health Hyg. 24: 129–143, 1961.
 152. Kehoe, R. A. The metabolism of lead in man in health and disease. Present hygienic problems relating to the absorption of lead. J. Public Health Hyg. 24: 177–203, 1961.
 153. Kehoe, R. A. The metabolism of lead in man in health and disease. Arch. Environ. Health 2: 418–422, 1962.
 154. Kehoe, R. A. Metabolism of lead under abnormal conditions. Arch. Environ. Health 8: 235–243, 1964.
 155. Kehoe, R. A., J. Cholak, and R. V. Story. A spectrochemical study of the normal ranges of concentration of certain trace metals in biological materials. J. Nutr. 19: 579–592, 1940.
 156. King, W. R., W. R. Michael, and R. H. Coots. Subacute oral toxicity of polyglycerol ester. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 20: 327–333, 1971.
 157. Kirsner, J. B., and R. A. Wolff. The effect of sodium alkyl sulfate on the peptic activity of the gastric contents and the healing of gastric ulcer in man. Gastroenterology 2: 93–101, 1944.
 158. Kita, T. Absorption of drugs. II. Distribution of Hg203 labelled organic compounds in some organs. Yakugaku Kenkyu 32: 662–670, 1960.
 159. Knaak, J. B., M. J. Tallant, W. J. Bartley, and L. J. Sullivan. The metabolism of carbaryl in the rat, guinea pig, and man. J. Agr. Food Chem. 13: 537–543, 1965.
 160. Korpassy, B., R. Horvai, and M. Koltay. On the absorption of tannic acid from the gastro‐intestinal tract. Arch. Intern. Pharmacodyn. 88: 368–377, 1951.
 161. Korpassy, B., N. Koltay, and R. Horvai. Toxizität peroral verabreichter Gerbsäure. Wien. Klin. Wochschr. 62: 270, 1950.
 162. Korpassy, B., and K. Kovacs. Haemorrhagic gastric erosions and duodenum‐pigmentation in rats following parenteral administration of solutions of tannic acid. Acta Physiol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 1: 125–131, 1950.
 163. Krondl, A. Present understanding of the interaction of drugs and food during absorption. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 103: 360–364, 1970.
 164. Kuratsune, M., and W. C. Hueper. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in roasted coffee. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 20: 463–469, 1960.
 165. Ladd, C., L. J. Goldwater, and M. B. Jacobs. Absorption and excretion of mercury in man. V. Toxicity of phenylmercurials. Arch. Environ. Health 9: 43–52, 1964.
 166. Laqueur, G. L. Carcinogenic effects of cycad meal and cycasin, methylazocymethanol glycoside, in rats and effects of cycasin in germfree rats. Federation Proc. 23: 1386–1388, 1964.
 167. Laqueur, G. L., O. Mickelsen, J. G. Whiting, and L. T. Kurland. Carcinogenic properties of nuts from Cycas circinalis L. indigenous to Guam. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 31: 919–951, 1963.
 168. Largent, E. J., and F. F. Heyroth. The absorption and excretion of fluorides. III. Further observations on metabolism of fluorides at high levels of intake. J. Ind. Hyg. Toxicol. 31: 134–138, 1949.
 169. Laug, E. P., and F. M. Kunze. The absorption of phenylmercuric acetate from the vaginal tract of the rat. J. Pharmacol. Exptl. Therap. 95: 460–464, 1949.
 170. Lawrenz, M., and H. H. Mitchell. The relative assimilation of fluoride from fluoride‐bearing minerals and food (tea) and from water and food. J. Nutr. 22: 451–462, 1941.
 171. Lawrenz, M., H. H. Mitchell, and W. A. Ruth. The comparative assimilation of fluorine by growing rats during continuous and intermittent dosage. J. Nutr. 20: 383–390, 1940.
 172. Lease, J. G. Effect of graded levels of cadmium on tissue uptake of 65Zn by the chick over time. J. Nutr. 96: 294–302, 1969.
 173. Legge, T. M., and K. W. Goodby. Lead poisoning and lead absorption. London: Edward Arnold, 1912.
 174. Levander, O. A., M. L. Young, and S. A. Meeks. Studies on the binding of selenium by liver homogenates from rats fed diets containing either casein or casein plus linseed oil meal. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 16: 79–87, 1970.
 175. Lewis, D. R. Lead poisoning as a cause of peptic ulcer. Brit. Med. J. 1: 185–188, 1932.
 176. Lewis, H. B., J. Schultz, and R. A. Gortner, Jr. Dietary protein and the toxicity of sodium selenite in the white rat. J. Pharmacol. Exptl. Therap. 68: 292–299, 1940.
 177. Lijinsky, W., and S. S. Epstein. Nitrosamines as environmental carcinogens. Nature 225: 21–24, 1970.
 178. Lindeman, R. D., and J. R. Assenzo. Correlations between water hardness and cardiovascular deaths in Oklahoma counties. Am. J. Public Health 54: 1071–1077, 1964.
 179. Lopez, P. L., R. L. Preston, and W. H. Pfander. In vitro uptake of selenium‐75 by red blood cells from the immature ovine during varying selenium intakes. J. Nutr. 94: 219–226, 1968.
 180. Lundgren, K. D., and A. Swensson. A survey of results of investigations on some organic mercury compounds used as fungicides. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 21: 308–311, 1960.
 181. Mackenzie, R. D., R. Anwar, R. U. Byerrum, and C. A. Hoppert. Absorption of chromium. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 79: 200–205, 1959.
 182. Maggi, A. L. C., and M. Meeroff. Stenosis of the stomach caused by corrosive gastritis. Gastroenterology 24: 573–578, 1953.
 183. Majumdar, B. N., and S. N. Ray. Fluorine intoxication of cattle in India. II. Effect of fluorosis on mineral metabolism. Indian J. Vet. Sci. 16: 107–112, 1946.
 184. Makaritschewa, A., and T. Glagolewa. Ulcers of the stomach in lead workers. J. Ind. Hyg. 16: 201–202, 1934.
 185. Mambeeva, A. A. Motility of the gut and evacuation in experimental lead poisoning. Bull. Exptl. Biol. Med., USSR 55: 395–397, 1964.
 186. Mambeeva, A. A., and A. S. Akhmedova. Effect of lead poisoning on contractions of the isolated intestine of warmblooded animals produced by solutions of lead acetate. Bull. Exptl. Biol. Med., USSR 62: 1004–1006, 1966.
 187. Mancuso, T. F., and W. C. Hueper. Occupational cancer and other health hazards in a chromate plant: a medical appraisal. Ind. Med. Surg. 20: 358–363, 1951.
 188. Manos, N. E., and G. F. Fisher. An index of air pollution and its relation to health. J. Air Pollution Control Assoc. 9: 5–11, 1959.
 189. Marceau, N., N. Aspin, and A. Sass‐Kortsak. Absorption of copper 64 from gastrointestinal tract of the rat. Am. J. Physiol. 218: 377–383, 1970.
 190. Masironi, R., A. T. Miesch, M. D. Crawford, and E. I. Hamilton. Geochemical environments, trace elements, and cardiovascular diseases. Bull World Health Organ. 47: 139–150, 1972.
 191. Mathur, D. S. Studies on the histopathological changes induced by DDT in the liver, kidney, and intestine of certain fishes. Experientia 18: 506–509, 1962.
 192. Matrone, G. Studies on copper‐molybdenum‐sulphate interrelationships. In: Trace Element Metabolism in Animals, edited by C. F. Mills. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1970, p. 354–362.
 193. Maugh, T. H., II. Trace elements: a growing appreciation of their effects on man. Science 181: 253–254, 1973.
 194. Mellemgaard, K., and G. Sorensen. Acute lead toxicity treated with Versene. Ugeskrift Laeger 117: 127–219, 1955.
 195. Mandel, J. L., and M. S. Walton. Conversion of p,p'‐DDT to p,p'‐DDD by intestinal flora of the rat. Science 151: 1527–1528, 1966.
 196. Mertz, W. Chromium occurrence and function in biological systems. Physiol. Rev. 49: 163–239, 1969.
 197. Mertz, W., E. E. Roginski, and R. C. Reba. Biological activity and fate of trace quantities of intravenous chromium (III) in the rat. Am. J. Physiol. 209: 489–494, 1965.
 198. Meyers, H. I., and J. J. Parker. Emphysematous gastritis. Radiology 89: 426–431, 1967.
 199. Michael, W. R. Metabolism of linear alkylate sulfonate and alkyl benzene sulfonate in albino rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 12: 473–485, 1968.
 200. Miller, R. F., and R. W. Engel. Interrelation of copper metabolism, molybdenum and sulfate sulfur in nutrition. Federation Proc. 19: 666–671, 1960.
 201. Miller, R. F., N. O. Price, and R. W. Engel. Added dietary inorganic sulfate and its effect upon rats fed molybdenum. J. Nutr. 60: 539–547, 1956.
 202. Miller, V. L., P. A. Klavano, and E. Csonka. Absorption, distribution and excretion of phenylmercuric acetate. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2: 344–352, 1960.
 203. Miller, V. L., P. A. Klavano, A. C. Jerstad, and E. Csonka. Absorption, distribution, and excretion of ethylmercuric chloride. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 3: 459–468, 1961.
 204. Miller, W. J. Dynamics of absorption rates, endogenous excretion, tissue turnover, and homeostatic control mechanisms of zinc, cadmium, manganese, and nickel in ruminants. Federation Proc. 32: 1915–1920, 1973.
 205. Mills, C. F. Studies on copper metabolism 1952–1960. Rowett Res. Inst. Collected Papers 17: 57–63, 1961.
 206. Mills, P. A. Pesticide residue content. J. Assoc. Offic. Agr. Chemists 46: 762–767, 1963.
 207. Mitjavila, S., D. Gaillard, and R. Derache. Respiration of isolated epithelial cells from the rat intestine: inhibitory effect of tannin and protective effect of mucin. Biol. Gastro‐Enterol. 2: 183–192, 1968.
 208. Mitjavila, S., G. de Saint‐Blanquat, and R. Derache. Effet de l'acide tannique sur l'absorption intestinale chez la souris. Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 8: 27–33, 1970.
 209. Monty, K. J., and E. M. Click. A mechanism for the copper‐molybdenum interrelationship. III. Rejection by the rat of molybdate‐containing diets. J. Nutr. 75: 303–308, 1961.
 210. Moore, C. Cigarette smoking and cancer of the mouth, pharynx, and larynx. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 218: 553–558, 1971.
 211. Morton, W. E. Hypertension and drinking water. A pilot statewide ecological study in Colorado. J. Chronic Diseases 23: 537–545, 1971.
 212. Mosinger, M., and H. Fiorentini. Apport de l'expérimentation à la notion de fréquence de l'ulcère gastrique chez les chromeurs. Arch. Maladies Prof. 16: 363–365, 1955.
 213. Muhler, J. C., and D. A. Weddle. Utilizability of fluorine for storage in the rat when administered in milk. J. Nutr. 55: 347–353, 1955.
 214. Mulcahy, R. Cardiovascular disease and water supply. Brit. Med. J. 1: 861, 1966.
 215. Necheles, H., and J. Sporn. Effect of detergents on gastric motility Am. J. Gastroenterol. 16: 481–483, 1946.
 216. Neilands, J. B., F. M. Strong, and C. A. Elvehjem. Molybdenum in the nutrition of the rat. J. Biol. Chem. 172: 431–439, 1948.
 217. Newberne, P. M. The influence of a low lipotrope diet on response of maternal and fetal rats to lasiocarpine. Cancer Res. 28: 2327–2337, 1968.
 218. Newberne, P. M., R. Wilson, and A. E. Rogers. Effects of a low‐lipotrope diet on the response of young male rats to the pyrrolizidine alkaloid, monocrotaline. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 18: 387–397, 1971.
 219. Nikonorow, M., H. Mazur, and H. Piekacz. Effect of orally administered plasticizers and polyvinyl chloride stabilizers in the rat. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 26: 253–259, 1973.
 220. Nogami, H., J. Hasegawa, M. Hanano, and T. Fuwa. Studies on absorption and excretion of Drugs. XIII. The sorption of surface active agents into the intestinal tissue rat and their effect on the drug absorption in vitro. Chem. Pharm. Bull., Tokyo 16: 2101–2106, 1968.
 221. O'Brien, J. S. Cell membranes—composition: structure: function. J. Theoret. Biol. 15: 307–324, 1967.
 222. O'Dell, G. D., W. J. Miller, S. L. Moore, W. A. King, J. C. Ellers, and H. Jurecek. Effect of dietary nickel level on excretion and nickel content of tissues in male calves. J. Animal Sci. 32: 769–773, 1971.
 223. Ostertag, H., and J. Wurziger. Biological behavior of polyglycerol compounds. Arzneimittel‐Forsch. 15: 869–872, 1965.
 224. Paulson, G. D., C. A. Baumann, and A. L. Pope. Fate of a physiological dose of selenate in the lactating ewe: effect of sulfate. J. Animal Sci. 25: 1054–1058, 1966.
 225. Paulson, G. D., and V. J. Feil. The fate of a single oral dose of carbaryl (1‐naphthyl N‐methylcarbamate) in the chicken. Poultry Sci. 47: 1593–1597, 1969.
 226. Peers, F. G., and C. A. Linsell. Dietary aflatoxins and liver cancer—a population based study in Kenya. Brit. J. Cancer 27: 473–484, 1973.
 227. Pekas, J. C. Intestinal metabolism and transport of naphthyl N‐methyl‐carbamate in vitro (rat). Am. J. Physiol. 220: 2008–2012, 1971.
 228. Pekas, J. C. Uptake and transport of pesticidal carbamates by everted sacs of rat small intestine. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 49: 14–21, 1971.
 229. Perkinson, J. D., Jr., I. B. Whitney, R. A. Monroe, W. E. Lotz, and C. L. Comar. Metabolism of fluorine 18 in domestic animals. Am. J. Physiol. 182: 383–389, 1955.
 230. Pfeiffer, C. J. Intestinal villous morphology. Postgrad. Med. 43: 215–221, 1968.
 231. Pfeiffer, C. J. Surface topology of the stomach in man and the laboratory ferret. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 33: 252–262, 1970.
 232. Pfeiffer, C. J. (editor). Peptic Ulcer. Philadelphia: Lippincott, and Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1971, p. 1–366.
 233. Pfeiffer, C. J., J. G. Fodor, and E. Canning. An epidemiologic analysis of mortality and gastric cancer in Newfoundland. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 108: 1374–1380, 1973.
 234. Pfeiffer, C. J., J. Fodor, and H. Geizerova. An epidemiologic study of the relationships of peptic ulcer disease in 50‐54 year old, urban males with physical, health and smoking factors. J. Chronic Diseases 26: 291–302, 1973.
 235. Pfeiffer C. J., G. Rowden, and J. Weibel. Gastroenterologic Ultrastructure: A Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopic Atlas. Tokyo: I. Shoin Ltd., 1974, p. 1–300.
 236. Pfeiffer, C. J., and J. Weibel. The gastric mucosal response to acetyl‐salicylic acid in the ferret. An ultrastructural study. Am. J. Digest. Diseases 18: 834–846, 1973.
 237. Phatak, S. S., and V. N. Patwardhan. Toxicity of nickel. J. Sci. Ind. Res., India 9B: 70–76, 1950.
 238. Phatak, S. S., and V. N. Patwardhan. Toxicity of nickel— accumulation of nickel in rats fed on nickel‐containing diets and its elimination. J. Sci. Ind. Res., India 11B: 173–176, 1952.
 239. Powell, G. W., W. J. Miller, J. D. Morton, and C. M. Clifton. Influence of dietary cadmium level and supplemental zinc on cadmium toxicity in the bovine. J. Nutr. 84: 205–214, 1964.
 240. Prickett, C. A., E. P. Laug, and F. M. Kunze. Distribution of mercury in rats following oral and intravenous administration of mercuric acetate and phenylmercuric acetate. Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 73: 585–588, 1950.
 241. Ravesteyn, A. H. V. Metabolism of copper in man. Acta Med. Scand. 118: 163–196, 1944.
 242. Rees, E. D., P. Mandelstam, and J. Lowry. In vitro and in vivo studies of intestinal absorption of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbon carcinogens. Federation Proc. 28: 749, 1969.
 243. Reeves, A. L. The absorption of beryllium from the gastrointestinal tract. Arch. Environ. Health 11: 209–214, 1965.
 244. Reiman, C. K., and A. S. Minot. Absorption and elimination of manganese ingested as oxides and silicates. J. Biol. Chem. 45: 133–143, 1920.
 245. Riedl, L. Attempted suicide with lead. Wien. Med. Wochschr. 91: 697–698, 1941.
 246. Robbins, J. D., J. E. Bakke, and V. J. Feil. Metabolism of 4‐benzothienyl N‐methylcarbamate (Mobam) in rats. Balance study and urinary metabolite separation. J. Agr. Food Chem. 17: 236–242, 1969.
 247. Rogers, A. E., and P. M. Newberne. Aflatoxin B1 carcinogenesis in lipotrope‐deficient rats. Cancer Res. 29: 1965–1972, 1969.
 248. Rosenblum, I. Bromide intoxication. I. Production of experimental intoxication in dogs. J. Pharmacol. Exptl. Therap. 122: 379–385, 1958.
 249. Rosenblum, I., A. A. Stein, and G. Eisinger. Chronic ingestion by dogs of methyl bromide‐fumigated food. Arch. Environ. Health 1: 316–323, 1960.
 250. Rothstein, A. Cell membrane as site of action of heavy metals. Federation Proc. 18: 1026–1035, 1959.
 251. Roy, M., Jr., M. A. Calonje, and R. Mouton. Corrosive gastritis after formaldehyde ingestion. New Engl. J. Med. 266: 1248–1250, 1962.
 252. Sahagian, B. M., I. Harding‐Barlow, and H. M. Perry, Jr. Uptakes of zinc, manganese, cadmium and mercury by intact strips of rat intestine. J. Nutr. 90: 259–267, 1966.
 253. Sahagian, B. M., I. Harding‐Barlow, and H. M. Perry, Jr. Transmural movements of zinc, manganese, cadmium and mercury by rat small intestine. J. Nutr. 93: 291–300, 1967.
 254. Salant, W., and C. W. Mitchell. The influence of heavy metals on the isolated intestine. Am. J. Physiol. 39: 355–374, 1916.
 255. Sander, J. Untersuchungen uber die Entstehung cancerogener Nitrosoverbindungen im Magen von Versuchstieren und ihre Bedeutung für den Menschen. Arzneimittel‐Forsch. 21: 1572–1580, 1707–1713, 2034–2039, 1971.
 256. Sass, B. Perforating gastric ulcer associated with lead poisoning in a dog. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 157: 76–78, 1970.
 257. Sauer, F., D. H. Laughland, and W. M. Davidson. Silica metabolism in guinea pigs. Can. J. Biochem. Physiol. 37: 183–191, 1957.
 258. Sauer, F., D. H. Laughland, and W. M. Davidson. The silica content of guinea pig tissues as determined by chemical and isotopic techniques. Can. J. Biochem. Physiol. 37: 1173–1181, 1959.
 259. Saxena, S. C., and J. P. Srivastava. The histopathology and histochemistry of insecticide‐treated insects. II. Glycogen in the mid‐gut of Periplaneta americana L. treated with pyrethrum (Blattaria: Blattidae). Pyrethrum Post 10: 12–23, 1969.
 260. Schaible, P. J., and S. L. Bandemer. The effect of mineral supplements on the availability of manganese. Poultry Sci. 21: 8–14, 1942.
 261. Schanker, L. S. Absorption of drugs from the rat colon. J. Pharmacol. Exptl. Therap. 126: 283–290, 1959.
 262. Schanker, L. S. On the mechanism of absorption of drugs from the gastrointestinal tract. J. Med. Pharm. Chem. 2: 343–359, 1960.
 263. Schanker, L. S. Mechanisms of drug absorption and distribution. Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. 1: 29–44, 1961.
 264. Schanker, L. S. Passage of drugs across body membranes. Pharmacol. Rev. 14: 501–530, 1962.
 265. Schanker, L., and J. Johnson. Increased intestinal absorption of foreign organic compounds in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA). Biochem. Pharmacol. 8: 421–422, 1961.
 266. Schanker, L. S., P. A. Shore, B. B. Brodie, and C. A. M. Hogben. Absorption of drugs from the stomach. I. The rat. J. Pharmacol. Exptl. Therap. 120: 528–539, 1957.
 267. Schanker, L. S., D. J. Tocco, B. B. Brodie, and C. A. M. Hogben. Absorption of drugs from the rat small intestine. J. Pharmacol. Exptl. Therap. 123: 81–88, 1958.
 268. Schiff, A. Chronischer Saturnismus, Ulcus ventriculi und vegetatives Nervensystem. Zugleich ein Beitrag zur Frage der ulkusgenese. Wien. Klin. Wochschr. 32: 398–393, 1919.
 269. Schroeder, H. A. Correlation between mortality from cardiovascular disease and treated water supplied. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 172: 1902–1908, 1960.
 270. Schroeder, H. A. Cadmium as a factor in hypertension. J. Chronic Diseases 18: 217–228, 1965.
 271. Schroeder, H. A., J. J. Balassa, and I. H. Tipton. Abnormal trace metals in man: tin. J. Chronic Diseases 17: 483–502, 1964.
 272. Schroeder, H. A., and I. H. Tipton. The human body burden of lead. Arch. Environ. Health 17: 965–978, 1968.
 273. Schwarz, K., and W. Mertz. Chromimum‐14 and the glucose tolerance factor. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 85: 292–295, 1959.
 274. Sears, D. F. Intestinal mucous membranes: the role of interfacial phenomena. Agents Actions 1: 183–189, 1970.
 275. Sen, N. P., D. C. Smith, and L. Schwinghamer. Formation of N‐Nitrosamines from secondary amines and nitrate in human and animal gastric juice. Food. Cosmet. Toxicol. 7: 301–307, 1969.
 276. Shah, A. H., and F. E. Guthrie. Penetration of insecticides through the isolated midgut of insects and mammals. Comp. Gen. Pharmacol. 1: 391–399, 1970.
 277. Shah, P. V., and F. E. Guthrie. Penetration of insecticides through isolated sections of the mouse digestive system: effects of age and region of the intestine. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 25: 621–624, 1973.
 278. Shamberger, R. J. Relationship of selenium to cancer. I. Inhibitory effect of selenium on carcinogenesis. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 44: 931–936, 1970.
 279. Shamberger, R. J., E. Rukovena, A. K. Longfield, S. A. Tytko, S. Deodhar, and C. E. Willis. Antioxidants and cancer. I. Selenium in the blood of normals and cancer patients. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 50: 863–870, 1973.
 280. Shamberger, R. J., S. Tytko, and C. E. Willis. Antioxidants in cereals and in food preservatives and declining gastric cancer mortality. Cleveland Clinic Quart. 39: 119–124, 1972.
 281. Shamberger, R. J., and C. E. Willis. Selenium distribution and human cancer mortality. Crit. Rev. in Clin. Chem. 2: 211–221, 1971.
 282. Shay, H., S. A. Komarov, H. Siplet, and S. S. Fels. A gastric mucigogue action of the alkyl sulfates. Science 103: 50–52, 1946.
 283. Shrader, S. A., A. W. Besgetoar, and V. A. Stenger. Determination of total and inorganic bromide in foods fumigated with methyl bromide. Ind. Eng. Chem. Intern. Ed. 14: 1–4, 1942.
 284. Simon, G., and J. W. Suttie. Effect of method of fluoride administration on plasma fluoride concentrations. J. Nutr. 94: 511–515, 1968.
 285. Simon, G., and J. W. Suttie. Effect of dietary fluoride on food intake and plasma fluoride concentration in the rat. J. Nutr. 96: 152–156, 1958.
 286. Singh, J., and E. M. Boyd. Retention time and the toxicity of rectally administered tannic acid. Proc. Can. Federation Biol. Soc. 4: 17, 1961.
 287. Singh, J., and E. M. Boyd. The acute toxicity of tannic acid in the tannic acid‐barium sulfate radiodiagnostic enema. J. Can. Assoc. Radiol. 17: 124–131, 1966.
 288. Sjöblom, V., and E. Häsänen. Kvicksilverhalten I Fish I Finland. Nord. Hyg. Tidskr. 50: 37–53, 1969.
 289. Skerfving, S., K. Hansson, and J. Lindstein. Chromosome breakage in humans exposed to methyl mercury through fish consumption. Arch. Environ. Health 21: 133–138, 1970.
 290. Smith, D. H. Lead poisoning in children and its therapy with EDTA. Ind. Med. Surg. 28: 153–159, 1959.
 291. Smith, M. I. The influence of diet on the chronic toxicity of selenium. Public Health Rept. US 54: 1441–1453, 1939.
 292. Smith, M. I., and E. F. Stohlman. Further observations on the influence of dietary protein on the toxicity of selenium. J. Pharmacol. Exptl. Therap. 70: 270–278, 1940.
 293. Smyth, H. F., Jr., and J. C. Calandra. Toxicologic studies of alkylphenol polyoxyethylene surfactants. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 14: 315–334, 1969.
 294. Sols, A., and W. Dierssen. Berilio y absorción intestinal. Rev. Espan. Fisiol. 7: 179–187, 1951.
 295. Spencer, H. C., V. K. Rowe, E. M. Adams, and D. D. Irish. Response of rats maintained on diets fumigated with methyl bromide. Food Res. 9: 11–18, 1944.
 296. Springman, F., E. Bingham, and K. L. Stemmer. The acute effects of lead alkyls. Arch. Environ. Health 6: 469–472, 1963.
 297. Starcher, B. C. Studies on the mechanism of copper absorption in the chick. J. Nutr. 97: 321–326, 1969.
 298. Steigmann, F., and R. A. Dolehide. Corrosive (acid) gastritis. Management of early and late cases. New Engl. J. Med. 254: 981–986, 1956.
 299. Stevens, C. D., C. J. Feldhake, and R. A. Kehoe. Isolation of triethyllead ion from liver after inhalation of tetraethyl‐lead. J. Pharmacol. Exptl. Therap. 128: 90–94, 1960.
 300. Stoltz, D. R., K. S. Khera, R. Bendall, and S. W. Gunner. Cytogenetic studies with cyclamate and related compounds. Science 167: 1501–1502, 1970.
 301. Stone, D., E. Lamson, Y. S. Chang, and K. W. Pickering. Cytogenetic effects of cyclamates on human cells in vitro. Science 164: 568–569, 1969.
 302. Strange, D. C., J. C. Finneran, H. B. Shumacker, Jr., and D. E. Bowman. Corrosive injury of the stomach. Arch. Surg. 62: 350–357, 1951.
 303. Srickland, S. C. Acute lead poisoning treated with BAL. Nova Scotia Med. Bull. 27: 206–211, 1948.
 304. Strode, E. C., and M. L. Dean. Acid burns of the stomach. Ann. Surg. 131: 801–811, 1950.
 305. Stull, J. W., W. H. Brown, and F. M. Whiting. Some characteristics of metabolism of organochlorine compounds in the bovine. Federation Proc. 32: 1995–2002, 1973.
 306. Sugita, E. T., J. W. Stokes, A. Frazer, P. Grof, J. Mendels, F. J. Goldstein, and P. J. Niebergall. Lithium carbonate absorption in humans. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 13: 264–270, 1973.
 307. Supplee, W. C. Production of zinc deficiency in turkey poults by dietary cadmium. Poultry Sci. 40: 827–828, 1961.
 308. Supplee, W. C. Effect of cadmium in the chick diet. Poultry Sci. 40: 1463–1467, 1961.
 309. Suryanarayana Rao, K., and P. J. Gehring. Acute toxicity of aflatoxin B1 in monkeys. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 19: 169–175, 1971.
 310. Suttle, N. F., and C. F. Mills. Studies of the toxicity of copper to pigs. I. Effects of oral supplements of zinc an iron salts on the development of copper toxicosis. Brit. J. Nutr. 20: 135–147, 1966.
 311. Suttle, N. F., and C. F. Mills. Studies of the toxicity of copper to pigs. 2. Effect of protein source and other dietary components on the response to high and moderate intakes of copper. Brit. J. Nutr. 20: 149–161, 1966.
 312. Swensson, A. Investigation on the toxicity of some organic mercury compounds used as seed disinfectants. Acta Med. Scand. 143: 365–384, 1952.
 313. Sztanojevits, A. V., B. Z. Mónus, and B. Korpássy. Experimentally induced gastric ulcer in rats. Problems of the pathogenesis. Acta Med. Acad. Sci. Hung. 5: 251–265, 1954.
 314. Tanquerel des Planches. Traite des Maladies de Plomb ou Saturnines. Paris, 1839, vols. I and II.
 315. Tejning, S. Biological effects of methyl mercury dicyan‐diamide‐treated grain in the domestic fowl Gallus gallus L. Acta Oecolog. Scand. Suppl. 8, 1967, p. 1–116.
 316. Terracini, B., M. C. Testa, J. R. Cabral, and N. Day. The effects of longterm feeding of DDT to BALB/c mice. Intern. J. Cancer 11: 747–764, 1973.
 317. Tidball, C. S. Magnesium and calcium as regulators of intestinal permeability. Am. J. Physiol. 206: 243–246, 1964.
 318. Tidball, C. S., and R. Lipman. Enhancement of jejunal absorption of heparinoid by sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate in the dog. Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 111: 113–115, 1962.
 319. Todd, J. R. Chronic copper poisoning in farm animals. Vet. Bull., Commonwealth Bur. Animal Health 32: 573–579, 1962.
 320. Toledo, J. D. Die Cytogenese des Vormagen carcinoms der Ratte durch N‐Methyl‐N‐Nitrosourethan. Beitr. Pathol. Anat. Allgem. Pathol. 131: 63–120, 1965.
 321. Torres, F. O., I. F. H. Purchase, and J. J. van der Watt. The aetiology of primary liver cancer in the Bantu. J. Pathol. 102: 163–169, 1970.
 322. Ulfvarson, U. The absorption and distribution of mercury in rats fed organs from rats injected with various mercury compounds. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 15: 525–531, 1969.
 323. Underdal, B. Undersϕkelse av kvikksϕlv I enkelte Naeringsmidler. Nord. Hyg. Tidskr. 50: 60–63, 1969.
 324. Underwood, E. J. Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition (3rd ed.). New York: Academic, 1971, p. 323–368.
 325. Uraguchi, K., I. Ueno, Y. Ueno, and Y. Komai. Absorption, distribution and excretion of luteoskyrin with special reference to the selective action on the liver. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 21: 335–347, 1972.
 326. Vallee, B. L., J. F. Riordan, and J. E. Coleman. Carboxypeptidase A: approaches to the chemical nature of the active center and the mechanisms of action. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. US 49: 109–116, 1963.
 327. Vallee, B. L., and D. D. Ulmer. Biochemical effects of mercury, cadmium and lead. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 41: 91–128, 1972.
 328. Valtonen, E. J. Shellac and lipoid bezoars and other concretions of the stomach. Gastroenterologia 104: 309–320, 1965.
 329. Van Campen, D. Effect of zinc, cadmium, mercury, and silver on the absorption and distribution of copper‐64. Federation Proc. 24: 373, 1965.
 330. Van Campen, D. R. Effects of zinc, cadmium, silver and mercury on the absorption and distribution of copper‐64 in rats. J. Nutr. 88: 125–130, 1966.
 331. Van Middlesworth, L. Thyroxine excretion, a possible cause of goitre. Endocrinology 61: 570–573, 1957.
 332. Visek, W. J., I. B. Whitney, U. S. G. Kuhn, and C. L. Comar. Metabolism of Cr51 by animals as influenced by chemical state. Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 84: 610–615, 1953.
 333. Volkheimer, G., F. H. Schultz, I. Aurich, S. Strauch, K. Beuthin, and H. Wendlandt. Persorption of particles. Digestion 1: 78–80, 1968.
 334. Wade, J. F., Jr., and J. F. Burnum. Treatment of acute and chronic lead poisoning with disodium calcium versenate. Ann. Internal Med. 42: 251–259, 1955.
 335. Waldbott, G. L. The physiologic and hygienic aspects of the absorption of inorganic fluorides. Arch. Environ. Health 2: 155–167, 1961.
 336. Walker, K. C., M. B. Goette, and G. S. Batchelor. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and dichlorodiphenyldichlo‐roethylene content of prepared meals. J. Agr. Food Chem. 2: 1034–1037, 1954.
 337. Walters, M., and F. J. C. Roe. A study of the effects of zinc and tin administered orally to mice over a prolonged period. Food. Cosmet. Toxicol. 3: 271–276, 1965.
 338. Warburton, S., W. Udler, R. M. Ewert, and W. S. Haynes. Outbreak of foodborne illness attributed to tin. Public Health Rept. US 77: 798–800, 1962.
 339. Warden, M. R., G. A. Munro, and R. R. Lanier. Fibrous stricture of the stomach due to iron (feosol) poisoning. Radiology 71: 732–734, 1958.
 340. Warnick, S. L., and J. E. Carter. Some findings in a study of workers occupationally exposed to pesticides. Arch. Environ. Health 25: 265–270, 1972.
 341. Wattenberg, L. W., J. L. Leong, and P. J. Strand. Benzpyrene hydroxylase activity in the gastrointestinal tract. Cancer Res. 22: 1120–1125, 1962.
 342. Weaver, J. E., and J. F. Griffith. Induction of emesis by detergent ingredients and formulations. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 14: 214–220, 1969.
 343. Weber, C. W., and B. L. Reid. Effect of dietary cadmium on mice. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 14: 420–425, 1969.
 344. Weddle, D. A., and J. C. Muhler. The effects of inorganic salts on fluorine storage in the rat. J. Nutr. 54: 437–444, 1954.
 345. Wedemeyer, G. Dechlorination of 1,1,1‐Trichloro‐2,2‐bis(pchlorophenyl) ethane by Aerobacter aerogenes. I. Metabolic products. Appl. Microbiol. 15: 569–574, 1967.
 346. Wedemeyer, G. Role of intestinal microflora in the degradation of DDT by rainbow trout. Life Sci. 7: 219–223, 1968.
 347. Weed, L. A., and E. E. Ecker. The utility of phenyl‐mercury‐nitrate as a disinfectant. J. Infect. Diseases 49: 440–449, 1931.
 348. Westoöö, G. Methylmercury as percentage of total mercury in flesh and viscera of salmon and sea trout of various ages. Science 181: 567–568, 1973.
 349. Wiederanders, R. E., G. W. Evans, and W. W. Wasdahl. Acute and chronic copper poisoning in the rat. Lancet 88: 286–291, 1968.
 350. Wilgus, H. S., Jr., and A. R. Patton. Factors affecting manganese utilization in the chicken. J. Nutr. 18: 35–45, 1939.
 351. Williams, A. O. Histochemical localization of copper in the gastrointestinal tract of the rat. J. Clin. Pathol. 18: 800–802, 1965.
 352. Williams, S. Pesticide residues in total diet samples. J. Assoc. Offic. Agr. Chemists 47: 815–821, 1964.
 353. Winteringham, F. P. W. Some aspects of insecticide biochemistry. Endeavor 11: 22–28, 1952.
 354. Witschi, H. P. Tierexperimentelle Untersuchungen zur enteralen Bleiausscheidung. Intern. Arch. Gewerbepathol. Gewerbehyg. 20: 449–460, 1964.
 355. Wright, P. L., and M. C. Bell. Selenium‐75 metabolism in the gestating ewe and fetal lamb: effects of dietary α‐tocopherol and selenium. J. Nutr. 84: 49–57, 1964.
 356. Zacho, A. J. Nielsen, and V. Larsen. On the consumption of unburned tobacco in patients with cancer of the stomach. Acta Chir. Scand. 134: 272–274, 1968.
 357. Zipkin, I., and R. C. Likins. Absorption of various fluorine compounds from the gastrointestinal tract of the rat. Am. J. Physiol. 191: 549–550, 1957.

Contact Editor

Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite

Carl J. Pfeiffer. Gastroenterologic Response to Environmental Agents — Absorption and Interactions. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 26: Handbook of Physiology, Reactions to Environmental Agents: 349-374. First published in print 1977. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp090122