Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Gastroenterologic Response to Environmental Agents — Absorption and Interactions

Full Article on Wiley Online Library


The sections in this article are:

1 General Principles of Interaction Between Environmental Agents and the Gut Mucosa
1.1 Morphological Considerations
1.2 General and Selected Physicochemical Principles
2 Enteric Absorption and Mucosal Effects of Trace Elements
2.1 Lead
2.2 Nickel and Tin
2.3 Mercury‐Containing Compounds
2.4 Zinc and Cadmium
2.5 Copper and Molybdenum
2.6 Selenium
2.7 Fluorine and Other Halogens
2.8 Miscellaneous Trace Elements
3 Mucosal Effects of Chemicals and Corrosives
4 Gastrointestinal Absorption of Pesticides
5 Absorption and Enteric Surface Effects of Miscellaneous Industrial Agents
5.1 Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Triphenyls
5.2 Polyglycerol Esters
5.3 Organic Sulfonates and Other Surface‐Active Agents
5.4 Dimethylsulfoxide
5.5 Polyvinylchloride Stabilizers and Plasticizers
6 Absorption and Enteric Surface Effects of Natural Environmental Contaminants
6.1 Tannic Acid
6.2 Miscellaneous Natural Compounds
7 Ingestion of Carcinogenic Agents
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Microvillous surface of epithelial cell of ferret jejunum. The intestinal lumen is at the upper left, and the insert (lower right) illustrates the cross‐sectional appearance of microvilli. It is across this type of membranous surface, covered by a glycocalyx material, that all environmental agents must pass to exert local or systemic effects, × 35,600.

From Pfeiffer et al.
Figure 2. Figure 2.

Surface perspective of human gastric epithelial cells, as shown by scanning electron microscopy. Note the appearance of short microvilli which greatly increase the surface area of the stomach. At the right, many of the microvilli are obscured by mucus, × 6,500.

From Pfeiffer
Figure 3. Figure 3.

Concentration of mercury compounds by pike liver. Tank experiments with fish have shown the ability of hepatic tissue to greatly concentrate several mercury compounds: ‐—○‐—, methyl mercury in fresh water; —‐□‐—, methyl mercury in brackish water; —○—, methoxyethyl mercury in fresh water; and —□— methoxyethyl mercury in brackfish water.

Redrawn from data of Hannerz
Figure 4. Figure 4.

Comparative transport rates of four trace elements by everted, perfused rat intestinal segments. Manganese is most readily transported. Initial mucosal concentration of each metal was 10−4 m, and the serosal concentration was 0. A Ca‐free Krebs‐Ringer solution (pH 7.4, Tris buffer with glucose) was used with 100% O2.

Redrawn from data of Sahagian et al.
Figure 5. Figure 5.

Gastrointestinal absorption of selenium in sheep, as measured by blood selenium levels after administration of dietary, isotopically labeled selenium pellets. Group 5, 10% Se.; Group 4, 5% Se; Group 3, 2.5% Se; Group 2, 1.25% Se; and Group 1, control 0% Se.

From data of Kuchel and Buckley as depicted in Underwood
Figure 6. Figure 6.

Gastrointestinal absorption of radioactive fluoride solution in the lamb after oral administration of 18F and 22Na.

Redrawn from data of Perkinson, et al.

Figure 1.

Microvillous surface of epithelial cell of ferret jejunum. The intestinal lumen is at the upper left, and the insert (lower right) illustrates the cross‐sectional appearance of microvilli. It is across this type of membranous surface, covered by a glycocalyx material, that all environmental agents must pass to exert local or systemic effects, × 35,600.

From Pfeiffer et al.

Figure 2.

Surface perspective of human gastric epithelial cells, as shown by scanning electron microscopy. Note the appearance of short microvilli which greatly increase the surface area of the stomach. At the right, many of the microvilli are obscured by mucus, × 6,500.

From Pfeiffer

Figure 3.

Concentration of mercury compounds by pike liver. Tank experiments with fish have shown the ability of hepatic tissue to greatly concentrate several mercury compounds: ‐—○‐—, methyl mercury in fresh water; —‐□‐—, methyl mercury in brackish water; —○—, methoxyethyl mercury in fresh water; and —□— methoxyethyl mercury in brackfish water.

Redrawn from data of Hannerz

Figure 4.

Comparative transport rates of four trace elements by everted, perfused rat intestinal segments. Manganese is most readily transported. Initial mucosal concentration of each metal was 10−4 m, and the serosal concentration was 0. A Ca‐free Krebs‐Ringer solution (pH 7.4, Tris buffer with glucose) was used with 100% O2.

Redrawn from data of Sahagian et al.

Figure 5.

Gastrointestinal absorption of selenium in sheep, as measured by blood selenium levels after administration of dietary, isotopically labeled selenium pellets. Group 5, 10% Se.; Group 4, 5% Se; Group 3, 2.5% Se; Group 2, 1.25% Se; and Group 1, control 0% Se.

From data of Kuchel and Buckley as depicted in Underwood

Figure 6.

Gastrointestinal absorption of radioactive fluoride solution in the lamb after oral administration of 18F and 22Na.

Redrawn from data of Perkinson, et al.
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Carl J. Pfeiffer. Gastroenterologic Response to Environmental Agents — Absorption and Interactions. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 26: Handbook of Physiology, Reactions to Environmental Agents: 349-374. First published in print 1977. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp090122