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Accumulation and Release of Chemicals by Adipose Tissue

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Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 General Pharmacodynamics of Environmental Chemicals
2 Rates of Accumulation and Release for Different Chemicals
2.1 Short‐Lived Chemicals
2.2 Long‐Lived Chemicals
3 Physiological Factors in Accumulation and Release of Chemicals by Adipose Tissue
3.1 Adipose Tissue Perfusion Rates
3.2 Altered Adipose Tissue Mass
3.3 Status of Drug‐Metabolizing Enzymes
4 Effects of Stored Chemicals on Adipose Tissue Physiology
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Conceptual distribution into lipids of tissues and animal products of a lipophilic pesticide, and its elimination. Tissue storage depots are chiefly the adipose tissues.

Figure 2. Figure 2.

A, storage relationships between dieldrin (HEOD) in the diet and representative tissues. The log‐log relationship may be expressed as a storage ratio in comparing different tissues, species, or chemicals, where the storage ratio is equivalent to the antilog of the y intercept (or antilog a when log y = a + b log x). B, relationships between dieldrin (HEOD) levels in blood and representative tissues. The concentrations in tissues are log‐linear with respect to the blood values, and thereby also to the HEOD content of the diet (A).

From Walker et al.
Figure 3. Figure 3.

A lipid‐phase model of dieldrin distribution, U, based on regional lipid compartments, M, and associated regional blood flows, Q. S, rate of delivery of dieldrin to the intestinal lumen; θ, its absorption coefficient; Γ, its rate of biotransformation. Specific compartments: B, general blood pool; L, liver; K, kidneys; BR, brain; GI, gastrointestinal tract; F, adipose tissue; M, muscle; OT, other organs, including skin and bone.

From Lindstrom et al.
Figure 4. Figure 4.

Estimated dieldrin concentration in lipid phase of adipose tissue and blood during its accumulation and depletion for a 300‐g male rat fed 25 ppm dieldrin in the diet and consuming 20 g food daily. Dieldrin administration was terminated on day 40.

Adapted from Lindstrom et al.
Figure 5. Figure 5.

Computed model curves for dieldrin accumulation in depot fat and arterial blood in man, using feeding rates, flows, and compartment sizes for a 68‐kg man. For comparison to the curves, data are plotted for observations made by Hunter & Robinson on human subjects.

Adapted from Lindstrom et al.
Figure 6. Figure 6.

Depletion curves for polychlorinated biphenyl isomers from swine adipose tissue. Numbers indicate gas‐liquid chromatography retention values relative to DDE = 100; higher numbers represent more lipophilic isomers

From Borchard et al. , reproduced with permission of the copyright owner


Figure 1.

Conceptual distribution into lipids of tissues and animal products of a lipophilic pesticide, and its elimination. Tissue storage depots are chiefly the adipose tissues.



Figure 2.

A, storage relationships between dieldrin (HEOD) in the diet and representative tissues. The log‐log relationship may be expressed as a storage ratio in comparing different tissues, species, or chemicals, where the storage ratio is equivalent to the antilog of the y intercept (or antilog a when log y = a + b log x). B, relationships between dieldrin (HEOD) levels in blood and representative tissues. The concentrations in tissues are log‐linear with respect to the blood values, and thereby also to the HEOD content of the diet (A).

From Walker et al.


Figure 3.

A lipid‐phase model of dieldrin distribution, U, based on regional lipid compartments, M, and associated regional blood flows, Q. S, rate of delivery of dieldrin to the intestinal lumen; θ, its absorption coefficient; Γ, its rate of biotransformation. Specific compartments: B, general blood pool; L, liver; K, kidneys; BR, brain; GI, gastrointestinal tract; F, adipose tissue; M, muscle; OT, other organs, including skin and bone.

From Lindstrom et al.


Figure 4.

Estimated dieldrin concentration in lipid phase of adipose tissue and blood during its accumulation and depletion for a 300‐g male rat fed 25 ppm dieldrin in the diet and consuming 20 g food daily. Dieldrin administration was terminated on day 40.

Adapted from Lindstrom et al.


Figure 5.

Computed model curves for dieldrin accumulation in depot fat and arterial blood in man, using feeding rates, flows, and compartment sizes for a 68‐kg man. For comparison to the curves, data are plotted for observations made by Hunter & Robinson on human subjects.

Adapted from Lindstrom et al.


Figure 6.

Depletion curves for polychlorinated biphenyl isomers from swine adipose tissue. Numbers indicate gas‐liquid chromatography retention values relative to DDE = 100; higher numbers represent more lipophilic isomers

From Borchard et al. , reproduced with permission of the copyright owner
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How to Cite

J. C. Street, R. P. Sharma. Accumulation and Release of Chemicals by Adipose Tissue. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 26: Handbook of Physiology, Reactions to Environmental Agents: 483-493. First published in print 1977. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp090130