Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Renal and Urinary Tract Function

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Age‐Related Changes in Kidney Function
1.1 Cross‐Sectional Studies
1.2 Modification of View of Inevitable Change from Results of Longitudinal Studies
1.3 Age‐Related Proteinuria and Glomerular Lesions in Rodents
1.4 Pathophysiology of the Decrease in Renal Function with Age
2 Age‐Related Changes in Renal Control of Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis
2.1 Control of Sodium Balance
2.2 Control of Potassium Balance
2.3 Control of Water Balance and Susceptibility of Older Individuals to Dehydration (Hypernatremia)
2.4 Susceptibility of Older Individuals to the Development of Hyponatremia
3 Aging and Kidney Disease
3.1 Acute Renal Failure
3.2 Glomerular Disease (Nephrotic Syndrome)
3.3 Chronic Renal Failure
3.4 Urinary Tract Infections
4 Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction with Aging
4.1 Anatomy and Physiology of the Lower Urinary Tract
4.2 Effect of Age on Lower Urinary Tract
4.3 Transient Incontinence
4.4 Established Incontinence
4.5 Pathophysiology of Voiding Dysfunction in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
4.6 Other Diseases of the Lower Urinary Tract
Figure 1. Figure 1.

GFR (inulin clearances) per 1.73 m2 in normal male volunteers plotted against age from 38 studies. Solid and broken lines represent mean ± one standard deviation.

Reprinted from Wesson with permission
Figure 2. Figure 2.

Individual longitudinal displays of serial creatinine clearances plotted against age in years for representative subjects from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. A: Six representative subjects followed 8–14 yr showing significant decreases in serial creatinine clearances (negative Bcr > 2 cc/min). B: Six representative subjects followed 11–22 yr showing small but significant decreases in serial creatinine clearances (negative Bcr < 2 cc/min). C: Six representative subjects followed 15–21 yr showing no decrease in serial creatinine clearance (positive Bcr). Note especially the six subjects in C, representative of nearly one‐third of the subjects followed, who had no decrease in creatinine clearances over periods up to 21 yr.

Reprinted from Lindeman et al. with permission
Figure 3. Figure 3.

Neural innervation of the detrusor (bladder).

Adapted from Augspurger with permission


Figure 1.

GFR (inulin clearances) per 1.73 m2 in normal male volunteers plotted against age from 38 studies. Solid and broken lines represent mean ± one standard deviation.

Reprinted from Wesson with permission


Figure 2.

Individual longitudinal displays of serial creatinine clearances plotted against age in years for representative subjects from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. A: Six representative subjects followed 8–14 yr showing significant decreases in serial creatinine clearances (negative Bcr > 2 cc/min). B: Six representative subjects followed 11–22 yr showing small but significant decreases in serial creatinine clearances (negative Bcr < 2 cc/min). C: Six representative subjects followed 15–21 yr showing no decrease in serial creatinine clearance (positive Bcr). Note especially the six subjects in C, representative of nearly one‐third of the subjects followed, who had no decrease in creatinine clearances over periods up to 21 yr.

Reprinted from Lindeman et al. with permission


Figure 3.

Neural innervation of the detrusor (bladder).

Adapted from Augspurger with permission
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Robert D. Lindeman. Renal and Urinary Tract Function. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 28: Handbook of Physiology, Aging: 485-503. First published in print 1995. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp110119