Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Exercise

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Exercise and Longevity
1.1 Insights Regarding the Extension of Longevity by Food Restriction
1.2 Re‐evaluation of the Rate‐of‐Living Concept
2 Decline in Maximal Oxygen Uptake Capacity with Aging
2.1 Decline in V.O2max in People Who Exercise Regularly
2.2 Effect of Exercise Training on V.O2max in Previously Sedentary Elderly Men and Women
2.3 Effects of Aging and Physical Inactivity on Cardiovascular Function: Role in the Decline in Aerobic Exercise Capacity
2.4 Effect of Exercise Training on Cardiovascular Function in Elderly People and Rats
2.5 Role of Skeletal Muscle in the Decline in Aerobic Exercise Capacity
3 Decline in Muscle Mass and Strength with Aging
3.1 Studies on Humans
3.2 Studies on Rats
3.3 Effects of Strength Training on Muscle Mass and Strength in Old Age
4 Changes in Body Composition with Aging
4.1 Age‐Related Changes in Weight and Height
4.2 Age‐Related Changes in Fat and Fat‐Free Mass
4.3 Age‐Related Changes in Total Body Water
4.4 Age‐Related Changes in Bone Mineral Content
4.5 Age‐Related Changes in Fat Distribution Pattern
5 Exercise, Aging, and Carbohydrate Metabolism
5.1 Exercise and Carbohydrate Metabolism
5.2 Aging and Carbohydrate Metabolism in Rats
5.3 Aging and Carbohydrate Metabolism in Humans
5.4 Effects of Exercise on Insulin Resistance and Glucose Tolerance in Older People
6 Concluding Remarks
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Survival curves of female Long‐Evans rats that either had free access to voluntary running wheels starting at the age of 4 months (runners) or were housed in individual cages (sedentary) .

Figure 2. Figure 2.

Absolute (A) and relative (B) declines in VO2max expressed as liters/min in healthy, sedentary men (○) and women (▾). Each symbol in A is an average for groups of men or women of different ages from studies in the literature . Curves were fitted to the data points using general quadratic equations (Sigma Plot 4.1; Jandel Scientific, Corte Madera, CA). B is the percent decline in with aging relative to the average values for young healthy, sedentary men and women. Data points were calculated using the quadratic equations generated to fit the data in A.

Figure 3. Figure 3.

Running speed of age group competition record holders in the 5,000 m race (3A; ○ men, ∇ women) and percent decline in world record 5,000‐m running speed with aging (B).

From Masters Age Records 1991; Venice, CA
Figure 4. Figure 4.

Change in body weight (A) and height (B) with aging. The open symbols (○ men, ∇ women) are mean data from cross‐sectional studies of relatively large numbers of healthy, predominantly Caucasian subjects grouped approximately by decade of life . Curves (‐ ‐ ‐ ‐) were fitted to data points using general quadratic equations (Sigma Plot 4.1). Closed symbols (▪ African‐American men; • Caucasian men; ▴ African‐American women; ▾ Caucasian women) are mean data from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey . Open symbols: ○ men, ∇ women; solid lines (–––) represent changes in weight and height from longitudinal studies .

Figure 5. Figure 5.

Changes in percent body fat (A), fat mass (B), and FFM (C) with aging determined by hydrostatic weighing. Symbols (○ men, ∇ women) are mean values for data from cross‐sectional studies of relatively large numbers of healthy, predominantly Caucasian subjects grouped approximately by decade of life . Curves (‐ ‐ ‐ ‐) were fitted to the data points using general quadratic equations (Sigma Plot 4.1).

Figure 6. Figure 6.

Changes in total body bone mineral content with aging in healthy, normally active Caucasian men (○) and women (∇)

unpublished results
Figure 7. Figure 7.

Plasma glucose (A) and insulin (B) responses (mean ± SE) to a 75 g OGTT in 46 young (24 ± 1 yr) men and women and in 44 older (65 ± 1 yr) men and women who have no evidence of age‐related deterioration in glucose tolerance

unpublished results
Figure 8. Figure 8.

Pre‐ and posttraining plasma glucose (A) and insulin (B) responses (mean ± SE) to a 75 g OGTT in 30 men and women aged 60–70 yr. Subjects' body weights decreased 5.1 ± 0.6 kg, body fat contents decreased 3.4% ± 4%, and waist circumferences decreased 5.2 ± 0.4 cm in response to 9 months of endurance exercise training

unpublished results


Figure 1.

Survival curves of female Long‐Evans rats that either had free access to voluntary running wheels starting at the age of 4 months (runners) or were housed in individual cages (sedentary) .



Figure 2.

Absolute (A) and relative (B) declines in VO2max expressed as liters/min in healthy, sedentary men (○) and women (▾). Each symbol in A is an average for groups of men or women of different ages from studies in the literature . Curves were fitted to the data points using general quadratic equations (Sigma Plot 4.1; Jandel Scientific, Corte Madera, CA). B is the percent decline in with aging relative to the average values for young healthy, sedentary men and women. Data points were calculated using the quadratic equations generated to fit the data in A.



Figure 3.

Running speed of age group competition record holders in the 5,000 m race (3A; ○ men, ∇ women) and percent decline in world record 5,000‐m running speed with aging (B).

From Masters Age Records 1991; Venice, CA


Figure 4.

Change in body weight (A) and height (B) with aging. The open symbols (○ men, ∇ women) are mean data from cross‐sectional studies of relatively large numbers of healthy, predominantly Caucasian subjects grouped approximately by decade of life . Curves (‐ ‐ ‐ ‐) were fitted to data points using general quadratic equations (Sigma Plot 4.1). Closed symbols (▪ African‐American men; • Caucasian men; ▴ African‐American women; ▾ Caucasian women) are mean data from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey . Open symbols: ○ men, ∇ women; solid lines (–––) represent changes in weight and height from longitudinal studies .



Figure 5.

Changes in percent body fat (A), fat mass (B), and FFM (C) with aging determined by hydrostatic weighing. Symbols (○ men, ∇ women) are mean values for data from cross‐sectional studies of relatively large numbers of healthy, predominantly Caucasian subjects grouped approximately by decade of life . Curves (‐ ‐ ‐ ‐) were fitted to the data points using general quadratic equations (Sigma Plot 4.1).



Figure 6.

Changes in total body bone mineral content with aging in healthy, normally active Caucasian men (○) and women (∇)

unpublished results


Figure 7.

Plasma glucose (A) and insulin (B) responses (mean ± SE) to a 75 g OGTT in 46 young (24 ± 1 yr) men and women and in 44 older (65 ± 1 yr) men and women who have no evidence of age‐related deterioration in glucose tolerance

unpublished results


Figure 8.

Pre‐ and posttraining plasma glucose (A) and insulin (B) responses (mean ± SE) to a 75 g OGTT in 30 men and women aged 60–70 yr. Subjects' body weights decreased 5.1 ± 0.6 kg, body fat contents decreased 3.4% ± 4%, and waist circumferences decreased 5.2 ± 0.4 cm in response to 9 months of endurance exercise training

unpublished results
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John O. Holloszy, Wendy M. Kohrt. Exercise. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 28: Handbook of Physiology, Aging: 633-666. First published in print 1995. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp110124