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Thermometry, Calorimetry, and Mean Body Temperature during Heat Stress

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Abstract

Heat balance in humans is maintained at near constant levels through the adjustment of physiological mechanisms that attain a balance between the heat produced within the body and the heat lost to the environment. Heat balance is easily disturbed during changes in metabolic heat production due to physical activity and/or exposure to a warmer environment. Under such conditions, elevations of skin blood flow and sweating occur via a hypothalamic negative feedback loop to maintain an enhanced rate of dry and evaporative heat loss. Body heat storage and changes in core temperature are a direct result of a thermal imbalance between the rate of heat production and the rate of total heat dissipation to the surrounding environment. The derivation of the change in body heat content is of fundamental importance to the physiologist assessing the exposure of the human body to environmental conditions that result in thermal imbalance. It is generally accepted that the concurrent measurement of the total heat generated by the body and the total heat dissipated to the ambient environment is the most accurate means whereby the change in body heat content can be attained. However, in the absence of calorimetric methods, thermometry is often used to estimate the change in body heat content. This review examines heat exchange during challenges to heat balance associated with progressive elevations in environmental heat load and metabolic rate during exercise. Further, we evaluate the physiological responses associated with heat stress and discuss the thermal and nonthermal influences on the body's ability to dissipate heat from a heat balance perspective. © 2013 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 3:1689‐1719, 2013.

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Figure 1. Figure 1. The Snellen calorimeter.
Figure 2. Figure 2. The traditional two‐compartment thermometry model for change in mean body temperature proposed by Burton in 1935 (21).
Figure 3. Figure 3. The percentage error for best‐fitting two‐compartment thermometry model of core and shell for changes in mean body temperature (ΔT̲b) relative to whole‐body direct calorimetry after 10, 30, 60, and 90 min of exercise at 24°C (open circles) and 30°C (shaded circles) using the conventional core/shell coefficients of 0.66/0.34 (A), 0.79/0.21 (B), and 0.90/0.10 (C); and for the best‐fitting core/shell coefficient at each time point for the data set (D). Error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals. Adapted, with permission, from: Jay, O. et al. 2007 (108).
Figure 4. Figure 4. A comparison between change in body heat content measured by whole‐body, direct calorimetry and estimated by thermometry using the optimal two‐compartment model (Panel A) and the optimal three‐compartment model (Panel B). Blue circles denote 24°C; red circles denote 30°C. Dashed line indicates the line of identity (y = x). Adapted, with permission, from: Jay, O. et al. 2007 (104).
Figure 5. Figure 5. The changes in mean body temperature using the traditional two‐compartment thermometry model (open circles) and the adjusted thermometry model incorporating the predicted correction factor (shaded circles) relative to values directly measured using calorimetry after 30 min (A), 60 min (B), and 90 min (C) of exercise using a core/shell weighting of 0.66/0.34. Dashed line indicates line of identity (y = x). Reprinted, with permission, from: Jay, O. et al. 2010 (102).
Figure 6. Figure 6. Mean whole‐body calorimetry data for rate of net heat production (metabolic rate minus rate of external work, panel A), rate of total heat loss (dry + evaporative, panel A) and the resultant rate of body heat storage (panel B) during and following 60 min exercise. Reprinted, with permission, from (137).
Figure 7. Figure 7. Mean changes in core (top panel, A) and muscle temperatures (bottom panel, B) during and following 60 min exercise. Reprinted, with permission, from (137).
Figure 8. Figure 8. Mean whole‐body calorimetry data for rate of net heat production (metabolic rate minus rate of external work) and rate of net loss (dry + evaporative) during the 90 min exercise performed at fixed rate of heat production of 200 (light intensity), 350 (moderate intensity), and 500 W (high intensity).
Figure 9. Figure 9. Rate of evaporative and dry heat exchange during 90 min exercise performed at fixed rate of heat production of 290 W at 30, 35, 40, and 45°C.
Figure 10. Figure 10. Mean whole‐body calorimetry data for rate of net heat production (MW) and rate of net heat loss [dry (HL) + evaporative (HE)] during intermittent exercise. Reprinted, with permission, from (121).
Figure 11. Figure 11. Mean changes in esophageal (Tes) and rectal temperatures (Tre) (panel A), as well as muscle [vastus lateralis (Tvl), upper trapezius (Tut) and triceps brachii (Ttb)] (panel B) and mean skin (panel C) tissue temperatures during intermittent exercise. Reprinted, with permission, from (121).
Figure 12. Figure 12. Mean rates of metabolic heat production (circles) and total heat loss (squares) during three 15 min intermittent exercise bouts separate by three 15 min periods of active (solid symbols), inactive (open symbols), or passive recovery (shaded symbols). Reprinted, with permission, from (122).
Figure 13. Figure 13. Sex differences in local chest (panel A), upper back (panel B), and forearm sweat rate (panel C) as well as whole‐body evaporative heat loss (EHL) relative to the required evaporation for heat balance (Ereq) (panel D). Adapted, with permission, from: Gagnon and Kenny, 2012 (66).
Figure 14. Figure 14. Mean rates of heat production and whole‐body total heat loss for young (Y), middle‐age (M), and older (O) males during four successive exercise (Ex1, Ex2, Ex3, and Ex4)/recovery (R1, R2, R3, and R4) cycles. Changes in body heat content (ΔHb) are presented as shaded areas and numerically for each exercise and recovery period. Light gray area is change in body heat content (ΔHb) in young males; dark grey area is the additional amount of heat stored (exercise) or lost (recovery) by middle‐age males compared to young males; black area is the additional amount of heat stored (exercise) or lost (recovery) by older males relative to young and middle‐age males. *denotes a significant differences in ΔHb compared to young males. Reprinted, with permission, from (149).
Figure 15. Figure 15. Mean (±SE) change in body heat content (kJ) for Type 2 diabetic (gray bars) and control (white symbols) individuals for baseline rest, exercise, and recovery and residual heat storage. A significant difference (p < 0.05) between conditions is denoted by an asterisk (*). Reprinted, with permission, from (136).


Figure 1. The Snellen calorimeter.


Figure 2. The traditional two‐compartment thermometry model for change in mean body temperature proposed by Burton in 1935 (21).


Figure 3. The percentage error for best‐fitting two‐compartment thermometry model of core and shell for changes in mean body temperature (ΔT̲b) relative to whole‐body direct calorimetry after 10, 30, 60, and 90 min of exercise at 24°C (open circles) and 30°C (shaded circles) using the conventional core/shell coefficients of 0.66/0.34 (A), 0.79/0.21 (B), and 0.90/0.10 (C); and for the best‐fitting core/shell coefficient at each time point for the data set (D). Error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals. Adapted, with permission, from: Jay, O. et al. 2007 (108).


Figure 4. A comparison between change in body heat content measured by whole‐body, direct calorimetry and estimated by thermometry using the optimal two‐compartment model (Panel A) and the optimal three‐compartment model (Panel B). Blue circles denote 24°C; red circles denote 30°C. Dashed line indicates the line of identity (y = x). Adapted, with permission, from: Jay, O. et al. 2007 (104).


Figure 5. The changes in mean body temperature using the traditional two‐compartment thermometry model (open circles) and the adjusted thermometry model incorporating the predicted correction factor (shaded circles) relative to values directly measured using calorimetry after 30 min (A), 60 min (B), and 90 min (C) of exercise using a core/shell weighting of 0.66/0.34. Dashed line indicates line of identity (y = x). Reprinted, with permission, from: Jay, O. et al. 2010 (102).


Figure 6. Mean whole‐body calorimetry data for rate of net heat production (metabolic rate minus rate of external work, panel A), rate of total heat loss (dry + evaporative, panel A) and the resultant rate of body heat storage (panel B) during and following 60 min exercise. Reprinted, with permission, from (137).


Figure 7. Mean changes in core (top panel, A) and muscle temperatures (bottom panel, B) during and following 60 min exercise. Reprinted, with permission, from (137).


Figure 8. Mean whole‐body calorimetry data for rate of net heat production (metabolic rate minus rate of external work) and rate of net loss (dry + evaporative) during the 90 min exercise performed at fixed rate of heat production of 200 (light intensity), 350 (moderate intensity), and 500 W (high intensity).


Figure 9. Rate of evaporative and dry heat exchange during 90 min exercise performed at fixed rate of heat production of 290 W at 30, 35, 40, and 45°C.


Figure 10. Mean whole‐body calorimetry data for rate of net heat production (MW) and rate of net heat loss [dry (HL) + evaporative (HE)] during intermittent exercise. Reprinted, with permission, from (121).


Figure 11. Mean changes in esophageal (Tes) and rectal temperatures (Tre) (panel A), as well as muscle [vastus lateralis (Tvl), upper trapezius (Tut) and triceps brachii (Ttb)] (panel B) and mean skin (panel C) tissue temperatures during intermittent exercise. Reprinted, with permission, from (121).


Figure 12. Mean rates of metabolic heat production (circles) and total heat loss (squares) during three 15 min intermittent exercise bouts separate by three 15 min periods of active (solid symbols), inactive (open symbols), or passive recovery (shaded symbols). Reprinted, with permission, from (122).


Figure 13. Sex differences in local chest (panel A), upper back (panel B), and forearm sweat rate (panel C) as well as whole‐body evaporative heat loss (EHL) relative to the required evaporation for heat balance (Ereq) (panel D). Adapted, with permission, from: Gagnon and Kenny, 2012 (66).


Figure 14. Mean rates of heat production and whole‐body total heat loss for young (Y), middle‐age (M), and older (O) males during four successive exercise (Ex1, Ex2, Ex3, and Ex4)/recovery (R1, R2, R3, and R4) cycles. Changes in body heat content (ΔHb) are presented as shaded areas and numerically for each exercise and recovery period. Light gray area is change in body heat content (ΔHb) in young males; dark grey area is the additional amount of heat stored (exercise) or lost (recovery) by middle‐age males compared to young males; black area is the additional amount of heat stored (exercise) or lost (recovery) by older males relative to young and middle‐age males. *denotes a significant differences in ΔHb compared to young males. Reprinted, with permission, from (149).


Figure 15. Mean (±SE) change in body heat content (kJ) for Type 2 diabetic (gray bars) and control (white symbols) individuals for baseline rest, exercise, and recovery and residual heat storage. A significant difference (p < 0.05) between conditions is denoted by an asterisk (*). Reprinted, with permission, from (136).
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Glen P. Kenny, Ollie Jay. Thermometry, Calorimetry, and Mean Body Temperature during Heat Stress. Compr Physiol 2013, 3: 1689-1719. doi: 10.1002/cphy.c130011