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Cerebral Lateralization and Specialization in Human Central Nervous System

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Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Left Hemisphere Specialization for Language
1.1 Aphasia and Left Hemisphere Specialization: Dissociation of Syntactic and Semantic Aspects of Language
1.2 Right Hemisphere Contributions to Language
1.3 Aberrant Organization for Language
2 Left Hemisphere Specialization for Motor Control
2.1 Supramodal Theories of Apraxia
2.2 Definition of Apraxia and Motor‐Programming Device
2.3 Neural Organization of Praxis
3 Hemispheric Specialization for Intelligence and Consciousness
3.1 Brain Mechanisms and Intelligence
3.2 Brain Mechanisms and Consciousness
4 Right Hemisphere Specialization
4.1 Specialization for Perceptuospatial Skills
4.2 Manipulospatial Dominance: Motor Component
4.3 Right Hemisphere Auditory Processing
5 Hemispheric Specialization for Emotion
5.1 Clinical Studies
5.2 Experimental Studies
6 Ontogenesis of Hemispheric Specialization
6.1 Left Hemisphere Specialization for Language
6.2 Left Hemisphere Specialization for Motor Control
6.3 Right Hemisphere Specialization for Perceptuospatial Functions
6.4 Corpus Callosum
7 Summary
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Lesions producing Broca's (A), Wernicke's (B), and anomic (C) aphasia. There is some individual variability in location of lesions producing these aphasia types. Anomic aphasia is the least localizing of these aphasia types.

Adapted from Kertesz et al. and Naeser and Haywood
Figure 2. Figure 2.

Stimulus scene for aphasia assessment.

From Wells and Reusch
Figure 3. Figure 3.

Imaging studies on 61‐yr‐old, right‐handed man with history of rheumatic heart disease and mitral stenosis who had sudden onset of a right hemiplegia and Broca's aphasia. A: computerized tomography reveals a left perisylvian lesion. There appears to be a relatively preserved cortical strip in middle and lower figures. B: FDG PET shows severe metabolic depression in left temporal and parietal regions extending beyond area of structural damage noted in A. Marked metabolic depression is noted in relatively preserved cortical rim.

From Metter et al.
Figure 4. Figure 4.

Annett's postulated distribution of handedness frequency in the population. RS+, right shift gene present; RS‐, right shift gene absent.

From Annett
Figure 5. Figure 5.

Schemata of visual and motor function mediated by cross‐callosal transfer.

Figure 6. Figure 6.

Illustration of responses to lateralized commands given to verbally perceptive but mute callosally separated right hemisphere. Subject sits to the left. Tests were possible in patients PS and VP but not possible for JW, LB, and NG.

Adapted from Gazzaniga and LeDoux
Figure 7. Figure 7.

Left hemisphere was required to process answer to chicken claw, and right dealt with implications of being presented with snow scene. After each hemisphere responded, left hemisphere was asked to explain its choices.

From Gazzaniga and LeDoux
Figure 8. Figure 8.

Illustration of several possible developmental outcomes resulting from different levels of development before onset of experience and different experiential inputs.

From Aslin et al.
Figure 9. Figure 9.

Development of map‐walking skills. This task requires that subject walk through maze by following instructions on map carried by subject. Kohn‐Dennis score (K‐D) maximum is 15; the subject receives 0–3 points on each of 5 maps depending on how accurately it is walked. In normals, skill improves throughout childhood but tends to decline transiently peripubertally. Dominance may be shifting from left to right during this period. Dyslexics, with presumed left hemisphere dysfunction, perform less well initially than normals but show no peripubertal dip in ability. Their right hemispheres may dominate this skill throughout development. Non‐dyslexic neurologically impaired subjects perform less well than normals at all ages.

From Denckla et al.


Figure 1.

Lesions producing Broca's (A), Wernicke's (B), and anomic (C) aphasia. There is some individual variability in location of lesions producing these aphasia types. Anomic aphasia is the least localizing of these aphasia types.

Adapted from Kertesz et al. and Naeser and Haywood


Figure 2.

Stimulus scene for aphasia assessment.

From Wells and Reusch


Figure 3.

Imaging studies on 61‐yr‐old, right‐handed man with history of rheumatic heart disease and mitral stenosis who had sudden onset of a right hemiplegia and Broca's aphasia. A: computerized tomography reveals a left perisylvian lesion. There appears to be a relatively preserved cortical strip in middle and lower figures. B: FDG PET shows severe metabolic depression in left temporal and parietal regions extending beyond area of structural damage noted in A. Marked metabolic depression is noted in relatively preserved cortical rim.

From Metter et al.


Figure 4.

Annett's postulated distribution of handedness frequency in the population. RS+, right shift gene present; RS‐, right shift gene absent.

From Annett


Figure 5.

Schemata of visual and motor function mediated by cross‐callosal transfer.



Figure 6.

Illustration of responses to lateralized commands given to verbally perceptive but mute callosally separated right hemisphere. Subject sits to the left. Tests were possible in patients PS and VP but not possible for JW, LB, and NG.

Adapted from Gazzaniga and LeDoux


Figure 7.

Left hemisphere was required to process answer to chicken claw, and right dealt with implications of being presented with snow scene. After each hemisphere responded, left hemisphere was asked to explain its choices.

From Gazzaniga and LeDoux


Figure 8.

Illustration of several possible developmental outcomes resulting from different levels of development before onset of experience and different experiential inputs.

From Aslin et al.


Figure 9.

Development of map‐walking skills. This task requires that subject walk through maze by following instructions on map carried by subject. Kohn‐Dennis score (K‐D) maximum is 15; the subject receives 0–3 points on each of 5 maps depending on how accurately it is walked. In normals, skill improves throughout childhood but tends to decline transiently peripubertally. Dominance may be shifting from left to right during this period. Dyslexics, with presumed left hemisphere dysfunction, perform less well initially than normals but show no peripubertal dip in ability. Their right hemispheres may dominate this skill throughout development. Non‐dyslexic neurologically impaired subjects perform less well than normals at all ages.

From Denckla et al.
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Ruth D. Nass, Michael S. Gazzaniga. Cerebral Lateralization and Specialization in Human Central Nervous System. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 5: Handbook of Physiology, The Nervous System, Higher Functions of the Brain: 701-761. First published in print 1987. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp010518