Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Schizophrenia: Nature of the Disease Process and its Biological Correlates

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Historical Background
2 Diagnosis
3 Frequency in Population
3.1 Prevalence
3.2 Incidence
3.3 Disease Expectancy
4 Outcome of Schizophrenia
5 Nature of Psychological Deficit
6 Effectiveness of Drug Treatment
7 Mechanism of Antipsychotic Effect
8 Neurochemical Changes
9 Structural Brain Changes
9.1 Neuroradiological Studies
9.2 Gross Morphological Changes in Postmortem Brain
10 Two Syndromes
11 Etiological Factors
12 Summary
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Cis (α) and trans (β) stereoisomers of thiaxanthene flupenthixol.

Figure 2. Figure 2.

Effects of a‐ and ß‐flupenthixol and placebo on total symptom ratings in patients with acute episodes of schizophrenia. * Difference from placebo‐treated group; P < 0.05.

From Johnstone et al.
Figure 3. Figure 3.

Differential effects of flupenthixol on positive vs. negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Abscissa, weeks; ordinate, ratings.

From Johnstone et al.
Figure 4. Figure 4.

Postulated relationship between types I and II syndromes. Arrows, changes with time; overlapping circles, possible relationships between syndromes and subdivisions of schizophrenic illnesses.

Figure 5. Figure 5.

Month of birth and month of onset of schizophrenia and mania expressed in relation to admissions for neurosis.

From Hare and Walter


Figure 1.

Cis (α) and trans (β) stereoisomers of thiaxanthene flupenthixol.



Figure 2.

Effects of a‐ and ß‐flupenthixol and placebo on total symptom ratings in patients with acute episodes of schizophrenia. * Difference from placebo‐treated group; P < 0.05.

From Johnstone et al.


Figure 3.

Differential effects of flupenthixol on positive vs. negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Abscissa, weeks; ordinate, ratings.

From Johnstone et al.


Figure 4.

Postulated relationship between types I and II syndromes. Arrows, changes with time; overlapping circles, possible relationships between syndromes and subdivisions of schizophrenic illnesses.



Figure 5.

Month of birth and month of onset of schizophrenia and mania expressed in relation to admissions for neurosis.

From Hare and Walter
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Timothy J. Crow, Eve C. Johnstone. Schizophrenia: Nature of the Disease Process and its Biological Correlates. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 5: Handbook of Physiology, The Nervous System, Higher Functions of the Brain: 843-869. First published in print 1987. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp010521