Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Evolution and Diversity of Nonstriated Muscles

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Distribution of Contractile Proteins
1.1 Tubulin
1.2 Amoeboid Movement; Actin‐Myosin Interaction in Protoplasmic Movement
1.3 Movement by Actin Filaments; Interaction With Proteins Other Than Myosin
1.4 Contraction of Ciliates by an Unidentified Protein
2 Sponge Myocyte Contraction
3 Epitheliomuscular Cells; Nonstriated and Striated Muscles of Coelenterates
4 Invertebrate Postural Nonstriated Muscles
4.1 Neurally Activated Smooth Muscles
4.2 Diagonally Striated Muscles; Structural Transitions to Striated Muscles
5 Visceral Muscles of Invertebrates
5.1 Muscles of Invertebrate Digestive Tracts
5.2 Muscles of Invertebrate Cardiovascular Systems
6 Catch Muscles; Paramyosin
7 Modulation of Calcium Control of Myosin Activation
8 Separate Origins of Striated Muscle in Arthropods and Vertebrates
9 Smooth Muscles of Vertebrates; Structure and Chemistry
9.1 Mechanical Properties
9.2 Synchronization and Rhythmicity
9.3 Neural and Hormonal Modulation
10 Conclusions
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Electron micrograph of monocytes of sponges. A: longitudinal section of Tedania; B: cross section of Microciona. db, Dense bodies; MY, myofilaments (thick and thin); M, mitochondria; s and sp, spongin filaments.

From Bagby
Figure 2. Figure 2.

Section through diploblastic body wall of medusoid coelenterate Stomoca. Central portion shows two large epitheliomuscular cells. can, Central canal bounded by endothelium; mes, mesoglea; st, striated processes in circular fiber; sm, nonstriated processes in radial fiber; ne, nerve fibers in superficial layer.

From Mackie
Figure 3. Figure 3.

Striated epitheliomuscular cells from medusan Aglantha. A: low magnification; B: high magnification showing thick and thin filaments, also Z bands.

Courtesy of C. L. Singla, University of Victoria
Figure 4. Figure 4.

Photomicrograph of section of proboscis retractor of Phascolopsis.

From Prosser
Figure 5. Figure 5.

Sections of diagonally striated muscle fibers of earthworm; fiber at right cut longitudinally, fiber at left cut diagonally.

From Rosenbluth
Figure 6. Figure 6.

Longitudinal sections of epitheliomuscular cells of the proventriculus of the annelid Syllis.

From Smith et al.
Figure 7. Figure 7.

Electron micrograph of cross section of muscle of nematode Ascaris. Rows of fibers each consisting of alternate bands of thick and thin filaments with organelles between them; open areas are spaces between fibers. Inset shows low‐power view of section of one muscle fiber and higher magnification of a portion of contractile region.

From Rosenbluth
Figure 8. Figure 8.

Electron micrographs of sections of Mytilus anterior byssus retractor muscle fibers. A: longitudinal section; B: cross section.

From Sobieszek
Figure 9. Figure 9.

Electron micrograph of isolated thick filaments from Pecten opaque (nonstriated) muscle. Arrow points to myosin coating; periodicity in paramyosin core visible.

With permission from B. M. Millman and P. M. Bennett, J. Mol. Biol. 103: 439–467, 1976. Copyright by Academic Press Inc. (London) Ltd


Figure 1.

Electron micrograph of monocytes of sponges. A: longitudinal section of Tedania; B: cross section of Microciona. db, Dense bodies; MY, myofilaments (thick and thin); M, mitochondria; s and sp, spongin filaments.

From Bagby


Figure 2.

Section through diploblastic body wall of medusoid coelenterate Stomoca. Central portion shows two large epitheliomuscular cells. can, Central canal bounded by endothelium; mes, mesoglea; st, striated processes in circular fiber; sm, nonstriated processes in radial fiber; ne, nerve fibers in superficial layer.

From Mackie


Figure 3.

Striated epitheliomuscular cells from medusan Aglantha. A: low magnification; B: high magnification showing thick and thin filaments, also Z bands.

Courtesy of C. L. Singla, University of Victoria


Figure 4.

Photomicrograph of section of proboscis retractor of Phascolopsis.

From Prosser


Figure 5.

Sections of diagonally striated muscle fibers of earthworm; fiber at right cut longitudinally, fiber at left cut diagonally.

From Rosenbluth


Figure 6.

Longitudinal sections of epitheliomuscular cells of the proventriculus of the annelid Syllis.

From Smith et al.


Figure 7.

Electron micrograph of cross section of muscle of nematode Ascaris. Rows of fibers each consisting of alternate bands of thick and thin filaments with organelles between them; open areas are spaces between fibers. Inset shows low‐power view of section of one muscle fiber and higher magnification of a portion of contractile region.

From Rosenbluth


Figure 8.

Electron micrographs of sections of Mytilus anterior byssus retractor muscle fibers. A: longitudinal section; B: cross section.

From Sobieszek


Figure 9.

Electron micrograph of isolated thick filaments from Pecten opaque (nonstriated) muscle. Arrow points to myosin coating; periodicity in paramyosin core visible.

With permission from B. M. Millman and P. M. Bennett, J. Mol. Biol. 103: 439–467, 1976. Copyright by Academic Press Inc. (London) Ltd
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How to Cite

C. Ladd Prosser. Evolution and Diversity of Nonstriated Muscles. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 7: Handbook of Physiology, The Cardiovascular System, Vascular Smooth Muscle: 635-670. First published in print 1980. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp020221