Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Regulation of Airway Secretions, Ion Transport, and Water Movement

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Airway Secretions
1.1 Surface Mucus
1.2 Submucosal Glands
1.3 Effects of Drugs and Mediators
1.4 Hypertrophy of Mucus‐Secreting Cells
2 Ion Transport and Water Movement
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Mechanisms of Ion Transport
2.3 Regulation of Ion Transport
2.4 Relationship Between Ion Transport and Water Movement
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Effects of furosemide and MK‐196 on simultaneously determined influxes of 22Na and 36Cl by cells pretreated for 2 h with 10−4 M ouabain. Open bars, control uptake; shaded bars, uptake in presence of diuretics; black bars, extracellular uptakes expected in measured [14C]sucrose spaces. Values are means ± SE; n = 5 (furosemide) and 4 (MK‐196). Uptakes were for 2 min, during which time uptake is linear with time and reflects influx alone. Both diuretics caused statistically significant falls in Na and Cl influxes as determined by paired t test.

From Widdicombe et al.
Figure 2. Figure 2.

Acute electrical response to stimulation with epinephrine. Time zero indicates onset of response to addition of epinephrine (10−6 M) to the submucosal solution. Total resistance (Rt) and fractional resistance (fR) were measured at times indicated by dots. Transepithelial, apical, and basolateral membrane diffusive potentials (ψt, ψa, and ψb) were measured continuously. Values are means ± SE (shaded area).

From Welsh et al.
Figure 3. Figure 3.

Dose‐effect relationship for action of amiloride (in luminal bathing solution) on bioelectric properties of excised canine bronchus. ISC, short‐circuit current; PD, transepithelial electric potential difference. Values are means ± SE (vertical lines). Under resting conditions ISC is entirely accounted for by active Na absorption. Supramaximal doses of amiloride abolish active Na absorption, whereas ISC is only inhibited by 55%; this discrepancy is due to induction of Cl secretion.

From Boucher et al. . By permission of San Francisco Press, Box 6800, San Francisco, CA 94101
Figure 4. Figure 4.

Effect of indomethacin on short‐circuit current (SCC) and subsequent response to prostaglandin E1 (PGE1; broken line). Both agents were added to mucosal reservoir. Control tissue (solid line) was treated with PGE1 only. Note differences in SCC response to PGE1.

From Al‐Bazazz et al.
Figure 5. Figure 5.

Plots of changes in fluid volume flow (Jv) and net Na flux (JNa) induced by adding amphotericin B (3 × 10−5 M) to luminal bath at 4 h and adding ouabain (10−2 M) to luminal bath at 5 h. Results are from single representative experiment. Middle panel shows record of transepithelial potential difference (PD) obtained from tissue mounted in volume‐flow apparatus.

From Nathanson, Widdicombe, and Nadel


Figure 1.

Effects of furosemide and MK‐196 on simultaneously determined influxes of 22Na and 36Cl by cells pretreated for 2 h with 10−4 M ouabain. Open bars, control uptake; shaded bars, uptake in presence of diuretics; black bars, extracellular uptakes expected in measured [14C]sucrose spaces. Values are means ± SE; n = 5 (furosemide) and 4 (MK‐196). Uptakes were for 2 min, during which time uptake is linear with time and reflects influx alone. Both diuretics caused statistically significant falls in Na and Cl influxes as determined by paired t test.

From Widdicombe et al.


Figure 2.

Acute electrical response to stimulation with epinephrine. Time zero indicates onset of response to addition of epinephrine (10−6 M) to the submucosal solution. Total resistance (Rt) and fractional resistance (fR) were measured at times indicated by dots. Transepithelial, apical, and basolateral membrane diffusive potentials (ψt, ψa, and ψb) were measured continuously. Values are means ± SE (shaded area).

From Welsh et al.


Figure 3.

Dose‐effect relationship for action of amiloride (in luminal bathing solution) on bioelectric properties of excised canine bronchus. ISC, short‐circuit current; PD, transepithelial electric potential difference. Values are means ± SE (vertical lines). Under resting conditions ISC is entirely accounted for by active Na absorption. Supramaximal doses of amiloride abolish active Na absorption, whereas ISC is only inhibited by 55%; this discrepancy is due to induction of Cl secretion.

From Boucher et al. . By permission of San Francisco Press, Box 6800, San Francisco, CA 94101


Figure 4.

Effect of indomethacin on short‐circuit current (SCC) and subsequent response to prostaglandin E1 (PGE1; broken line). Both agents were added to mucosal reservoir. Control tissue (solid line) was treated with PGE1 only. Note differences in SCC response to PGE1.

From Al‐Bazazz et al.


Figure 5.

Plots of changes in fluid volume flow (Jv) and net Na flux (JNa) induced by adding amphotericin B (3 × 10−5 M) to luminal bath at 4 h and adding ouabain (10−2 M) to luminal bath at 5 h. Results are from single representative experiment. Middle panel shows record of transepithelial potential difference (PD) obtained from tissue mounted in volume‐flow apparatus.

From Nathanson, Widdicombe, and Nadel
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Jay A. Nadel, Jonathan H. Widdicombe, Anthony C. Peatfield. Regulation of Airway Secretions, Ion Transport, and Water Movement. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 10: Handbook of Physiology, The Respiratory System, Circulation and Nonrespiratory Functions: 419-445. First published in print 1985. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp030113