Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Respiratory Mechanics in Children

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Mechanical Properties of Chest Wall
1.1 Structural Changes in Rib Cage
1.2 Changes in Respiratory Muscles
1.3 Compliance of Chest Wall
1.4 Functional Residual Capacity
1.5 Ventilation
1.6 Cost of Rib Cage Distortion
1.7 Respiratory Muscle Fatigue
1.8 Pleural Pressure and Distortion
2 Mechanical Properties of the Lung
2.1 General Considerations
2.2 Elastic Properties of the Lung
2.3 Flow‐Resistive Properties of the Lung
2.4 Influences of Sex, Race, and Genetic Factors on Lung Mechanics
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Static pressure‐volume curve of lung (right dashed line), chest wall (left dashed line), and total respiratory system (solid line) in newborn and adult.

From Agostoni
Figure 2. Figure 2.

Changes in thoracic gas volume at end expiration in 6 normal human newborn infants (indicated by different symbols) from quiet (NREM) sleep to active (REM) sleep.

From Henderson‐Smart and Read
Figure 3. Figure 3.

Left: volume‐pressure curves obtained from excised lungs. Curves are grouped by body length. Lengths of 30–45, 46–55, 56–65, and 66–90 cm correspond to premature infants, 1 mo, 4.4 mo, and 16 mo, respectively. [From Fagan .] Right: volume‐pressure curves obtained from children. Heights of 115, 150, and 180 cm correspond to ∼6, 12–13, and 17 yr as estimated from growth charts. Vmax, maximum volume; TLC, total lung capacity; PL, elastic recoil pressure of lung.

From Zapletal et al.
Figure 4. Figure 4.

A: elastic recoil pressure of lung at 90% of Vmax, volume at distending pressure of 30 cmH2O, vs. body length in cm. [Adapted from Fagan .] B: elastic recoil pressure of lung at 90% TLC vs. height in cm. •, Males; ○, females.

Adapted from Zapletal et al.
Figure 5. Figure 5.

Comparison of regression lines of airway conductance during mouth breathing from infancy to adulthood. Regression lines were obtained from the following studies: line a, data on infants from Stocks and Godfrey ; line b, data on children 1–5 yr from Doershuk et al. , calculated by assuming that 49% of airway resistance obtained during nose breathing was due to nasal resistance; line c, data on children and adolescents from Zapletal et al. ; line d, data on adult males from Briscoe and DuBois .

From Stocks and Godfrey
Figure 6. Figure 6.

Retrograde‐catheter data showing change in conductance (G) of central (•) and peripheral (○) airways per gram of predicted lung weight with age.

From Hogg et al.
Figure 7. Figure 7.

Solid line connecting squares represents predicted upstream conductance (Gus)/TLC vs. TLC if Gus/TLC changes proportionally to TLC to −2/3 power during growth. The Gus/TLC and TLC for 8‐yr‐old child are used to develop the prediction. Dashed line, observed relationship. [Data from Mansell .] Solid line connecting circles represents similar predictions developed from Gus/TLC vs. TLC for a 120‐cm (6–8 yr) child. Dashed line, observed relationship.

From De Troyer et al.


Figure 1.

Static pressure‐volume curve of lung (right dashed line), chest wall (left dashed line), and total respiratory system (solid line) in newborn and adult.

From Agostoni


Figure 2.

Changes in thoracic gas volume at end expiration in 6 normal human newborn infants (indicated by different symbols) from quiet (NREM) sleep to active (REM) sleep.

From Henderson‐Smart and Read


Figure 3.

Left: volume‐pressure curves obtained from excised lungs. Curves are grouped by body length. Lengths of 30–45, 46–55, 56–65, and 66–90 cm correspond to premature infants, 1 mo, 4.4 mo, and 16 mo, respectively. [From Fagan .] Right: volume‐pressure curves obtained from children. Heights of 115, 150, and 180 cm correspond to ∼6, 12–13, and 17 yr as estimated from growth charts. Vmax, maximum volume; TLC, total lung capacity; PL, elastic recoil pressure of lung.

From Zapletal et al.


Figure 4.

A: elastic recoil pressure of lung at 90% of Vmax, volume at distending pressure of 30 cmH2O, vs. body length in cm. [Adapted from Fagan .] B: elastic recoil pressure of lung at 90% TLC vs. height in cm. •, Males; ○, females.

Adapted from Zapletal et al.


Figure 5.

Comparison of regression lines of airway conductance during mouth breathing from infancy to adulthood. Regression lines were obtained from the following studies: line a, data on infants from Stocks and Godfrey ; line b, data on children 1–5 yr from Doershuk et al. , calculated by assuming that 49% of airway resistance obtained during nose breathing was due to nasal resistance; line c, data on children and adolescents from Zapletal et al. ; line d, data on adult males from Briscoe and DuBois .

From Stocks and Godfrey


Figure 6.

Retrograde‐catheter data showing change in conductance (G) of central (•) and peripheral (○) airways per gram of predicted lung weight with age.

From Hogg et al.


Figure 7.

Solid line connecting squares represents predicted upstream conductance (Gus)/TLC vs. TLC if Gus/TLC changes proportionally to TLC to −2/3 power during growth. The Gus/TLC and TLC for 8‐yr‐old child are used to develop the prediction. Dashed line, observed relationship. [Data from Mansell .] Solid line connecting circles represents similar predictions developed from Gus/TLC vs. TLC for a 120‐cm (6–8 yr) child. Dashed line, observed relationship.

From De Troyer et al.
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How to Cite

A. Charles Bryan, Mary Ellen B. Wohl. Respiratory Mechanics in Children. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 12: Handbook of Physiology, The Respiratory System, Mechanics of Breathing: 179-191. First published in print 1986. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp030312