Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Methods for Study of the Chest Wall

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Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Measurements of Displacement
1.1 Measurement of Chest Wall Dimensions
1.2 Techniques for Measuring Volume Displacements
1.3 Assessment of Muscle Action
2 Pressure Measurements for Chest Wall
3 Neuromuscular Electrophysiological Measurements
3.1 Types of Electrodes
3.2 Characteristics of Neuromuscular Electrical Signals
3.3 Amplification and Filtering of Neuromuscular Electrical Signals
3.4 Introduction to Processing of Neuromuscular Electrical Signals
3.5 Mass Discharge Recordings: Extracting Respiratory Periodic Signal
3.6 Alternative Characterizations of Mass Discharge Recordings
3.7 Comparing Two Signals
3.8 Processing Single‐Unit Activity
4 Conclusion
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Respiratory muscle EMG recordings from human subject during CO2‐stimulated breathing. Ees, esophageal diaphragmatic EMG; Eics EMG from surface electrodes on right lower ventrolateral rib cage; Eps, EMG from bipolar Basmajian‐type intramuscular wire electrode in parasternal region of 2nd intercostal interspace; Eics, moving average of Eics from Paynter filter with averaging interval of 100 ms. All EMG values are band‐pass filtered from 15 to 250 Hz.

Figure 2. Figure 2.

Logarithmic power spectra of diaphragm EMG signals recorded from 3 different sites. RS and LS are from electrodes on right and left ventrolateral surface of rib cage in 7th and 8th interspaces. ES is from esophageal electrode. Spectra are ensemble averages based on 256‐ms samples of signals from each of 30 consecutive inspirations. Short vertical bar on LS trace indicates size of 95% confidence interval for all frequencies and all 3 spectra. Vertical displacement of curves is for visual purposes only.

From Bruce and Goldman


Figure 1.

Respiratory muscle EMG recordings from human subject during CO2‐stimulated breathing. Ees, esophageal diaphragmatic EMG; Eics EMG from surface electrodes on right lower ventrolateral rib cage; Eps, EMG from bipolar Basmajian‐type intramuscular wire electrode in parasternal region of 2nd intercostal interspace; Eics, moving average of Eics from Paynter filter with averaging interval of 100 ms. All EMG values are band‐pass filtered from 15 to 250 Hz.



Figure 2.

Logarithmic power spectra of diaphragm EMG signals recorded from 3 different sites. RS and LS are from electrodes on right and left ventrolateral surface of rib cage in 7th and 8th interspaces. ES is from esophageal electrode. Spectra are ensemble averages based on 256‐ms samples of signals from each of 30 consecutive inspirations. Short vertical bar on LS trace indicates size of 95% confidence interval for all frequencies and all 3 spectra. Vertical displacement of curves is for visual purposes only.

From Bruce and Goldman
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Stephen H. Loring, Eugene N Bruce. Methods for Study of the Chest Wall. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 12: Handbook of Physiology, The Respiratory System, Mechanics of Breathing: 415-428. First published in print 1986. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp030324