Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Mechanisms of Heat Exchange: Biophysics and Physiology

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Human Heat Balance Equation
2 Independent Variables Affecting the Thermal Environment
2.1 Ambient Temperature
2.2 Dew Point Temperature and Ambient Vapor Pressure
2.3 Air and Fluid Movement
2.4 Mean Radiant Temperature and Effective Radiant Field
2.5 Clothing Insulation
2.6 Barometric Pressure
3 Peripheral Factors to Heat Exchange
3.1 Mean Skin Temperature
3.2 Skin Wettedness
3.3 Body Heat Storage and Rate of Change of Mean Body Temperature
3.4 Metabolic Energy
4 Sensible Heat Exchange by Radiation and Convection
4.1 Operative Temperature
4.2 Clothing Properties Effective in Sensible Heat Exchange
5 Radiation Exchange
5.1 Mean Radiant Temperature and Effective Radiant Field
6 Convective Heat Exchange
6.1 Heat Transfer Theory
6.2 Measurement of the Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient
6.3 Effect of Altitude (Barometric Pressure) on Convective Heat Loss
7 Evaporative Heat Exchange
7.1 Direct Measurement of Evaporative Heat Loss
8 Psychrometrics of the Human Heat Balance Equation
8.1 Lewis Relation: Interpretation of Wet‐Bulb Temperature and Enthalpy
8.2 Generalization to Energy Transfer between Humans and the Environment
8.3 Enthalpy of the Human Environment
8.4 Enthalpy and the Rational Indices of the Human Environment
9 Pierce Two‐Node Model of Thermoregulation
9.1 The Passive State
9.2 The Control System
9.3 Initial Warm and Cold Signals
9.4 Control of Skin Blood Flow
9.5 Control of the Whole‐Body Sweating Drive
9.6 Control of the Skin Shell Properties
9.7 Control of Shivering
10 Heat Loss Factors in Warm and Cold Environments: Physiology
10.1 Heat and Mass Transfer from the Body to the Environment
10.2 Body Motion
10.3 Thermal Aspects
10.4 Thermoregulatory Control Relative to Heat Loss Factors
10.5 Physiological Responses of Heat Loss by Thermal Radiation and Adaptive Response
11 Heat Loss in Special Environments
11.1 Hypobaric Environments
11.2 Hyperbaric Environments
11.3 Aquatic Environments
11.4 Heat Exchange in Spacecraft
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Effects of the complex thermal environment on a clothed standing human and an exercising human. Heat balance is described in conventional and enthalpic formats.

Figure 2. Figure 2.

Heat production and heat loss properties and the variables inherent in each.

Figure 3. Figure 3.

Enthalpy temperature (°C) as a function of effective temperature (ET*).

Adapted from Fobelets and Gagge
Figure 4. Figure 4.

The two node (core and shell) model of thermoregulation.

Adapted from Gagge et al.
Figure 5. Figure 5.

Maximal aerobic power plotted in various vertebrate species of endotherm and poikilotherm. Adapted from Bennett and Ruben and Gonzalez . (1) , Fish (sockeye salmon); (2) , amphibian (toad); (3) , reptile (desert iguana); (4) , bird (evening grosbeak); (5) , mammal (human); (6) , mammal (fruit bat).

Figure 6. Figure 6.

Heat exchange plotted as a function of operative temperature.

Adapted from McLean
Figure 7. Figure 7.

Rectal (Tre) and regional skin (Tsk) temperatures in humans exposed to various ambient temperatures.

Adapted from Hardy and DuBois
Figure 8. Figure 8.

Surface to volume ratios appearing among various animal forms and sites.

Adapted from Hensel et al.
Figure 9. Figure 9.

Core and shell concept of Aschoff and Wever .

Adapted from Carlson and Hsieh
Figure 10. Figure 10.

A typical example of a countercurrent heat exchanger mechanism present in the dorsal fin of the porpoise.

Redrawn from Hensel et al.
Figure 11. Figure 11.

Time response (15 s intervals) of the gradient between re and sk occurring during intermittent work with compensable and uncompensable heat stress.

Figure 12. Figure 12.

Forearm blood flow plotted as a function of esophageal temperature during exercise before and after atropine injection.

From Kolka and Stephenson
Figure 13. Figure 13.

Physiological responses in a subject following ingestion of niacin.

From Stephenson and Kolka
Figure 14. Figure 14.

Effect of heat acclimation on the sweating response to increasing doses of methacholine in six subjects (± SEM).

From Kraning et al.
Figure 15. Figure 15.

Respiratory frequency and evaporative heat loss plotted vs. ambient temperature in various species (top panel). Bottom panel shows the relative reciprocity of sweating and panting in various animals.

Adapted from Hensel et al.


Figure 1.

Effects of the complex thermal environment on a clothed standing human and an exercising human. Heat balance is described in conventional and enthalpic formats.



Figure 2.

Heat production and heat loss properties and the variables inherent in each.



Figure 3.

Enthalpy temperature (°C) as a function of effective temperature (ET*).

Adapted from Fobelets and Gagge


Figure 4.

The two node (core and shell) model of thermoregulation.

Adapted from Gagge et al.


Figure 5.

Maximal aerobic power plotted in various vertebrate species of endotherm and poikilotherm. Adapted from Bennett and Ruben and Gonzalez . (1) , Fish (sockeye salmon); (2) , amphibian (toad); (3) , reptile (desert iguana); (4) , bird (evening grosbeak); (5) , mammal (human); (6) , mammal (fruit bat).



Figure 6.

Heat exchange plotted as a function of operative temperature.

Adapted from McLean


Figure 7.

Rectal (Tre) and regional skin (Tsk) temperatures in humans exposed to various ambient temperatures.

Adapted from Hardy and DuBois


Figure 8.

Surface to volume ratios appearing among various animal forms and sites.

Adapted from Hensel et al.


Figure 9.

Core and shell concept of Aschoff and Wever .

Adapted from Carlson and Hsieh


Figure 10.

A typical example of a countercurrent heat exchanger mechanism present in the dorsal fin of the porpoise.

Redrawn from Hensel et al.


Figure 11.

Time response (15 s intervals) of the gradient between re and sk occurring during intermittent work with compensable and uncompensable heat stress.



Figure 12.

Forearm blood flow plotted as a function of esophageal temperature during exercise before and after atropine injection.

From Kolka and Stephenson


Figure 13.

Physiological responses in a subject following ingestion of niacin.

From Stephenson and Kolka


Figure 14.

Effect of heat acclimation on the sweating response to increasing doses of methacholine in six subjects (± SEM).

From Kraning et al.


Figure 15.

Respiratory frequency and evaporative heat loss plotted vs. ambient temperature in various species (top panel). Bottom panel shows the relative reciprocity of sweating and panting in various animals.

Adapted from Hensel et al.
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A. Pharo Gagge, Richard R. Gonzalez. Mechanisms of Heat Exchange: Biophysics and Physiology. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 14: Handbook of Physiology, Environmental Physiology: 45-84. First published in print 1996. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp040104