Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Thermoregulatory Responses to Acute Exercise‐Heat Stress and Heat Acclimation

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Heat Stress
2 Thermoregulatory Control
3 Core Temperature
3.1 Measurement of Core Temperature
3.2 Core Temperature Responses to Exercise
4 Metabolism
4.1 Metabolic Rate
4.2 Skeletal Muscle Metabolism
4.3 Acclimation
5 Heat Loss Mechanisms
5.1 Evaporation
5.2 Heat Loss and Skin Blood Flow
5.3 Cardiovascular Support for Thermoregulation and Exercise
6 Heat Acclimation
6.1 Induction and Decay
6.2 Underlying Mechanisms
6.3 Dry vs Humid Heat
7 Biomedical Factors Modifying Exercise‐Heat Performance
7.1 Aerobic Fitness
7.2 Dehydration
7.3 Circadian Patterns and Sleep Loss
7.4 Skin Disorders
7.5 Medications
8 Specific Populations
8.1 Women
8.2 Blacks
8.3 Children and Older Adults
8.4 Spinal Cord Injury
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Wet‐bulb globe temperature (WBGT) during July in the Northern Hemisphere .

Figure 2. Figure 2.

Relationships of back sweating rate , forearm blood flow , and forearm venous volume to esophageal and mean skin temperatures (as presented in ref. ).

Figure 3. Figure 3.

Schematic model of the control of human thermoregulatory effector responses .

Figure 4. Figure 4.

Heat‐exchange data averaged over 1 h of exercise at each ambient temperature for one subject performing exercise in a variety of environmental temperatures. The difference between metabolic rate and total heat loss is the sum of mechanical power (147 W) and mean rate of heat storage.

redrawn from Nielsen
Figure 5. Figure 5.

Relationship of steady‐state core‐temperature responses during exercise at three metabolic rates to the environmental conditions.

redrawn from Lind
Figure 6. Figure 6.

Relationship of steady‐state core‐temperature responses during exercise to relative exercise intensity (A) and the ambient temperature (B).

redrawn from Davies et al. . redrawn from Davies
Figure 7. Figure 7.

Total metabolic rate and percentage contribution of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism during exercise at different ambient temperatures.

drawn from data of Dimri et al.
Figure 8. Figure 8.

Day‐to‐day improvement in exercise‐heat tolerance of men participating in a dry‐heat acclimation program.

from Pandolf and Young
Figure 9. Figure 9.

Heart rate, rectal temperature, and mean skin temperature responses before and during exercise each day during a 10 day dry‐heat‐acclimation program. Each day's exercise consisted of five 10 min treadmill walks, separated by 2 min rests. Large circles show data before the start of exercise, small circles connected by solid lines show data at the end of successive walks, and dotted lines connect final values for each day.

redrawn from Eichna et al.
Figure 10. Figure 10.

Relationship between decrease in 4th‐h exercise heart rate and increase in resting plasma volume during humid heat acclimation.

from Senay et al.
Figure 11. Figure 11.

Relationship between sweat sodium concentration and back sweating rate before and after heat acclimation.

from Allan and Wilson
Figure 12. Figure 12.

Relationship between maximal oxygen uptake and rectal temperature (top) in a hot humid environment or between maximal oxygen uptake and the acclimatization day for a plateau in rectal temperature (bottom) during dry‐heat exposure.

from Armstrong and Pandolf
Figure 13. Figure 13.

Changing esophageal temperature at rest and esophageal temperature threshold for sweating and cutaneous vasodilation during exercise with the circadian period.

from Stephenson et al.


Figure 1.

Wet‐bulb globe temperature (WBGT) during July in the Northern Hemisphere .



Figure 2.

Relationships of back sweating rate , forearm blood flow , and forearm venous volume to esophageal and mean skin temperatures (as presented in ref. ).



Figure 3.

Schematic model of the control of human thermoregulatory effector responses .



Figure 4.

Heat‐exchange data averaged over 1 h of exercise at each ambient temperature for one subject performing exercise in a variety of environmental temperatures. The difference between metabolic rate and total heat loss is the sum of mechanical power (147 W) and mean rate of heat storage.

redrawn from Nielsen


Figure 5.

Relationship of steady‐state core‐temperature responses during exercise at three metabolic rates to the environmental conditions.

redrawn from Lind


Figure 6.

Relationship of steady‐state core‐temperature responses during exercise to relative exercise intensity (A) and the ambient temperature (B).

redrawn from Davies et al. . redrawn from Davies


Figure 7.

Total metabolic rate and percentage contribution of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism during exercise at different ambient temperatures.

drawn from data of Dimri et al.


Figure 8.

Day‐to‐day improvement in exercise‐heat tolerance of men participating in a dry‐heat acclimation program.

from Pandolf and Young


Figure 9.

Heart rate, rectal temperature, and mean skin temperature responses before and during exercise each day during a 10 day dry‐heat‐acclimation program. Each day's exercise consisted of five 10 min treadmill walks, separated by 2 min rests. Large circles show data before the start of exercise, small circles connected by solid lines show data at the end of successive walks, and dotted lines connect final values for each day.

redrawn from Eichna et al.


Figure 10.

Relationship between decrease in 4th‐h exercise heart rate and increase in resting plasma volume during humid heat acclimation.

from Senay et al.


Figure 11.

Relationship between sweat sodium concentration and back sweating rate before and after heat acclimation.

from Allan and Wilson


Figure 12.

Relationship between maximal oxygen uptake and rectal temperature (top) in a hot humid environment or between maximal oxygen uptake and the acclimatization day for a plateau in rectal temperature (bottom) during dry‐heat exposure.

from Armstrong and Pandolf


Figure 13.

Changing esophageal temperature at rest and esophageal temperature threshold for sweating and cutaneous vasodilation during exercise with the circadian period.

from Stephenson et al.
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Michael N. Sawka, C. Bruce Wenger, Kent B. Pandolf. Thermoregulatory Responses to Acute Exercise‐Heat Stress and Heat Acclimation. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 14: Handbook of Physiology, Environmental Physiology: 157-185. First published in print 1996. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp040109