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Mixed‐gas Saturation Diving

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Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Rationale
2 High Pressure Nervous Syndrome
2.1 Signs and Symptoms
2.2 Prevention of HPNS
2.3 Mechanisms of HPNS
3 Thermoregulatory Function
3.1 Physical Characteristics of Helium Environment
3.2 Comfortable Temperature
3.3 Convective Heat Loss
3.4 Radiation
3.5 Evaporation
3.6 Respiratory Heat Loss
3.7 Possible Metabolic Effects
3.8 Physical Activity
3.9 Specific Technical Problems
4 Work Capacity
5 Cardiopulmonary Functions
5.1 Respiratory Functions
5.2 Cardiovascular Functions
6 Body Fluid Balance
6.1 Physical Characteristics of the Environment Which Affect Body Fluid Balance
6.2 Characteristics of Hyperbaric Diuresis
6.3 Mechanisms of Hyperbaric Diuresis
6.4 Effects of Immersion
7 Conclusions
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Total ascent time and bottom time/total diving time ratio as a function of bottom time. Left: Air scuba dive to 190 ft; right: He‐O2 saturation dive to 200 ft.

Figure 2. Figure 2.

Comfort temperatures for prolonged stay in hyperbaric helium atmosphere. The empirical line is drawn from various observations of saturation dives (•, ref. 162; ▪, ref. 129; Δ, ref. 131; ◯, ref.; □, ref. 167; *, refs. 153, 154). Adapted from Webb et al. , with permission.

Figure 3. Figure 3.

Routes of body heat loss in resting men in helium‐oxygen at pressures ranging between 1 and 49.5 ATA. Adapted from Raymond et al. , with permission.

Figure 4. Figure 4.

Skin‐to‐ambient gas thermal gradient for mildly active men in various ambient temperatures. Adapted from Webb , with permission.

Figure 5. Figure 5.

Resting heart rate in humans at sea level and at depths of up to 35.8 ATA. See Table in Lin and Shida for numerical values and references.

Reproduced with permission
Figure 6. Figure 6.

Heart rate during exercise in hyperbaric environments. Numerical values and sources are listed in Table in Lin and Shida .

Reproduced with permission
Figure 7. Figure 7.

Correlations of data obtained from Alexander et al. , Matsuda et al. , Hong et al. , Neuman et al. , Leach et al. , Claybaugh et al. , Shiraki et al. , Raymond et al. , Goldinger et al. , Sagawa et al. , and Miyamoto et al. were used to compile the 12 points. Leach et al. was used for two pressures. Correlation coefficients and level of significance are shown. V = urine flow, UOSM = urine osmolality, UOSMV = excretion of osmotic particles.

Figure 8. Figure 8.

Urinary excretion of ADH during daytime (open bars, upward direction) and nighttime (shaded bars, downward direction) at predive, 31 ATA, decompression, and postdive. Vertical lines on histogram bars represent ± SE. Vertical arrows with *** represent P < 0.005 for day vs. night when all three predive days are considered. Horizontal lines indicate differences between that period when compared to corresponding daytime or nighttime values for days 2, 3, and 4 combined at P < 0.05 (*), P < 0.01 (**), and P < 0.005 (***).

Reproduced from Claybaugh et al. , with permission
Figure 9. Figure 9.

Plasma concentrations of water and electrolyte regulating hormones at predive, 31 ATA (Dive), and postdive. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), plasma renin activity (PRA), aldosterone (ALDO), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and cortisol (CORT) were measured in plasma. Horizontal bars over histogram bars indicate significant differences compared to predive days 2 and 3 at P < 0.05 (*), P < 0.01 (**), and P < 0.005 (***).

Reproduced from Claybaugh et al. , with permission


Figure 1.

Total ascent time and bottom time/total diving time ratio as a function of bottom time. Left: Air scuba dive to 190 ft; right: He‐O2 saturation dive to 200 ft.



Figure 2.

Comfort temperatures for prolonged stay in hyperbaric helium atmosphere. The empirical line is drawn from various observations of saturation dives (•, ref. 162; ▪, ref. 129; Δ, ref. 131; ◯, ref.; □, ref. 167; *, refs. 153, 154). Adapted from Webb et al. , with permission.



Figure 3.

Routes of body heat loss in resting men in helium‐oxygen at pressures ranging between 1 and 49.5 ATA. Adapted from Raymond et al. , with permission.



Figure 4.

Skin‐to‐ambient gas thermal gradient for mildly active men in various ambient temperatures. Adapted from Webb , with permission.



Figure 5.

Resting heart rate in humans at sea level and at depths of up to 35.8 ATA. See Table in Lin and Shida for numerical values and references.

Reproduced with permission


Figure 6.

Heart rate during exercise in hyperbaric environments. Numerical values and sources are listed in Table in Lin and Shida .

Reproduced with permission


Figure 7.

Correlations of data obtained from Alexander et al. , Matsuda et al. , Hong et al. , Neuman et al. , Leach et al. , Claybaugh et al. , Shiraki et al. , Raymond et al. , Goldinger et al. , Sagawa et al. , and Miyamoto et al. were used to compile the 12 points. Leach et al. was used for two pressures. Correlation coefficients and level of significance are shown. V = urine flow, UOSM = urine osmolality, UOSMV = excretion of osmotic particles.



Figure 8.

Urinary excretion of ADH during daytime (open bars, upward direction) and nighttime (shaded bars, downward direction) at predive, 31 ATA, decompression, and postdive. Vertical lines on histogram bars represent ± SE. Vertical arrows with *** represent P < 0.005 for day vs. night when all three predive days are considered. Horizontal lines indicate differences between that period when compared to corresponding daytime or nighttime values for days 2, 3, and 4 combined at P < 0.05 (*), P < 0.01 (**), and P < 0.005 (***).

Reproduced from Claybaugh et al. , with permission


Figure 9.

Plasma concentrations of water and electrolyte regulating hormones at predive, 31 ATA (Dive), and postdive. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), plasma renin activity (PRA), aldosterone (ALDO), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and cortisol (CORT) were measured in plasma. Horizontal bars over histogram bars indicate significant differences compared to predive days 2 and 3 at P < 0.05 (*), P < 0.01 (**), and P < 0.005 (***).

Reproduced from Claybaugh et al. , with permission
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Suk Ki Hong, Peter B. Bennett, Keizo Shiraki, Yu‐Chong Lin, John R. Claybaugh. Mixed‐gas Saturation Diving. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 14: Handbook of Physiology, Environmental Physiology: 1023-1045. First published in print 1996. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp040244