Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Pharmacology of biliary tract

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Anatomic And Physiological Considerations
2 Pharmacological Considerations
3 Cholinergic Drugs
4 Adrenergic Drugs
5 Autacoids
5.1 Prostaglandins
5.2 Serotonin
5.3 Histamine
6 Neuropeptides
6.1 Cholecystokinin‐Gastrin Family of Peptides
6.2 Gastrin
6.3 Caerulein
6.4 Secretín, Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide, Glucagon, and Gastrointestinal Inhibitory Polypeptide Family
6.5 Somatostatin and Bombesin
6.6 Opiates
6.7 Motilin
6.8 Pancreatic Polypeptide
6.9 Sex Hormones
6.10 Substance P
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Effect of tetrodotoxin (TTX) on cat sphincter of Oddi. Marked increase in sphincter of Oddi motor activity is observed after intravenous administration of TTX.

From Behar and Biancani
Figure 2. Figure 2.

Carbachol (Karb) causes marked contraction of cat gallbladder strips (right) that was of greater magnitude than contraction observed with norepinephrine (Nadr) after propranolol (left).

From Persson
Figure 3. Figure 3.

Cumulative dose‐response curves of isoprenaline (IPR), epinephrine (ADR), norepinephrine (NADR), tyramine (TYR), and terbutaline (TRB) obtained on isolated cat gallbladder strips. These catecholamines cause gallbladder relaxation expressed as percent from base line.

From Persson
Figure 4. Figure 4.

Effect of octapeptide of cholecystokinin (OP‐CCK) on cat gallbladder (GBP) and sphincter of Oddi pressures (SOP). OP‐CCK causes gallbladder contraction and sphincter of Oddi relaxation. Arrow indicates timing of OP‐CCK administration.

From Behar and Biancani
Figure 5. Figure 5.

Effect of octapeptide of cholecystokinin (OP‐CCK) on cat gallbladder (GBP) and sphincter of Oddi pressures after denervation with tetrodotoxin. OP‐CCK causes gallbladder and sphincter of Oddi contraction. In contrast, isoproterenol is still capable of causing sphincter of Oddi relaxation.

From Behar and Biancani
Figure 6. Figure 6.

Effect of octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK‐OP) on human sphincter of Oddi and duodenum in vivo.

From Geenan et al. . Copyright 1980 by the American Gastroenterological Association
Figure 7. Figure 7.

Effect of octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK‐OP) on amplitude (pressure) and frequency of phasic contractions of human sphincter of Oddi in vivo. Asterisks indicate that changes were statistically significant from base line.

From Geenan et al. . Copyright 1980 by the American Gastroenterological Association
Figure 8. Figure 8.

Cat sphincter of Oddi responses to an intra‐arterial dose of Met‐enkephalin. Biphasic response (middle) of contraction followed by relaxation was most common. SOP, sphincter of Oddi pressure.

From Behar and Biancani . Copyright 1984 by the American Gastroenterological Association
Figure 9. Figure 9.

Effect of naloxone on cat sphincter of Oddi in vivo. This opiate antagonist causes relaxation with decrease in tonic pressures and abolition of phasic contractions. SOP, sphincter of Oddi pressure.

From Behar and Biancani
Figure 10. Figure 10.

Effect of progesterone (P) pretreatment (2 mg·kg−1·day−1) on in vitro contractile response of male guinea pig gallbladder smooth muscle to acetylcholine stimulation.

From Ryan and Pellecchia . Copyright 1982 by the American Gastroenterological Association
Figure 11. Figure 11.

Effect of progesterone (P) pretreatment (2 mg·kg−1·day−1) on in vitro contractile response of male guinea pig gallbladder smooth muscle to octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK‐OP) stimulation.

From Ryan and Pellecchia . Copyright 1982 by the American Gastroenterological Association


Figure 1.

Effect of tetrodotoxin (TTX) on cat sphincter of Oddi. Marked increase in sphincter of Oddi motor activity is observed after intravenous administration of TTX.

From Behar and Biancani


Figure 2.

Carbachol (Karb) causes marked contraction of cat gallbladder strips (right) that was of greater magnitude than contraction observed with norepinephrine (Nadr) after propranolol (left).

From Persson


Figure 3.

Cumulative dose‐response curves of isoprenaline (IPR), epinephrine (ADR), norepinephrine (NADR), tyramine (TYR), and terbutaline (TRB) obtained on isolated cat gallbladder strips. These catecholamines cause gallbladder relaxation expressed as percent from base line.

From Persson


Figure 4.

Effect of octapeptide of cholecystokinin (OP‐CCK) on cat gallbladder (GBP) and sphincter of Oddi pressures (SOP). OP‐CCK causes gallbladder contraction and sphincter of Oddi relaxation. Arrow indicates timing of OP‐CCK administration.

From Behar and Biancani


Figure 5.

Effect of octapeptide of cholecystokinin (OP‐CCK) on cat gallbladder (GBP) and sphincter of Oddi pressures after denervation with tetrodotoxin. OP‐CCK causes gallbladder and sphincter of Oddi contraction. In contrast, isoproterenol is still capable of causing sphincter of Oddi relaxation.

From Behar and Biancani


Figure 6.

Effect of octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK‐OP) on human sphincter of Oddi and duodenum in vivo.

From Geenan et al. . Copyright 1980 by the American Gastroenterological Association


Figure 7.

Effect of octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK‐OP) on amplitude (pressure) and frequency of phasic contractions of human sphincter of Oddi in vivo. Asterisks indicate that changes were statistically significant from base line.

From Geenan et al. . Copyright 1980 by the American Gastroenterological Association


Figure 8.

Cat sphincter of Oddi responses to an intra‐arterial dose of Met‐enkephalin. Biphasic response (middle) of contraction followed by relaxation was most common. SOP, sphincter of Oddi pressure.

From Behar and Biancani . Copyright 1984 by the American Gastroenterological Association


Figure 9.

Effect of naloxone on cat sphincter of Oddi in vivo. This opiate antagonist causes relaxation with decrease in tonic pressures and abolition of phasic contractions. SOP, sphincter of Oddi pressure.

From Behar and Biancani


Figure 10.

Effect of progesterone (P) pretreatment (2 mg·kg−1·day−1) on in vitro contractile response of male guinea pig gallbladder smooth muscle to acetylcholine stimulation.

From Ryan and Pellecchia . Copyright 1982 by the American Gastroenterological Association


Figure 11.

Effect of progesterone (P) pretreatment (2 mg·kg−1·day−1) on in vitro contractile response of male guinea pig gallbladder smooth muscle to octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK‐OP) stimulation.

From Ryan and Pellecchia . Copyright 1982 by the American Gastroenterological Association
References
 1. Adrian, T. E., H. S. Besterman, T. J. C. Cooke, S. R. Bloom, A. J. Barnes, R. C. G. Russell, and R. G. Faber. Mechanism of pancreatic polypeptide release in man. Lancet 1: 161–163, 1977.
 2. Adrian, T. E., P. Mitchenere, G. Sagor, and S. R. Bloom. Effect of pancreatic polypeptide on gallbladder pressure and hepatic bile secretion. Am. J. Physiol. 243 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 6): G204–G207, 1982.
 3. Adrian, T. E., P. Mitchenere, G. Sagor, N. D. Christofides, and S. R. Bloom. Effect of motilin and other gut hormones on gallbladder pressure. Regul. Peptide Suppl. 1: S1, 1980.
 4. Agosti, A., P. Mantovani, and L. Mori. Action of caerulein and related substances on the sphincter of Oddi. Naunyn‐Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 268: 114–118, 1971.
 5. Al‐Hassani, M. H., and J. S. Davison. The role of non‐cholinergic, non‐adrenergic inhibitory neurons in the regulation of the guinea‐pig gall‐bladder (Abstract). J. Physiol. Lond. 292: 48P, 1979.
 6. Amer, M. S. Studies with cholecystokinin. II. Cholecystokinetic potency of porcine gastrins I and II and related peptides in three systems. Endocrinology 84: 1277–1281, 1969.
 7. Amer, M. S. Studies with cholecystokinin in vitro. III. Mechanism of the effect on the isolated rabbit gallbladder strips. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 183: 527–534, 1972.
 8. Amer, M. S. Cyclic guanosine 3′,5′‐monophosphate and gallbladder contraction. Gastroenterology 67: 333–337, 1974.
 9. Andersen, B. N. Measurement and occurrence of sulfated gastrins. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 168: 5–24, 1984.
 10. Andersson, K. E., R. Andersson, P. Hedner, and C. G. A. Persson. Analogous effects of cholecystokinin and prostaglandin E2 on mechanical activity and tissue levels of cAMP in biliary smooth muscle. Acta Physiol. Scand. 89: 571–579, 1973.
 11. Andersson, K. E., R. Andersson, P. Hedner, and C. G. A. Persson. Interrelations between cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, and contraction in guinea pig gallbladder stimulated by cholecystokinin. Life Sci. 20: 73, 1977.
 12. Andersson, K. E., P. Hedner, and C. G. A. Persson. Differentiation of the contractile effects of prostaglandin E2 and the C‐terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin in isolated guinea‐pig gallbladder. Acta Physiol. Scand. 90: 657–663, 1974.
 13. Andersson, K. E., P. Hedner, and C. G. A. Persson. Effects of lanthanum and calcium antagonists on contractile responses of isolated guinea pig gallbladder. Acta Physiol. Scand. 91: 16A, 1974.
 14. Asaoka, H., and M. Oouchi. Effects of morphine on the guinea pig biliary tract. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 80: 311–316, 1982.
 15. Ashkin, J. R., D. T. Lyon, S. D. Shull, C. I. Wagner, and R. D. Soloway. Factors affecting delivery of bile to the duodenum in man. Gastroenterology 74: 560–565, 1978.
 16. Bainbridge, F. A., and H. H. Dale. The contractile mechanism of the gallbladder and its extrinsic nervous control. J. Physiol. Lond. 33: 138–155, 1905.
 17. Banfield, W. J. Physiology of the gallbladder. Gastroenterology 69: 770–777, 1975.
 18. Barlas, N., R. T. Jensen, M. C. Beinfeld, and J. D. Gardner. Cyclic nucleotide antagonists of cholecystokinin: structural requirements for interaction with the cholecystokinin receptor. Am. J. Physiol. 242 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 5): G161–G167, 1982.
 19. Baumgarten, H. G., and W. Lange. Extrinsic adrenergic innervation of the extrahepatic biliary system in guinea pigs, cats, and rhesus monkeys. Z. Zellforsch. Mikrosk. Anat. 100: 606–615, 1969.
 20. Becker, J. M., F. G. Moody, and A. R. Zinsmeister. Effect of gastrointestinal hormones on the biliary sphincter of the opossum. Gastroenterology 82: 1300–1307, 1982.
 21. Beglinger, C., F. Meyer, W. Hack, and K. Gyr. The release of pancreatic polypeptide by exogenous CCK in man and dog. Digestion 22: 225–228, 1981.
 22. Behar, J. Effect of pentagastrin on the feline sphincter of Oddi: evidence for a PG inhibitory receptor. Gastroenterology 78: 1139, 1980.
 23. Behar, J., and P. Biancani. Effect of cholecystokinin and the octapeptide of cholecystokinin on the feline sphincter of Oddi and gallbladder. J. Clin. Invest. 66: 1231–1239, 1980.
 24. Behar, J., and P. Biancani. Neural control of the feline gallbladder. In: Gastrointestinal Motility, edited by J. Christensen. New York: Raven, 1980, p. 97–109.
 25. Behar, J., and P. Biancani. Effect of naloxone on the cat sphincter of Oddi (SO): evidence for a physiological role of opioid peptides in the regulation of the sphincter of Oddi. In: Motility of the Digestive Tract, edited by M. Weinbeck. New York: Raven, 1982, p. 397–403.
 26. Behar, J., and P. Biancani. Neural control of the sphincter of Oddi: a physiological role of 5‐hydroxytryptamine in the regulation of basal sphincter of Oddi motor activity in the cat. J. Clin. Invest. 72: 551–559, 1983.
 27. Behar, J., and P. Biancani. Effect of motilin on the cat sphincter of Oddi: mechanisms of action. Gastroenterology 84: 1102, 1983.
 28. Behar, J., and P. Biancani. Neural control of the sphincter of Oddi: physiologic role of enkephalins on the regulation of basal sphincter of Oddi motor activity in the cat. Gastroenterology 86: 134–141, 1984.
 29. Behar, J., and P. Biancani. Pharmacological characterization of excitatory and inhibitory cholecystokinin receptors of the cat gallbladder and sphincter of Oddi. Dig. Dis. Sci. 29: 8, 1984.
 30. Behar, J., and P. Biancani. Role of cat sphincter of Oddi motor activity on trans‐sphincteric flow (TSF). Gastroenterology 88: 1320, 1985.
 31. Bennett, A., J. G. Murray, and J. G. Wyllie. Occurrence of prostaglandin E2 in the human stomach, and a study of its effects on human isolated gastric muscle. Br. J. Pharmacol. 32: 339–349, 1968.
 32. Bennett, A., and J. Posner. Studies on prostaglandin antagonists. Br. J. Pharmacol. 42: 584–594, 1971.
 33. Bergh, G. S. The effect of food upon the sphincter of Oddi in human subjects. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 9: 40–43, 1942.
 34. Bergh, G. S., and J. A. Layne. A demonstration of the independent contraction of the sphincter of the common bile duct in human subjects. Am. J. Physiol. 128: 690–694, 1940.
 35. Bertaccini, G., G. De Caro, R. Endean, V. Erspamer, and M. Impicciatore. The actions of caerulein on the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract and the gall bladder. Br. J. Pharmacol. 34: 291–310, 1968.
 36. Biancani, P., L. K. Licalzi, and R. W. McCallum. Mechanism of histamine‐induced excitation of the cat pylorus. J. Clin. Invest. 68: 582–588, 1981.
 37. Bjorck, S., J. M. Lundberg, L. Jivegard, and J. Svanik. Substance‐P, enkephalin, and VIP in the feline gallbladder: distribution of immunoreactivity and functional effects by exogenous administration. In: Mechanisms of Gastrointestinal Motility and Secretion, edited by A. Bennet and G. P. Velo. New York: Plenum, 1984, p. 159–175.
 38. Bjorck, S., and J. Svanik. The influence of somatostatin on gallbladder response to intraduodenal acid and autonomic nerve stimulation in the cat. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 19: 173–177, 1984.
 39. Bjornsson, O. G., T. E. Adrian, J. Dawson, R. F. McCloy, G. R. Greenberg, S. R. Bloom, and V. S. Chadwick. Effects of gastrointestinal hormones on fasting gallbladder storage patterns in man. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 9: 293–300, 1979.
 40. Bloom, S. R., T. E. Adrian, P. Mitchenere, G. R. Sagor, and N. D. Christofides. Motilin‐induced gallbladder contraction—a new mechanism. Gastroenterology 80: 1113, 1981.
 41. Bloom, S. R., S. N. Joffe, and J. M. Polak. Effect of somatostatin on pancreatic and biliary function. Gut 16: 836–837, 1975.
 42. Bloom, S. R., P. Mitznegg, and M. G. Bryant. Measurement of human plasma motilin. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 11: 47–52, 1976.
 43. Bortoff, A., E. Morello, and P. Mistretta. Effects of progesterone and 17‐OH progesterone on intestinal slow wave propagation. In: Gastrointestinal Motility, edited by J. Christensen. New York: Raven, 1980, p. 387–393.
 44. Boyden, E. A. The sphincter of Oddi in man and certain representative mammals. Surgery St. Louis 1: 25–37, 1937.
 45. Boyden, E. A. The choledochoduodenal junction in the cat. Surgery St. Louis 41: 773–786, 1957.
 46. Boyden, E. A. The anatomy of the choledochoduodenal junction in man. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 104: 641–652, 1957.
 47. Braverman, D. Z., M. L. Johnson, and F. Kern. Effects of pregnancy and contraceptive steroids on gallbladder function. N. Engl. J. Med. 302: 362–364, 1980.
 48. Brennan, L. J., T. A. McLoughlin, V. Mutt, K. Tatemoto, and J. R. Wood. Effects on PHI, a newly isolated peptide, on gallbladder function in the guinea pig (Abstract). J. Physiol. Lond. 329: 71P, 1982.
 49. Broughton, A. C., D. C. Secord, and G. W. Scott. Effects of adrenergic stimulation on the choledochoduodenal sphincter mechanism. Pharmacology 15: 152–161, 1977.
 50. Brown, J. C., V. Mutt, and J. R. Dryburgh. The further purification of motilin, a gastric motor activity stimulating polypeptide from the mucosa of the small intestine of hogs. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 49: 399–405, 1971.
 51. Brownlee, G., and E. S. Johnson. The site of the 5‐hydroxytryptamine receptor on the intramural nervous plexus of the guinea‐pig isolated ileum. Br. J. Pharmacol. 21: 306–322, 1963.
 52. Brownlee, G., and E. S. Johnson. The release of acetylcholine from the isolated ileum of the guinea‐pig induced by 5‐hydroxytryptamine and dimethylphenylpiperazinium. Br. J. Pharmacol. 24: 689–700, 1965.
 53. Bruce, L. A., and F. M. Behsudi. Differential inhibition of regional gastrointestinal tissues. Life Sci. 25: 729–734, 1979.
 54. Bruce, L. A., and F. M. Behsudi. Differential inhibition of regional gastrointestinal tissue to progesterone in the rat. Life Sci. 27: 427–438, 1980.
 55. Buchan, A. M. J., J. M. Polak, E. Solcia, C. Capella, D. Hudson, and A. G. E. Pearse. Electron immunohistochemical evidence for the human intestinal I cell as the source of CCK. Gut 19: 403–407, 1978.
 56. Buffa, R., E. Solcia, and V. L. W. Go. Immunohistochemical identification of the cholecystokinin cell in the intestinal mucosa. Gastroenterology 70: 528–532, 1976.
 57. Burget, G. E., and R. J. Brocklehurst. The bile‐expelling mechanism in the guinea pig. Am. J. Physiol. 83: 578–588, 1928.
 58. Burks, T. F. Central sites of action of gastrointestinal drugs. Gastroenterology 74: 322–324, 1978.
 59. Burks, T. F., and J. P. Long. Catecholamine‐induced release of 5‐hydroxytryptamine from perfused vasculature of isolated dog intestine. J. Pharm. Sci. 55: 1383–1386, 1966.
 60. Burks, T. F., and J. P. Long. Release of 5‐hydroxytryptamine from isolated dog intestine by nicotine. Br. J. Pharmacol. 30: 229–239, 1967.
 61. Burks, T. F., and J. P. Long. Release of intestinal 5‐hydroxytryptamine by morphine and related agents. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 156: 267–276, 1967.
 62. Butsch, W. L., J. M. McGowan, and W. Walters. Clinical studies on the influence of certain drugs in relation to biliary pain and to the variations in intraductal pressure. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 63: 451–456, 1936.
 63. Byrnes, D. J., T. Borody, G. Daskalopoulos, M. Boyle, and I. Benn. Cholecystokinin and gallbladder contraction: effect of CCK infusion. Peptides 2: 259–262, 1981.
 64. Cai, W., and G. Gabella. Innervation of the gallbladder and biliary pathways in the guinea pig. J. Anat. 136: 97–109, 1983.
 65. Cameron, A. J., S. F. Phillips, and W. H. J. Summerskill. Effect of cholecystokinin, gastrin, secretin and glucagon on human gallbladder muscle in vitro. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 131: 149–154, 1969.
 66. Carr‐Locke, D. L., J. A. Gregg, and W. Y. Chey. Effect of exogenous secretin on pancreatic and biliary ductal and sphincteric pressures in man demonstrated by endoscopic manometry and correlation with plasma secretin levels. Dig. Dis. Sci. 30: 909–917, 1985.
 67. Chang, K. J., A. Killian, E. Hazum, and P. Cuatrecasas. Morphiceptin: a potent and specific agonist for morphine receptors. Science Wash. DC 212: 75–77, 1981.
 68. Chang, R. S., V. J. Lotti, and T. B. Chen. Further evidence that substance P partly mediates the action of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK‐8) on the guinea pig ileum but not gall bladder: studies with a substance P antagonist. Neurosci. Lett. 46: 71–75, 1984.
 69. Chernish, S. M., R. E. Miller, B. D. Rosenak, and N. E. Scholz. Effect of glucagon on size of visualized human gallbladder before and after a fat meal. Gastroenterology 62: 1218–1226, 1972.
 70. Chiodo, L. A., and B. S. Bunney. Proglumide: selective antagonism of excitatory effects of cholecystokinin in central nervous system. Science Wash. DC 219: 1449–1451, 1983.
 71. Chowdhury, J. R., J. M. Berkowitz, M. Praissman, and J. W. Fara. Interaction between octapeptide‐cholecystokinin, gastrin, and secretin, on cat gallbladder in vitro. Am. J. Physiol. 229: 1311–1315, 1975.
 72. Chowdhury, J. R., J. M. Berkowitz, M. Praissman, and J. W. Fara. Effect of sulfated and non‐sulfated gastrin and octapeptide‐cholecystokinin on cat gall bladder in vitro. Experientia 32: 1173–1175, 1976.
 73. Collins, S. M., S. Abdelmoumene, R. T. Jensen, and J. D. Gardner. Reversal of cholecystokinin‐induced persistent stimulation of pancreatic enzyme secretion by dibutyryl cyclic GMP. Am. J. Physiol. 240 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 3): G466–G471, 1981.
 74. Copher, G. H., S. Kodama, and E. A. Graham. The filling and emptying of the gallbladder. J. Exp. Med. 44: 65–73, 1926.
 75. Corazziari, E., F. I. Habib, G. F. Delle Fave, P. Melchiorri, A. Torsoli, and R. Carratu. Gastrointestinal and gallbladder motor effects of bombesin in man. Mater. Med. Pol. 9: 139–143, 1977.
 76. Corazziari, E., A. Torsoli, P. Melchiorri, and G. F. Delle Fave. Effect of bombesin on human gallbladder emptying. Rend. Gastroenterol. 6: 227, 1974.
 77. Costa, M., and J. B. Furness. The sites of action of 5‐hydroxytryptamine in nerve‐muscle preparations from the guinea‐pig small intestine and colon. Br. J. Pharmacol. 65: 237–248, 1979.
 78. Costa, M., Y. Patel, J. B. Furness, and A. Arimura. Evidence that some intrinsic neurons of the intestine contain somatostatin. Neurosci. Lett. 6: 215–222, 1977.
 79. Cox, K. L., G. L. Rosenquist, and C. K. Iwahashi‐Hosoda. Noncholecystokinin peptides in human serum which cause gallbladder contraction. Life Sci. 31: 3023–3029, 1982.
 80. Crema, A., G. Benzi, G. M. Frigo, and F. Berte. The responses of the terminal bile duct to morphine and morphinelike drugs. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 149: 373–378, 1965.
 81. Creutzfeldt, W., P. G. Lankisch, and U. R. Folsch. Hemmung der sekretin‐ und cholecystokinin‐pankreozymin‐induzierten saft‐und enzymasekretion des pankreas und der gallenblasenkontraktion beim menschen durch somatostatin. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 100: 1135–1138, 1975.
 82. Crossley, A. W. A., and J. S. Gillespie. The effect of an inhibitory factor from the bovine retractor penis on the gastrointestinal tract and gallbladder of the guinea‐pig. Br. J. Pharmacol. 78: 213–220, 1983.
 83. Curreri, A. R., and J. W. Gale. Effect of analgesics and antispasmodics on common duct pressures. Ann. Surg. 132: 348–361, 1950.
 84. Daniel, E. E., J. E. T. Fox, J. Jury, and S. M. Collins. Sites and mechanisms of actions of neuro‐peptides on gut motility differ in vivo and in vitro. Gastroenterology 82: 1039, 1982.
 85. Davison, J. S., and S. Fosel. Interactions between vagus nerve stimulation and pentagastrin or secretin on the guinea pig gallbladder. Digestion 13: 251–254, 1975.
 86. Davison, J. S., and S. A. Najafi‐Farashah. Dibutyryl cyclic GMP, a competitive inhibitor of cholecystokinin/pancreozymin and related peptides in the gallbladder and ileum. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 59: 1100–1104, 1981.
 87. Davison, J. S., and S. A. Najafi‐Farashah. Proglumide: a specific antagonist to the actions of cholecystokinin‐like peptides in guinea‐pig gallbladder and ileum. Pharmacol. Physiol. 10: 409–410, 1982.
 88. Dedrick, D. F., W. W. Tanner, and F. L. Bushkin. Common bile duct pressure during enflurane anesthesia. Arch. Surg. 115: 820–822, 1980.
 89. Deschodt‐Lanckman, M., N. D. Bui, D. Koulischer, P. Paroutaud, and A. Strosberg. Cholecystokinin octa‐ and tetrapeptide degradation by synaptic membranes. II. Solubilization and separation of membrane‐bound CCK‐8 cleaving enzymes. Peptides 4: 71–78, 1983.
 90. Dockray, G. J. Immunoreactive component resembling cholecystokinin octapeptide in intestine. Nature Lond. 270: 357–361, 1977.
 91. Dockray, G. J., J. F. Rehfeld, and J. H. Walsh. Naming gastrin and cholecystokinin peptides. In: Gastrins and the Vagus, edited by J. F. Rehfeld and E. Amdrup. London: Academic, 1979, p. 95–97.
 92. Doggrell, S. A., and G. W. Scott. The occurrence of postsynaptic alpha and beta‐adrenoceptors in the guinea‐pig gall bladder. Br. J. Pharmacol. 71: 185–189, 1980.
 93. Dubois, F. S., and E. A. Hunt. Peristalsis of the common bile duct in the opossum. Anat. Rec. 53: 387–397, 1932.
 94. Dubois, M. P. Immunoreactive somatostatin is present in discrete cells of the endocrine pancreas. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72: 1340–1343, 1975.
 95. Edin, R., J. Lundberg, L. Terenius, A. Dahlstrom, T. Hökfelt, J. Kewenter, and H. Ahlman. Evidence for vagal enkephalinergic neural control of the feline pylorus. Gastroenterology 78: 492–497, 1980.
 96. Eichhorn, E. P., and E. A. Boyden. The choledochoduodenal junction in the dog. A restudy of Oddi's sphincter. Am. J. Anat. 97: 431–460, 1955.
 97. Englert, E., and V. S. Chin. Quantitation of human biliary evacuation with a radioisotope technique. Gastroenterology 50: 506–508, 1966.
 98. Erspamer, V., G. Improta, P. Melchiorri, and N. Sopranzi. Evidence of cholecystokinin release by bombesin in the dog. Br. J. Pharmacol. 52: 227–232, 1974.
 99. Everson, G. T., C. McKinley, M. Lawson, M. Johnson, and F. Kern. Gallbladder function in the human female: effect of the ovulatory cycle, pregnancy, and contraceptive steroids. Gastroenterology 82: 711–719, 1982.
 100. Fara, J. W., and S. M. Erde. Comparison of in vivo and in vitro responses to sulfated and non‐sulfated ceruletide. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 47: 359–363, 1978.
 101. Feeley, T. M., A. S. Clanachan, and G. W. Scott. The effects of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide on the motility of human and guinea pig gallbladder. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 62: 356–359, 1984.
 102. Fried, G. M., W. D. Ogden, C. J. Fagan, K. Inoue, G. Greeley, and J. C. Thompson. Plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin in patients with duodenal ulcer disease. Surgery St. Louis 95: 27–33, 1984.
 103. Gadacz, T. R. Effect of an H‐2 antagonist on gallbladder contraction. J. Surg. Res. 25: 334–341, 1978.
 104. Gardner, J. D., M. Knight, V. E. Sutliff, C. A. Tamminga, and R. T. Jensen. Derivatives of CCK‐(26–32) as cholecystokinin receptor antagonists in guinea pig pancreatic acini. Am. J. Physiol. 246 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 9): G292–G295, 1984.
 105. Geenen, J. E., W. J. Hogan, W. J. Dodds, E. T. Stewart, and R. C. Arndorfer. Intraluminal pressure recordings from the human sphincter of Oddi. Gastroenterology 78: 317–324, 1980.
 106. Gershon, M. D. Effects of tetrodotoxin on innervated smooth muscle preparations. Br. J. Pharmacol. Chemother. 29: 259–279, 1967.
 107. Gershon, M. D. Putative neurotransmitters: serotonin. Neurosci. Res. Program Bull. 17: 414–424, 1979.
 108. Gershon, M. D., and S. M. Erde. The nervous system of the gut. Gastroenterology 80: 1571–1594, 1981.
 109. Gessner, P. K. Pharmacological studies of 5‐methoxy‐N,N‐dimethyltryptamine, LSD, and other hallucinogens. In: Psychosomatic Drugs, edited by D. H. Efron. New York: Raven, 1969, p. 105–122.
 110. Gorham, F. W., and A. C. Ivy. Evolutionary contributions to the general function of the gallbladder. Am. J. Digest. Dis. 4: 792–796, 1938.
 111. Gorham, F. W., and A. C. Ivy. General function of the gallbladder from the evolutionary standpoint. Zoo. Ser. Field Museum Natl. Hist. 22: 159–213, 1938.
 112. Greider, M. H., V. Steinberg, and J. E. McGuigan. Electron microscopic identification of the gastrin cell of the human antral mucosa by means of immunocytochemistry. Gastroenterology 63: 572–582, 1972.
 113. Grider, J. R., and G. M. Makhlouf. Regulation of intestinal peristalsis by intramural opioid neurons. Gastroenterology 86: 1099, 1984.
 114. Grossman, M. I. Candidate hormones of the gut. I. Introduction. Gastroenterology 67: 730–731, 1974.
 115. Gullo, L., L. Bolondi, P. Priori, P. Casanova, and G. Labo. Inhibitory effect of atropine on cholecystokinin‐induced gallbladder contraction in man. Digestion 29: 209–213, 1984.
 116. Guzman, S., J. Lonovics, K. E. Hejtmancik, P. L. Rayford, and J. L. Thompson. Hormone‐stimulated release of pancreatic polypeptide before and after vagotomy in dogs. Gastroenterology 76: 1147, 1979.
 117. Gyermek, L. 5‐Hydroxytryptamine antagonists. Pharmacol. Rev. 13: 399–439, 1961.
 118. Hahne, W. F., R. T. Jensen, G. F. Lemp, and J. D. Gardner. Proglumide and benzotript: members of a different class of cholecystokinin receptor antagonists. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 6304–6308, 1981.
 119. Hedqvist, P., S. Dahlen, L. Gustafsson, S. Hammarstrom, and B. Samuelsson. Biological profile of leukotrienes C4 and D4. Acta Physiol. Scand. 110: 331–333, 1980.
 120. Hinman, J. W. Prostaglandins. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 41: 161–178, 1972.
 121. Hökfelt, T., O. Johansson, A. Ljungdahl, J. M. Lundberg, and M. Schultzberg. Peptidergic neurons. Nature Lond. 284: 515–521, 1980.
 122. Holme, G., G. Brunet, H. Piechuta, P. Masson, Y. Girard, and J. Rokach. The activity of synthetic leukotriene C‐1 on guinea pig trachea and ileum. Prostaglandins 20: 717–728, 1980.
 123. Honda, R., J. Toouli, W. J. Dodds, W. J. Hogan, J. Geenen, and Z. Itoh. Effect of enteric hormones on sphincter of Oddi and gastrointestinal myoelectric activity in fasted conscious opossums. Gastroenterology 84: 1–9, 1983.
 124. Hughes, J. Isolation of an endogenous compound from the brain with pharmacological properties similar to morphine. Brain Res. 88: 295–308, 1975.
 125. Hughes, J., H. W. Kosterlitz, and T. W. Smith. The distribution of methionine‐enkephalin and leucine‐enkephalin in the brain and peripheral tissues. Br. J. Pharmacol. 61: 639–647, 1977.
 126. Impicciatore, M. Occurrence of H1‐ and H2‐histamine receptors in the guinea pig gallbladder in situ. Br. J. Pharmacol. 64: 219–222, 1978.
 127. Itoh, Z., I. Takahashi, and T. Suzuki. Contractile patterns of the gallbladder between meals in the dog. In: Motility of the Digestive Tract, edited by M. Weinbeck. New York: Raven, 1982, p. 405–413.
 128. Itoh, Z., S. Takeuchi, I. Aizawa, K. Mori, T. Taminato, Y. Seino, H. Imura, and N. Yanaihara. Changes in plasma motilin concentration and gastrointestinal contractile activity in conscious dogs. Dig. Dis. Sci. 23: 929–935, 1978.
 129. Ivy, A. C. The physiology of the gallbladder. Physiol. Rev. 14: 1–102, 1934.
 130. Jacobsson, B., J. Kewenter, and N. G. Kock. Action of codeine and some other antitussive drugs on choledochal pressure and duodenal activity: a study in cholecystectomized patients. Acta Chir. Scand. 122: 407–413, 1961.
 131. Jansen, J. B., and C. B. Lamers. Radioimmunoassay of cholecystokinin in human tissue and plasma. Clin. Chim. Acta 131: 305–316, 1983.
 132. Jansen, J. B., and C. B. Lamers. Effect of bombesin on plasma cholecystokinin in normal persons and gastrectomized patients measured by sequence‐specific radioimmunoassays. Surgery St. Louis 96: 55–60, 1984.
 133. Jansson, R., G. Steen, and J. Svanvik. Effects of intravenous vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on gallbladder function in the cat. Gastroenterology 75: 47–50, 1978.
 134. Jansson, R., G. Steen, and J. Svanvik. A comparison of glucagon, gastric inhibitory peptide, and secretin on gallbladder function, formation of bile, and pancreatic secretion in the cat. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 13: 919–925, 1978.
 135. Jansson, R., and J. Svanvik. Effects of intravenous secretin and cholecystokinin on gallbladder net water absorption and motility in the cat. Gastroenterology 72: 639–643, 1977.
 136. Jensen, R. T., S. W. Jones, and J. D. Gardner. COOH‐terminal fragments of cholecystokinin: a new class of cholecystokinin receptor antagonists. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 757: 250–258, 1983.
 137. Johnson, A. G., C. E. Marshall, and I. A. Wilson. Effects of some drugs and peptide hormones on the responsiveness of the rabbit isolated gallbladder to cholecystokinin. J. Physiol. Lond. 332: 415–425, 1982.
 138. Johnson, E. E. Morphine: a dual effect at the canine choledochoduodenal junction. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 219: 274–280, 1981.
 139. Johnson, L. R., G. F. Stening, and M. I. Grossman. Effect of sulfation on the gastrointestinal actions of caerulein. Gastroenterology 58: 208–216, 1970.
 140. Jones, R. S., R. E. Geist, and A. D. Hall. The choleretic effects of glucagon and secretin in the dog. Gastroenterology 60: 64–68, 1971.
 141. Kadlec, O., K. Masek, and I. Seferna. Modulation by prostaglandins of the release of acetylcholine and noradrenaline in guinea pig isolated ileum. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 205: 635–645, 1978.
 142. Kamata, M. Electrical and mechanical properties of smooth muscle cells of the guinea pig biliary system. Jpn. J. Physiol. 30: 179–204, 1980.
 143. Kao, C. Y. Pharmacology of tetrodotoxin and satitoxin. Federation Proc. 31: 1117–1123, 1972.
 144. Kerstens, P. J., C. B. Lamers, J. B. Jansen, A. J. De Jong, M. Hessels, and J. C. Hafkenscheid. Physiological plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin stimulate pancreatic enzyme secretion and gallbladder contraction in man. Life Sci. 36: 565–569, 1985.
 145. Kimura, M., S. Kobayashi, and I. Kimura. Evidence that relaxation of hog biliary muscle is mediated by the interaction between the protein inhibitor of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase and cholecystokinin C‐terminal peptides. Biochem. Pharmacol. 32: 795–798, 1983.
 146. Koelle, G. B. Neurohormonal transmission and the autonomic nervous system. In: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (5th ed.), edited by L. S. Goodman and A. Gilman. New York: Macmillan, 1975, chapt. 21, p. 404–444.
 147. Kotwall, C. A., A. S. Clanachan, H. P. Baer, and G. W. Scott. Effects of prostaglandins on motility of gallbladders removed from patients with gallstones. Arch. Surg. 119: 709–712, 1984.
 148. Kozoli, D. D., and H. Necheles. A study of the mechanics of bile flow. III. Responses to pharmacological stimuli. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 74: 961–967, 1942.
 149. Krejs, G. J., L. Orci, J. M. Conlon, M. Ravazzola, G. R. Davis, P. Raskin, S. M. Collins, D. M. McCarthy, D. Baetens, A. Rubenstein, T. A. M. Aldor, and R. H. Unger. Somatostatinoma syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 301: 285–292, 1979.
 150. Kromer, W., and W. Pretzlaff. In vitro evidence for the participation of intestinal opioids in the control of peristalsis in the guinea pig small intestine. Naunyn‐Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 309: 153–157, 1979.
 151. Kumar, D. In vitro inhibitory effect of progesterone on extrauterine human smooth muscle. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 84: 1300–1304, 1962.
 152. Kyosola, K., and L. Rechardt. The anatomy and innervation of the sphincter of Oddi in the dog and cat. Am. J. Anat. 140: 497–521, 1974.
 153. Lamorte, W. W., J. M. Gaca, W. E. Wise, D. H. Birkett, and L. F. Williams. Choledochal sphincter relaxation in response to histamine in the primate. J. Surg. Res. 28: 373–378, 1980.
 154. Lankisch, P. G., R. Arnold, and W. Creutzfeldt. Wirkung von Somatostatin auf die betzolstumulierte Pancreas‐Sekretion und Gallenblasenkontraktion des Menschen. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 36: 1798, 1975.
 155. Lee, W. H., and M. Fujiwara. Pharmacometrics of guinea‐pig's gallbladder in vitro. J. Formosan. Med. Assoc. 70: 687–696, 1971.
 156. Lee, W. H., and M. Fujiwara. Adrenoreceptors in the guinea pig's gallbladder. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. 22: 271–273, 1972.
 157. Lee, W. H., and M. Fujiwara. Quantitative studies of adrenoceptors in guinea‐pig gallbladders. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. 23: 586–588, 1973.
 158. Lee, W. H., and M. Fujiwara. Mechanism of action of catecholamines on the electrically‐stimulated, isolated guinea‐pig gallbladder. Arzneim. Forsch. 27: 1149–1153, 1977.
 159. Lembeck, F., and H. Juan. Comparative actions of peptides on the gallbladder and the sphincter of Oddi. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 21: 337–346, 1972.
 160. Lennon, F., T. M. Feeley, A. S. Clanachan, and G. W. Scott. Effects of histamine receptor stimulation on diseased gallbladder and cystic duct. Gastroenterology 87: 257–262, 1984.
 161. Liddle, R. A., I. D. Goldfine, M. S. Rosen, R. A. Taplitz, and J. A. Williams. Cholecystokinin bioactivity in human plasma. Molecular forms, responses to feeding, and relationship to gallbladder contraction. J. Clin. Invest. 75: 1144–1152, 1985.
 162. Liedberg, G., and C. G. A. Persson. Adrenoceptors in the cat choledochoduodenal junction studied in situ. Br. J. Pharmacol. 39: 619–626, 1970.
 163. Lin, T. M. Hepatic, cholecystokinetic, and choledochal actions of cholecystokinin, secretin, caerulein and gastrin‐like peptides (Abstract). In: Proc. Int. Congr. Physiol. Sci., 25th, Munich, 1971, vol. 9, p. 1877.
 164. Lin, T. M. Actions of secretin, glucagon, cholecystokinin, and endogenously released secretin and cholecystokinin on gallbladder, choledochus, and bile flow in dogs. Federation Proc. 33: 391, 1974.
 165. Lin, T. M. Actions of gastrointestinal hormones and related peptides on the motor function of the biliary tract. Gastroenterology 69: 1006–1022, 1975.
 166. Lin, T. M., and R. E. Chance. Spectrum of gastrointestinal actions of bovine PP. In: Gut Hormones, edited by S. R. Bloom. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1978, p. 242–246.
 167. Lin, T. M., T. C. Evans, C. J. Shaar, and R. E. Chance. Physiological versus pharmacological actions of bovine pancreatic polypeptide on the pancreas, stomach, gallbladder, choledochal sphincter and intestine of dogs. In: Gut Peptides: Secretion, Function and Clinical Aspects, edited by A. Miyoshi. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1979, p. 175–181.
 168. Lin, T. M., and G. F. Spray. Effect of pentagastrin, cholecystokinin, caerulein and glucagon on the choledochal resistance and bile flow of conscious dog. Gastroenterology 56: 1178, 1969.
 169. Lin, T. M., and G. F. Spray. Choledochal, hepatic, and cholecystokinin action of secretin, potentiation by cholecystokinin. Gastroenterology 60: 783, 1971.
 170. Lin, T. M., G. F. Spray, and R. H. Tuft. Actions of somatostatin (SS) on choledochal sphincter (CS), gallbladder (GB), and bile flow (BF) in dog. Federation Proc. 36: 557, 1977.
 171. Lonovics, J., P. Devitt, P. L. Rayford, and J. C. Thompson. Actions of VIP, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide on gallbladder tension and CCK‐stimulated gallbladder. Surg. Forum 30: 407, 1979.
 172. Lonovics, J., S. Guzman, P. Devitt, K. E. Hejtmancik, R. L. Suddith, P. L. Rayford, and J. C. Thompson. Release of pancreatic polypeptide in humans by infusion of cholecystokinin. Gastroenterology 79: 817–822, 1980.
 173. Lueth, H. C. Studies on the flow of bile into the duodenum and the existence of a sphincter of Oddi. Am. J. Physiol. 99: 237–252, 1931.
 174. Luft, R., S. Efendic, T. Hökfelt, O. Johansson, and A. Arimura. Immunohistochemical evidence for the localization of somatostatin‐like immunoreactivity in a cell population of the pancreatic islets. Med. Biol. 52: 428–430, 1974.
 175. Mack, A. J., and J. K. Todd. A study of human gall bladder muscle in vitro. Gut 9: 546–549, 1968.
 176. Mann, F. C. A study of the tonicity of the sphincter at the duodenal end of the common bile duct (with special reference to animals without a gallbladder). J. Lab. Clin. Med. 5: 107–110, 1919.
 177. Mann, F. C. A comparative study of the anatomy of the sphincter at the duodenal end of the common bile‐duct with special reference to species of animals without a gallbladder. Anat. Rec. 18: 355–360, 1920.
 178. Mann, F. C., J. P. Foster, and S. D. Brimhall. The relation of the common bile duct to the pancreatic duct in common domestic and laboratory animals. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 5: 203–206, 1920.
 179. Martinez, E., and J. C. Sarles. Effect of prostaglandins E1, E2, and F2α on the electric activity of the sphincter of Oddi in living rabbit. Eur. Surg. Res. 15: 322–327, 1983.
 180. Marzio, L., A. M. Digiammarco, M. Neri, F. Cuccurullo, and P. Malfertheiner. Atropine antagonizes cholecystokinin and cerulein‐induced gallbladder evacuation in man: a real‐time ultrasonographic study. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 80: 1–4, 1985.
 181. Maton, P. N., A. C. Selden, and V. S. Chadwick. Large and small forms of cholecystokinin in human plasma: measurement using high pressure liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay. Regul. Peptide 4: 251–260, 1982.
 182. Maton, P. N., A. C. Selden, M. L. Fitzpatrick, and V. S. Chadwick. Infusion of cholecystokinin octapeptide in man: relation between plasma cholecystokinin concentrations and gallbladder emptying rates. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 14: 37–41, 1984.
 183. McDonald, T. J. Non‐amphibian bombesin‐like peptides. In: Gut Hormones, edited by S. R. Bloom and J. M. Polak. London: Churchill Livingstone, 1981.
 184. McMaster, P. D., and R. Elman. On the expulsion of bile by the gallbladder: and a reciprocal relationship with the sphincter activity. J. Exp. Med. 44: 173–198, 1926.
 185. Menguy, R. B., G. A. Hallenbeck, J. L. Bollman, and J. H. Grindlay. Intraductal pressures and sphincteric resistance in canine pancreatic and biliary ducts after various stimuli. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 106: 306–320, 1958.
 186. Meyer, J. H., and R. S. Jones. Canine pancreatic responses to intestinally perfused fat and products of fat digestion. Am. J. Physiol. 226: 1178–1187, 1974.
 187. Milenov, K., and L. Kazakov. Influence of ovarian hormones on electromyograms of uterus, stomach, and intestines in dogs. Endocrinol. Exp. 7: 163–170, 1970.
 188. Mitznegg, P., S. R. Bloom, N. Christofides, H. Besterman, W. Domschke, S. Domschke, E. Wunsch, and L. Demling. Release of motilin in man. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (Suppl. 11), 39: 53–56, 1976.
 189. Miyazaki, T., and M. Onda. The adrenergic and cholinergic innervation of gallbladder and extrahepatic biliary duct system in the cat and human. Nippon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi 77: 935–948, 1980.
 190. Morgan, K. G., P. F. Schmalz, V. L. Go, and J. H. Szurszewski. Electrical and mechanical effects of molecular variants of CCK on antral smooth muscle. Am. J. Physiol. 235 (Endocrinol. Metab. Gastrointest. Physiol. 4): E324–E329, 1978.
 191. Mori, J., H. Azuma, and M. Fujiwara. Adrenergic innervation and receptors in the sphincter of Oddi. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 14: 365–373, 1971.
 192. Mutt, V., and E. Jorpes. Hormonal polypeptides of the upper intestine. Biochem. J. 125: 57P–58P, 1971.
 193. Nakano, J., R. E. McCloy, A. C. Gin, and S. K. Nakano. Effect of prostaglandins E1, E2, and F2α, and pentagastrin on the gallbladder pressure in dogs. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 30: 107–112, 1975.
 194. Nakata, K., K. Ashida, K. Nakazawa, and M. Fujiwara. Effects of indomethacin on prostaglandin synthesis and on contractile response of the guinea pig gallbladder. Pharmacology 23: 95–101, 1981.
 195. Nakata, K., and K. Kurahashi. Effects of C‐terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin and prostaglandins on adrenergic functions in the guinea‐pig gallbladder and sphincter of Oddi. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. 31: 77–83, 1981.
 196. Nakata, K., Y. Osumi, and M. Fujiwara. Prostaglandins and the contractility of the guinea pig biliary system. Pharmacology 22: 24–30, 1981.
 197. Nakayama, S., M. Mizutani, T. Neya, and M. Takaki. Effect of motilin on gallbladder and gastroduodenal motility in dogs. Ital. J. Gastroenterol. 13: 6, 1981.
 198. Neya, T., M. Mizutani, M. Takaki, and S. Nakayama. Effect of motilin on the sphincter of Oddi in the dog. Acta Med. Okayama 35: 417–420, 1981.
 199. Nilsson, G., and E. Brodin. Tissue distribution of substance‐P like immunoreactivity in dog, cat, rat, and mouse. In: Substance P, edited by U. S. von Euler and B. Pernow. New York: Raven, 1977, p. 49–57. (Nobel Symp. Ser. no. 37.)
 200. Nilsson, S., and S. Stattin. Gallbladder emptying during the normal menstrual cycle. Acta Chir. Scand. 133: 648–652, 1967.
 201. Ondetti, M. A., B. Rubin, S. L. Engel, J. Pluscec, and J. T. Sheehan. Cholecystokinin‐pancreozymin: recent developments. Dig. Dis. 15: 149–156, 1970.
 202. Ono, K., N. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, H. Tsuchida, Y. Sugiyama, and M. Abo. Bile flow mechanism in man. Arch. Surg. 96: 869–874, 1968.
 203. Oouchi, M., H. Asaoka, T. Mitsutake, and M. Miyagawa. Endogenous opioid peptide effects on the guinea‐pig biliary tract. Peptides 4: 125–127, 1983.
 204. Pallin, B., and S. Skoglund. Neural and humoral control of the gallbladder emptying mechanism in the cat. Acta Physiol. Scand. 60: 358–362, 1964.
 205. Persson, C. G. A. The action of morphine on the cat choledochoduodenal tract. Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol. 30: 321–329, 1971.
 206. Persson, C. G. A. Adrenoceptor functions in the cat choledochoduodenal junction in vitro. Br. J. Pharmacol. 42: 447–461, 1971.
 207. Persson, C. G. A. Adrenoceptors in the gallbladder. Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol. 31: 177–185, 1972.
 208. Persson, C. G. A. Adrenergic, cholecystokinetic and morphine‐induced effects on extra‐hepatic biliary motility. Acta Physiol. Scand. 383: 1–32, 1972.
 209. Persson, C. G. A. Dual effects on the sphincter and gallbladder contraction induced by stimulation of the right great splanchnic nerve. Acta Physiol. Scand. 87: 334–343, 1973.
 210. Persson, C. G. A. Inhibitory innervation of cat sphincter of Oddi. Br. J. Pharmacol. 58: 479–482, 1976.
 211. Piper, P. J., S. I. Said, and J. R. Vane. Effects on smooth muscle preparations of unidentified vasoactive peptides from intestine and lung. Nature Lond. 225: 1144–1146, 1970.
 212. Poitras, P., T. Yamada, and J. H. Walsh. Absence of effect of somatostatin on the guinea pig gallbladder. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 58: 179–182, 1980.
 213. Polak, J. M., S. R. Bloom, S. N. Sullivan, P. Facer, and A. G. Pearse. Enkephalin‐like immunoreactivity in the human gastrointestinal tract. Lancet 1: 972–974, 1977.
 214. Polak, J. M., I. Coulling, S. Bloom, and A. G. E. Pearse. Immunofluorescent localization of secretin and enteroglucagon in human intestinal mucosa. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 6: 739–744, 1971.
 215. Polak, J. M., A. G. E. Pearse, S. R. Bloom, A. M. J. Buchan, P. L. Rayford, and J. C. Thompson. Identification of cholecystokinin‐secreting cells. Lancet 2: 1016–1021, 1975.
 216. Pomeranz, I. S., J. S. Davison, and E. A. Shaffer. In vitro effects of pancreatic polypeptide and motilin on contractility of human gallbladder. Dig. Dis. Sci. 28: 539–544, 1983.
 217. Puig, M. M., P. Gascon, G. L. Craviso, and J. M. Musacchio. Endogenous opiate receptor ligand: electrically induced release in the guinea pig ileum. Science Wash. DC 195: 419–420, 1977.
 218. Rattan, S., and R. K. Goyal. Effect of nicotine on the lower esophageal sphincter: studies on the mechanism of action. Gastroenterology 69: 154–159, 1975.
 219. Rattan, S., and R. K. Goyal. Effects of 5‐hydroxytryptamine on the lower esophageal sphincter—evidence for multiple sites of action. J. Clin. Invest. 59: 125–133, 1977.
 220. Rattan, S., and R. K. Goyal. Effects of histamine on the lower esophageal sphincter in vivo: evidence for actions at three different sites. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 204: 334–342, 1978.
 221. Ravdin, I. S., and J. L. Morrison. Gallbladder function. The contractile function of the gallbladder. Arch. Surg. 222: 810, 1931.
 222. Regan, P. T., V. L. W. Go, and E. P. Dimagno. Comparison of the effects of cholecystokinin and cholecystokinin octapeptide on pancreatic secretion, gallbladder contraction, and plasma pancreatic polypeptide in man. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 96: 743–748, 1980.
 223. Rocha, E., M. Silva, J. R. Valle, and Z. P. Picarelli. A pharmacological analysis of the mode of action of serotonin (5‐hydroxytryptamine) upon the guinea‐pig ileum. Br. J. Pharmacol. 8: 378–388, 1953.
 224. Ryan, J. P. Calcium and gallbladder smooth muscle contraction in the guinea pig: effect of pregnancy. Gastroenterology 89: 1279–1285, 1985.
 225. Ryan, J., and S. Cohen. Interaction of gastrin I, secretin, and cholecystokinin on gallbladder smooth muscle. Am. J. Physiol. 230: 553–556, 1976.
 226. Ryan, J., and S. Cohen. Effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide on basal and cholecystokinin‐induced gallbladder pressure. Gastroenterology 73: 870–872, 1977.
 227. Ryan, J., and D. Pellecchia. Effect of progesterone pretreatment on guinea pig gallbladder motility in vitro. Gastroenterology 83: 81–83, 1982.
 228. Ryan, J., and D. Pellecchia. Effect of ovarian hormone pretreatment on gallbladder motility in vitro. Life Sci. 31: 1445–1449, 1982.
 229. Ryan, J. P., and S. Ryave. Effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide on gallbladder smooth muscle in vitro. Am. J. Physiol. 234 (Endocrinol. Metab. Gastrointest. Physiol. 3): E44–E46, 1978.
 230. Sacchetti, G., L. Roncoroni, V. Mandelli, F. Rocca, and E. Magni. Effect of analgesic agents on emptying of the gallbladder in man. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 10: 127–131, 1976.
 231. Said, S. I., and G. M. Makhlouf. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide: spectrum of biological activity. In: Endocrinology of the Gut, edited by W. Y. Chey and F. P. Brooks. Thorofare, NJ: Slack, 1974, p. 83–87.
 232. Saito, N., K. Taniyama, and C. Tanaka. 3H‐ACh release from guinea pig gallbladder evoked by GABA through the bicuculline‐sensitive GABA receptor. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 326: 45–48, 1984.
 233. Sandblom, P., W. L. Voegtlin, and A. C. Ivy. The effect of cholecystokinin on the choledochoduodenal mechanism (sphincter of Oddi). Am. J. Physiol. 93: 175–180, 1935.
 234. Sankaran, H., I. D. Goldfine, A. Bailey, V. Licko, and J. A. Williams. Relationship of cholecystokinin receptor binding to regulation of biological functions in pancreatic acini. Am. J. Physiol. 242 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 5): G250–G257, 1982.
 235. Sarles, J. C., J. M. Bidart, M. A. Devaux, C. Echinard, and C. Castagnini. Action of cholecystokinin and caerulein on the rabbit sphincter of Oddi. Digestion 14: 415–423, 1976.
 236. Sarles, J. C., P. Delecourt, M. A. Devaux, J. P. Amoros, J. C. Guicheney, and E. Wunsch. In vivo effect of 13 Leu motilin on the electric activity of the rabbit sphincter of Oddi. Horm. Metab. Res. 13: 340–342, 1981.
 237. Schlegel, W., S. Raptis, R. F. Harvey, J. M. Oliver, and E. F. Pfeiffer. Inhibition of cholecystokinin‐pancreozymin release by somatostatin. Lancet 2: 166–168, 1977.
 238. Schoetz, D. J., D. H. Birkett, and L. F. Williams. Gallbladder motor function in the intact primate: autonomic pharmacology. J. Surg. Res. 24: 513, 1978.
 239. Schoetz, D. J., W. E. Wise, W. W. Lamorte, D. H. Birkett, and L. F. Williams. Histamine receptors in primate gallbladder. Dig. Dis. Sci. 28: 353–358, 1983.
 240. Schultz, R., M. Wuster, R. Simantov, S. Snyder, and A. Herz. Electrically stimulated release of opiate‐like material from the myenteric plexus of the guinea pig ileum. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 41: 347–348, 1977.
 241. Schusdziarra, V., D. Rouiller, V. Harris, and R. H. Unger. Gastric and pancreatic release of somatostatin‐like immunoreactivity during the gastric phase of a meal. Diabetes 28: 658–663, 1979.
 242. Scott, G. W., D. O. Ferris, G. A. Hallenbeck, E. S. Judd, and E. J. Baldes. Resistance to flow through the common bile duct in man. Bull. Soc. Intern. Chir. 22: 509–516, 1963.
 243. Shaw, B. W., J. M. Becker, and F. G. Moody. Histaminergic responses of biliary sphincter in opossum. Surg. Forum 30: 400–402, 1979.
 244. Shio, H., J. Shaw, and P. Ramwell. Relation of cyclic AMP to the release and actions of prostaglandins. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 185: 327–335, 1971.
 245. Solomon, T. E., T. Yamada, J. Elashoff, J. Wood, and C. Beglinger. Bioactivity of cholecystokinin analogues: CCK‐8 is not more potent than CCK‐33. Am. J. Physiol. 247 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 10): G105–G111, 1984.
 246. Starke, K., F. Lembeck, W. Lorenz, and U. Weiss. Gallen‐ und pankreas secretion unter substanz P und einem physalam‐inderivat. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 260: 269, 1968.
 247. Stasiewicz, J., W. Szaaj, and A. Gabryelewicz. Motor interaction between cimetidine and cholecystokinin‐related peptides in the gallbladder. Pol. J. Pharmacol. Pharm. 32: 643–646, 1980.
 248. Steigerwalt, R. W., I. D. Goldfine, and J. A. Williams. Characterization of cholecystokinin receptors on bovine gallbladder membranes. Am. J. Physiol. 247 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 10): G709–G714, 1984.
 249. Stening, G. F., and M. I. Grossman. Potentiation of cholecystokinetic action of cholecystokinin by secretin. Clin. Res. 17: 528, 1969.
 250. Stewart, J. J., N. W. Weisbrodt, and T. F. Burks. Intestinal stimulant response after intraventricular morphine in the conscious cat. Proc. West. Pharmacol. Soc. 20: 399–403, 1977.
 251. Stewart, J. J., N. W. Weisbrodt, and T. F. Burks. Central and peripheral actions of morphine on intestinal transit. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 205: 547–555, 1978.
 252. Strunz, U., W. Domschke, P. Mitznegg, S. Domschke, E. Schubert, E. Wunsch, E. Jaeger, and L. Demling. Analysis of the motor effects of 13‐norleucine motilin on the rabbit, guinea pig, rat, and human alimentary tract in vitro. Gastroenterology 68: 1485–1491, 1975.
 253. Studer, R. O., H. Trazeciak, and W. Lergier. Substance P from horse intestine: its isolation, structure, and synthesis. In: Substance P, edited by U. S. von Euler and B. Pernow. New York: Raven, 1977, p. 15–18. (Nobel Symp. Ser. no. 37.)
 254. Sturdevant, R. A. L., D. H. Stern, H. Resin, and J. I. Isenberg. Effect of graded doses of octapeptide of cholecystokinin on gallbladder size in man. Gastroenterology 64: 452–456, 1973.
 255. Sundler, F., J. Alumets, R. Hakenson, S. Ingemansson, J. Fahrenkrug, and O. Schaffalitzky de Muckadell. VIP innervation of the gallbladder. Gastroenterology 72: 1375–1377, 1977.
 256. Suzuki, T., I. Takahashi, and Z. Itoh. Motilin and gallbladder: new dimensions in gastrointestinal physiology. Peptides 2: 229–233, 1981.
 257. Takahashi, I., R. Honda, W. J. Dodds, S. Sarna, J. Toouli, Z. Itoh, W. Y. Chey, W. J. Hogan, D. Greiff, and K. Baker. Effect of motilin on the opossum upper gastrointestinal tract and sphincter of Oddi. Am. J. Physiol. 245 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 8): G476–G481, 1983.
 258. Takahashi, I., T. Suzuki, I. Aizawa, and Z. Itoh. Comparison of gallbladder contractions induced by motilin and cholecystokinin in dogs. Gastroenterology 82: 419–424, 1982.
 259. Tallarida, R. J., and L. S. Jacob. The dose‐response relation. In: The Dose‐Response Relation in Pharmacology, edited by R. J. Tallarida and L. S. Jacob. New York: Springer‐Verlag, 1979, chapt. 1, p. 1–17.
 260. Tallarida, R. J., and L. S. Jacob. Drug binding and drug effect. In: The Dose‐Response Relation in Pharmacology, edited by R. J. Tallarida and L. S. Jacob. New York: Springer‐Verlag, 1979, chapt. 5, p. 111–136.
 261. Toouli, J., W. J. Dodds, R. Honda, and W. J. Hogan. Effect of histamine on motor function of opossum sphincter of Oddi. Am. J. Physiol. 241 (Gastrointest. Liver. Physiol. 4): G122–G128, 1981.
 262. Toouli, J., W. J. Dodds, R. Honda, S. Sarna, W. J. Hogan, R. A. Komarowski, J. H. Linehan, and R. C. Arndorfer. Motor function of the opossum sphincter of Oddi. J. Clin. Invest. 71: 208–220, 1983.
 263. Toouli, J., W. J. Hogan, J. E. Geenen, W. J. Dodds, and R. C. Arndorfer. Action of cholecystokinin‐octapeptide on sphincter of Oddi basal pressure and phasic wave activity in humans. Surgery St. Louis 92: 497–503, 1982.
 264. Toouli, J., and J. M. Watts. Actions of cholecystokinin/pancreozymin, secretin, and gastrin on extra‐hepatic biliary tract motility in vitro. Ann. Surg. 175: 439–447, 1972.
 265. Tsuda, K., Y. Seino, H. Sakurai, S. Seino, J. Takemura, H. Kuzuya, H. Adachi, and H. Imura. Cerulein‐induced pancreatic polypeptide secretion. Its inhibition by atropine and its possible role in regulating gallbladder relaxation. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 74: 355–358, 1980.
 266. Turner, F. E., G. T. Krishnamurthy, V. R. Bobba, and K. Langrell. A new scintigraphic technique for cholecystokinin gallbladder dose‐response study: validation in rabbits. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 24: 84–88, 1984.
 267. Vagne, M., and M. I. Grossman. Cholecystokinetic potency of gastrointestinal hormones and related peptides. Am. J. Physiol. 215: 881–884, 1968.
 268. Vagne, M., and V. Troitskaja. Effects of secretin, glucagon, and VIP on gallbladder contraction. Digestion 14: 62–67, 1976.
 269. Vigna, S. R., and A. Gorbman. Effects of cholecystokinin, gastrin, and related peptides on coho salmon gallbladder contractions in vitro. Am. J. Physiol. 232 (Endocrinol. Metab. Gastrointest. Physiol. 1): E485–E491, 1977.
 270. Von Kleist, D., M. Zschiedrich, D. Stopik, and K. E. Hampel. Das Verhalten der secretin‐pankreozymin‐stimulaierten Sekretion des Pankreas, der Gallenblasenkontraktion und der Cholerese unter Somatostatin. Dtsch. Z. Verdau. Stoffwechselkr. 41: 219, 1981.
 271. Waldman, D. B., A. M. Zfass, and G. M. Makhlouf. Stimulatory (H1) and inhibitory (H2) histamine receptors in gallbladder muscle. Gastroenterology 72: 932–936, 1977.
 272. Walsh, J. H., and M. I. Grossman. Medical progress: gastrin. N. Engl. J. Med. 292: 1324–1332, 1975.
 273. Whitaker, L. R. The mechanism of the gallbladder. Am. J. Physiol. 78: 411–436, 1926.
 274. Wiener, I., K. Inove, C. J. Fagan, P. Lilja, L. C. Watson, and J. C. Thompson. Release of cholecystokinin in man. Correlation of blood levels with gallbladder contraction. Ann. Surg. 194: 321–327, 1981.
 275. Williams, R. D., and T. T. Huang. New techniques for experimental repeated long‐term measurement of biliary pressure. Surgery St. Louis 65: 454–456, 1969.
 276. Wilson, D. E. Prostaglandins and the gastrointestinal tract. Prostaglandins 4: 281–293, 1972.
 277. Yajima, H., Y. Kai, H. Ogawa, M. Kubota, and Y. Mori. Structure‐activity relationships of gastrointestinal hormones: motilin, GIP, and CCK‐PZ. Gastroenterology 72: 793–796, 1977.
 278. Yamada, K., and M. Iizuka. Enhancement of the contraction of the isolated duodenum and Oddi's sphincter of rabbits by alpha adrenergic agents. Nippon Heikatsukin Gakkai Zasshi 19: 115–122, 1983.
 279. Yamamoto, F. Contribution of prostaglandin to the contraction induced by catecholamines in the isolated gallbladder of the guinea‐pig. Gastroenterol. Jpn. 15: 433–438, 1980.
 280. Yanaura, S., and S. Ishikawa. Adrenoreceptors and autonomic nerve control mechanisms in the biliary tract. Folia Pharmacol. Jpn. 71: 39–51, 1975.
 281. Yau, W. M., G. M. Makhlouf, L. E. Edwards, and J. T. Farrar. Mode of action of cholecystokinin and related peptides on gallbladder muscle. Gastroenterology 65: 451–456, 1973.
 282. Yau, W. M., and M. L. Youther. Modulation of gallbladder motility by intrinsic cholinergic neurons. Am. J. Physiol. 247 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 10): G662–G666, 1984.
 283. Yiangou, Y., N. D. Christofides, J. Gu, P. J. Piper, J. M. Polak, and S. R. Bloom. PHI‐like immunoreactivity in the GB and in vitro effect of porcine PHI on smooth muscle of the GB. FEBS Lett. 175: 307–312, 1984.
 284. Yoshida, M., and S. Ishiura. Transmural electrical stimulation‐induced relaxation of the guinea pig gallbladder. J. Pharmacobiodyn. 4: 751–758, 1981.
 285. Yusko, P., R. A. Hall, and A. W. Ford‐Hutchinson. Contraction of guinea pig gallbladder strips by leukotrienes and other agonists. Prostaglandins 25: 397–403, 1983.

Contact Editor

Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite

Jose Behar, Piero Biancani. Pharmacology of biliary tract. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 16: Handbook of Physiology, The Gastrointestinal System, Motility and Circulation: 1103-1131. First published in print 1989. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp060129