Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Avian gastrointestinal motor function

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Gross Anatomy
1.1 Mouth and Pharynx
1.2 Esophagus and Crop
1.3 Glandular Stomach
1.4 Muscular Stomach
1.5 Small Intestine
1.6 Ceca, Rectum, and Cloaca
1.7 Liver and Pancreas
2 Methods of Study of Motility in Birds
3 Prehension and Swallowing
4 Motility of Esophagus and Crop
5 Motility of Stomach and Duodenum
5.1 Motility Patterns: Fowl
5.2 Regulation of Motility: Fowl
5.3 Motility Patterns: Raptors
5.4 Regulation of Motility: Raptors
6 Motility of Ileum, Ceca, and Rectum
6.1 Ileum
6.2 Ceca
6.3 Rectum
7 Passage Rate
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Digestive tracts of 2.24‐kg, 12‐wk‐old turkey (A); 1.70‐kg, adult great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) (B); and 1.22‐kg adult red‐tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) (C). 1, Precrop esophagus; 2, crop; 3, postcrop esophagus; 4, glandular stomach; 5, isthmus; 6a, muscular stomach; 6, thin craniodorsal muscle; 7, thick cranioventral muscle; 8, thick caudodorsal muscle; 9, thin caudoventral muscle (6–9, muscular stomach of turkey); 10, proximal duodenum; 11, pancreas; 12, distal duodenum; 13, liver; 14, gallbladder; 15, ileum; 16, Meckel's diverticulum; 17, ileocecorectal junction; 18, ceca; 19, rectum; 20, bursa of Fabricius; 21, cloaca; 22, vent; G.C., greater curvature.

From Duke
Figure 2. Figure 2.

Tracings of typical records of electrical potential and intraluminal pressure changes from glandular stomach, muscular stomach, and duodenum of turkeys. Tracings A, C, and E: electrical potential changes recorded from glandular stomach, thick cranioventral muscle of muscular stomach, and proximal duodenum, respectively. Slow waves with spikes are evident in electrical potential tracings from duodenum (tracing E); only electrical spike discharges associated with contractions are evident in glandular stomach (A) and muscular stomach (C) tracings. Tracings B, D, and F: intraluminal pressure changes recorded from glandular stomach, muscular stomach, and duodenum, respectively. Muscular stomach contractions cause small intraluminal pressure changes in glandular stomach before each glandular stomach contraction wave. Very small changes in thoracoabdominal pressure due to respiration are recorded between contractions of all 3 organs. Time constant for electrical recording was 1.1 s.

From Duke et al.
Figure 3. Figure 3.

Relative sequences and duration of events in the gastroduodenal contraction cycle of turkeys. Horizontal lines, relative sequence and duration of each event; top 4 lines represent a contractile event, whereas bottom 3 lines represent ingesta flow; end of contraction and beginning of relaxation marked by x in each of top 4 lines. Vertical arrows, point in this sequence at which events occur. Tn, thin muscle pair; I, isthmus; Tk, thick muscle pair; Py, pylorus; D, duodenum; O, open; P, glandular stomach; C, closed; G, muscular stomach.

Modified from Dziuk and Duke and Duke
Figure 4. Figure 4.

Tracings of typical records of pressure changes obtained from glandular stomach (A), muscular stomach (B), and upper proximal duodenum (C) of a turkey, showing pressure events during a duodenal reflux. Positions of open‐tipped tubes within gastrointestinal tract are indicated by corresponding circled letters A, B, and C on the diagram of a sagittal section of stomach. Biphasic pattern of tracing representing contraction of muscular stomach (B) is normally quite variable; the 2 phases are identified for 1 cycle: a, pressure wave due to contraction of thin muscle pair; b, pressure wave due to contraction of thick muscle pair.

From Duke et al.
Figure 5. Figure 5.

Tracings of typical records of electrical potential and intraluminal pressure changes from turkey muscular stomach and duodenum. A and C: tracings of electrical potential changes recorded from thick cranioventral muscle of muscular stomach and from proximal duodenum, respectively. Burst of action potential spikes in tracing A is associated with contraction of thick cranioventral muscle. Arrows in tracing C indicate beginning of separate slow waves in duodenum and 3 bursts of spike potentials are associated with 3 contractions in tracing D. B and D: tracings of intraluminal pressure changes recorded from muscular stomach and duodenal flexure, respectively. Tn, Tk, and D, beginning of pressure changes associated with contractions of thin muscle pair, thick muscle pair, and 3 contractions in duodenum, respectively. Time constant for electrical recording was 3.2 s. Expanded time scale is in first portion of this record only.

Adapted from Duke et al. and Duke
Figure 6. Figure 6.

Tracings of records of contractions occurring after 24‐h fasting in muscular stomach of 1) turkey before entry of an attendant (A), after entry (B), after seeing food (C), and after eating (D); 2) red‐tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) (RT) and 3) great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) (GHO) in presence of an attendant (A), after seeing food (B), and after eating (C). Lines A‐D (turkey) or A‐C (RT and GHO) are 1 continuous recording. Contractions were detected via implanted strain gauge transducers.

From Duke et al.
Figure 7. Figure 7.

Frequencies of gastric contractions detected by gastric extraluminal strain gauge transducers in great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) plotted by 10‐min periods from food ingestion (mice) to pellet egestion for a meal eaten in 1 portion (A) or in 3 portions at 1‐h intervals (B). Interruptions in plot indicate a failure to record data for a brief period, usually because of technical difficulties. I, ingestion; C, start of chemical digestion phase; F, start of pellet formation motility; E, pellet egestion motility.

Modified from Fuller and Duke
Figure 8. Figure 8.

Tracings of typical records of contractions occurring in esophagus and muscular stomach before, during, and after pellet egestion in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus). Es, esophageal contractions obtained with strain gauge implants; Gs, muscular stomach (gastric) contractions. Numbers below Gs tracings, times (in min) before or after pellet egestion.

Modified from Duke et al.
Figure 9. Figure 9.

Graph of mean gastric contractile frequency in red‐tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) for a 24‐h period. I, ingestion; C, start of chemical digestion phase; F, start of pellet formation motility; E, pellet egestion motility. Thick black bar, period of lights out.

Modified from Durham
Figure 10. Figure 10.

Electrical potential changes and contractile forces recorded from 3 bipolar electrodes (◯) and 2 strain gauges ( ) implanted on rectum of turkey. Electrical potential changes are shown in tracings A, C, and E, and contractions are shown in tracings B and D. Both long‐duration and short‐duration electrical slow waves are evident in tracings A and C; only short‐duration slow waves are evident in tracing E. Small contractions are evident in tracings B and D, but large contractions can be seen only in tracing B.

Modified from Lai and Duke and Duke


Figure 1.

Digestive tracts of 2.24‐kg, 12‐wk‐old turkey (A); 1.70‐kg, adult great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) (B); and 1.22‐kg adult red‐tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) (C). 1, Precrop esophagus; 2, crop; 3, postcrop esophagus; 4, glandular stomach; 5, isthmus; 6a, muscular stomach; 6, thin craniodorsal muscle; 7, thick cranioventral muscle; 8, thick caudodorsal muscle; 9, thin caudoventral muscle (6–9, muscular stomach of turkey); 10, proximal duodenum; 11, pancreas; 12, distal duodenum; 13, liver; 14, gallbladder; 15, ileum; 16, Meckel's diverticulum; 17, ileocecorectal junction; 18, ceca; 19, rectum; 20, bursa of Fabricius; 21, cloaca; 22, vent; G.C., greater curvature.

From Duke


Figure 2.

Tracings of typical records of electrical potential and intraluminal pressure changes from glandular stomach, muscular stomach, and duodenum of turkeys. Tracings A, C, and E: electrical potential changes recorded from glandular stomach, thick cranioventral muscle of muscular stomach, and proximal duodenum, respectively. Slow waves with spikes are evident in electrical potential tracings from duodenum (tracing E); only electrical spike discharges associated with contractions are evident in glandular stomach (A) and muscular stomach (C) tracings. Tracings B, D, and F: intraluminal pressure changes recorded from glandular stomach, muscular stomach, and duodenum, respectively. Muscular stomach contractions cause small intraluminal pressure changes in glandular stomach before each glandular stomach contraction wave. Very small changes in thoracoabdominal pressure due to respiration are recorded between contractions of all 3 organs. Time constant for electrical recording was 1.1 s.

From Duke et al.


Figure 3.

Relative sequences and duration of events in the gastroduodenal contraction cycle of turkeys. Horizontal lines, relative sequence and duration of each event; top 4 lines represent a contractile event, whereas bottom 3 lines represent ingesta flow; end of contraction and beginning of relaxation marked by x in each of top 4 lines. Vertical arrows, point in this sequence at which events occur. Tn, thin muscle pair; I, isthmus; Tk, thick muscle pair; Py, pylorus; D, duodenum; O, open; P, glandular stomach; C, closed; G, muscular stomach.

Modified from Dziuk and Duke and Duke


Figure 4.

Tracings of typical records of pressure changes obtained from glandular stomach (A), muscular stomach (B), and upper proximal duodenum (C) of a turkey, showing pressure events during a duodenal reflux. Positions of open‐tipped tubes within gastrointestinal tract are indicated by corresponding circled letters A, B, and C on the diagram of a sagittal section of stomach. Biphasic pattern of tracing representing contraction of muscular stomach (B) is normally quite variable; the 2 phases are identified for 1 cycle: a, pressure wave due to contraction of thin muscle pair; b, pressure wave due to contraction of thick muscle pair.

From Duke et al.


Figure 5.

Tracings of typical records of electrical potential and intraluminal pressure changes from turkey muscular stomach and duodenum. A and C: tracings of electrical potential changes recorded from thick cranioventral muscle of muscular stomach and from proximal duodenum, respectively. Burst of action potential spikes in tracing A is associated with contraction of thick cranioventral muscle. Arrows in tracing C indicate beginning of separate slow waves in duodenum and 3 bursts of spike potentials are associated with 3 contractions in tracing D. B and D: tracings of intraluminal pressure changes recorded from muscular stomach and duodenal flexure, respectively. Tn, Tk, and D, beginning of pressure changes associated with contractions of thin muscle pair, thick muscle pair, and 3 contractions in duodenum, respectively. Time constant for electrical recording was 3.2 s. Expanded time scale is in first portion of this record only.

Adapted from Duke et al. and Duke


Figure 6.

Tracings of records of contractions occurring after 24‐h fasting in muscular stomach of 1) turkey before entry of an attendant (A), after entry (B), after seeing food (C), and after eating (D); 2) red‐tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) (RT) and 3) great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) (GHO) in presence of an attendant (A), after seeing food (B), and after eating (C). Lines A‐D (turkey) or A‐C (RT and GHO) are 1 continuous recording. Contractions were detected via implanted strain gauge transducers.

From Duke et al.


Figure 7.

Frequencies of gastric contractions detected by gastric extraluminal strain gauge transducers in great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) plotted by 10‐min periods from food ingestion (mice) to pellet egestion for a meal eaten in 1 portion (A) or in 3 portions at 1‐h intervals (B). Interruptions in plot indicate a failure to record data for a brief period, usually because of technical difficulties. I, ingestion; C, start of chemical digestion phase; F, start of pellet formation motility; E, pellet egestion motility.

Modified from Fuller and Duke


Figure 8.

Tracings of typical records of contractions occurring in esophagus and muscular stomach before, during, and after pellet egestion in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus). Es, esophageal contractions obtained with strain gauge implants; Gs, muscular stomach (gastric) contractions. Numbers below Gs tracings, times (in min) before or after pellet egestion.

Modified from Duke et al.


Figure 9.

Graph of mean gastric contractile frequency in red‐tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) for a 24‐h period. I, ingestion; C, start of chemical digestion phase; F, start of pellet formation motility; E, pellet egestion motility. Thick black bar, period of lights out.

Modified from Durham


Figure 10.

Electrical potential changes and contractile forces recorded from 3 bipolar electrodes (◯) and 2 strain gauges ( ) implanted on rectum of turkey. Electrical potential changes are shown in tracings A, C, and E, and contractions are shown in tracings B and D. Both long‐duration and short‐duration electrical slow waves are evident in tracings A and C; only short‐duration slow waves are evident in tracing E. Small contractions are evident in tracings B and D, but large contractions can be seen only in tracing B.

Modified from Lai and Duke and Duke
References
 1. Ahmad, A., R. C. P. Singh, and B. D. Garg. Evidence of non‐cholinergic excitatory nervous transmission in chick ileum. Life Sci. 22: 1049–1058, 1978.
 2. Akester, A. R., R. S. Anderson, K. J. Hill, and G. W. Osbaldiston. A radiographic study of urine flow in the domestic fowl. Br. Poult Sci. 8: 209–212, 1967.
 3. Aylott, M. V., O. H. Vestad, J. F. Stephens, and D. E. Turk. Effect of coccidial infection upon passage rates of digestive tract contents of chicks. Poult. Sci. 46: 900–904, 1968.
 4. Balgooyen, T. G. Pellet regurgitation of captive sparrow hawks. Condor 73: 382–385, 1971.
 5. Bartlet, A. L., and T. Hassen. Contraction of chicken rectum to nerve stimulation after blockade of sympathetic and parasympathetic transmission. Q. J. Exp. Physiol. Cogn. Med. Sci. 56: 178–183, 1971.
 6. Bennett, T. The effects of hyoscine and anticholinesterases on cholinergic transmission to the smooth muscle cells of the avian gizzard. Br. J. Pharmacol. 37: 585–594, 1969.
 7. Bennett, T. Studies on avian gizzard. Histochemical analysis of extrinsic and intrinsic innervation. Z. Zellforsch. Mikrosk. Anat. 98: 188–201, 1969.
 8. Bennett, T. Nerve mediated excitation and inhibition of the smooth muscle cells of avian gizzard. J. Physiol. Lond. 204: 669–686, 1969.
 9. Bennett, T. Peripheral and autonomic nervous systems. In: Avian Biology, edited by D. S. Farner and J. R. King. London: Academic, 1974, vol. IV, chapt. 13, p. 1–77.
 10. Bennett, T., and J. L. S. Cobb. Studies on avian gizzard morphology and innervation of smooth muscle. Z. Zellforsch. Mikrosk. Anat. 96: 173–185, 1969.
 11. Bennett, T., and J. L. S. Cobb. Studies on avian gizzard: Auerbach's plexus. Z. Zellforsch. Mikrosk. Anat. 99: 109–120, 1969.
 12. Bennett, T., and J. Malmfors. The adrenergic nervous system of domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus L.). Z. Zellforsch. Mikrosk. Anat. 106: 22–50, 1970.
 13. Bolton, T. B. Physiology of nervous system. In: Physiology and Biochemistry of Fowl, edited by D. J. Bell and B. M. Freeman. London: Academic, 1971, vol. 2, chapt. 13, p. 675–705.
 14. Bortoff, A. Digestion: motility. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 34: 261–290, 1972.
 15. Branch, J., and J. H. Cummings. Comparison of radio‐opaque pellets and chromium sesquioxide as inert markers in studies requiring accurate fecal collections. Gut 19: 371–376, 1978.
 16. Burnstock, C. Evolution of the autonomic innervation of visceral and cardiovascular systems in vertebrates. Pharmacol. Rev. 21: 247–324, 1969.
 17. Calhoun, M. Microscopic Anatomy of the Digestive System. Ames: Iowa State Univ. Press, 1954, p. 1–127.
 18. Chitty, D. Pellet formation in short‐eared owls, Asio flammeus. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 108 (Series A): 267–287, 1938.
 19. Chodnik, K. S. Cytology of the glands associated with the alimentary tract of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). Q. J. Microsc. Sci. 89: 75–87, 1948.
 20. Christensen, J., S. Anuras, and R. L. Hauser. Migrating spike bursts and electrical slow waves in the cat colon. Effect of sectioning. Gastroenterology 66: 240–246, 1974.
 21. Daniel, E. E. Digestion: motor function. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 31: 203–226, 1969.
 22. Dansky, L. M., and F. W. Hill. Application of the chromic oxide indicator method to balance studies with growing chickens. J. Nutr. 47: 449–459, 1952.
 23. Duke, G. E. Gastrointestinal motility and its regulation. Poult. Sci. 61: 1245–1256, 1982.
 24. Duke, G. E. Avian digestion. In: Duke's Physiology of Domestic Animals (10th ed.), edited by M. J. Swenson Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press, 1983, p. 359–366.
 25. Duke, G. E. Alimentary canal: anatomy, regulation of feeding and motility. In: Avian Physiology (4th ed.), edited by P. D. Sturkie New York: Springer‐Verlag, 1986, chapt. 13, p. 269–288.
 26. Duke, G. E. Raptor physiology. In: Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine (2nd ed.), edited by M. E. Fowler Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 1985, chapt. 13, p. 370–376.
 27. Duke, G. E., H. E. Dziuk, and O. A. Evanson. Gastric pressure and smooth muscle electrical potential changes in turkeys. Am. J. Physiol. 222: 167–173, 1972.
 28. Duke, G. E., H. E. Dziuk, and L. Hawkins. Gastrointestinal transit times in normal and bluecomb turkeys. Poult. Sci. 48: 835–842, 1969.
 29. Duke, G. E., and O. A. Evanson. Inhibition of gastric motility by duodenal contents in turkeys. Poult. Sci. 51: 1625–1636, 1972.
 30. Duke, G. E., and O. A. Evanson. Diurnal cycles of gastric motility in normal and fasted turkeys. Poult. Sci. 55: 1802–1807, 1976.
 31. Duke, G. E., and O. A. Evanson. Gastroduodenal electrical potential changes and contractile activity in birds of prey (Abstract). Federation Proc. 35: 303, 1976.
 32. Duke, G. E., O. A. Evanson, J. G. Ciganek, J. F. Miskowiec, and T. E. Kostuch. Inhibition of gastric motility in turkeys by intraduodenal injections of amino acid solutions. Poult. Sci. 51: 1749–1757, 1972.
 33. Duke, G. E., O. A. Evanson, and D. R. Epstein. Coordination of cecal motility during cecal evacuation. Poult. Sci. 62: 545–550, 1983.
 34. Duke, G. E., O. A. Evanson, and B. J. Huberty. Electrical potential changes and contractile activity of the distal cecum of turkeys. Poult. Sci. 59: 1925–1934, 1980.
 35. Duke, G. E., O. A. Evanson, and A. A. Jagers. Meal to pellet intervals in 14 species of captive raptors. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A Comp. Physiol. 53: 1–6, 1976.
 36. Duke, G. E., O. A. Evanson, and P. T. Redig. A cephalic influence on gastric motility upon seeing food in domestic turkeys, Great‐horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red‐tailed hawks (Bueto jamaicensis). Poult. Sci. 55: 2155–2165, 1976.
 37. Duke, G. E., O. A. Evanson, P. T. Redig, and D. D. Rhoades. Mechanism of pellet egestion in great‐horned owls (Bubo virginianus). Am. J. Physiol. 231: 1824–1829, 1976.
 38. Duke, G. E., and D. D. Rhoades. Factors affecting meal to pellet intervals in great‐horned owls (Bubo virginianus). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A Comp. Physiol. 56: 283–286, 1977.
 39. Duke, G. E., M. R. Fuller, and B. J. Huberty. The influence of hunger on meal to pellet intervals in barred owls. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A Comp. Physiol. 66: 203–207, 1980.
 40. Duke, G. E., J. R. Kimmel, K. Durham, H. G. Pollock, R. Bertoy, and D. Rains‐Epstein. Release of avian pancreatic polypeptide by various intraluminal contents in the stomach, duodenum or ileum of turkeys. Dig. Dis. Sci. 27: 782–786, 1982.
 41. Duke, G. E., J. R. Kimmel, H. P. Hunt, and H. G. Pollock. The influence of avian pancreatic polypeptide on gastric secretion and motility in laying hens. Poult. Sci. 64: 1231–1235, 1985.
 42. Duke, G. E., J. R. Kimmel, P. T. Redig, and H. G. Pollock. Influence of exogenous avian pancreatic polypeptide on gastrointestinal motility of domestic turkeys. Poult. Sci. 58: 239–246, 1979.
 43. Duke, G. E., T. E. Kostuch, and O. A. Evanson. Gastroduodenal electrical activity in turkeys. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 20: 1047–1058, 1975.
 44. Duke, G. E., T. E. Kostuch, and O. A. Evanson. Electrical activity and intraluminal pressure changes in the lower small intestine of turkeys. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 20: 1040–1046, 1975.
 45. Duke, G. E., G. A. Petrides, and R. K. Ringer. Chromium‐51 in food metabolizability and passage rate studies with the ring‐necked pheasant. Poult. Sci. 48: 1356–1364, 1968.
 46. Durham, K. The Mechanism and Regulation of Pellet Egestion in the Red‐Tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) and Related Gastrointestinal Contractile Activity. St. Paul: Univ. of Minnesota, 1983.
 47. Dziuk, H. E. Reverse flow of gastrointestinal contents in turkeys (Abstract). Federation Proc. 30: 610, 1971.
 48. Dziuk, H. E., and G. E. Duke. Cineradiographic studies of gastric motility in turkeys. Am. J. Physiol. 222: 159–166, 1972.
 49. Everett, S. D. Pharmacological responses of the isolated innervated intestine of the chick. Br. J. Pharmacol. Chemother. 33: 342–348, 1968.
 50. Farner, D. S. Digestion and the digestive system. In: Biology and Comparative Physiology of Birds, edited by A. J. Marshall London: Academic, 1960, vol. I, p. 411–467.
 51. Fuller, M. R., and G. E. Duke. Regulation of pellet egestion: the effects of multiple feedings on meal to pellet intervals in great‐horned owls. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A Comp. Physiol. 62: 439–444, 1978.
 52. Fuller, M. R., G. E. Duke, and D. L. Eskedahl. Regulation of pellet egestion: the influence of feeding time and soundproof conditions on meal to pellet intervals of red‐tailed hawks. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A Comp. Physiol. 62: 433–438, 1978.
 53. Gonalons, E., R. Rial, and J. A. Tur. Phenol red as indicator of digestive tract motility in chickens. Poult. Sci. 61: 581–583, 1982.
 54. Grimm, R. J., and W. M. Whitehouse. Pellet formation in a great‐horned owl: a roentgenographic study. Auk 80: 301–306, 1963.
 55. Groebbels, F. Der Vogel, Erster Band: Atmungswelt und Nahrungswelt. Berlin: Verlag von Gebruder Borntraeger, 1932.
 56. Hill, K. J., and P. J. Strachan. Recent advances in digestive physiology of the fowl. In: Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. No. 35, edited by M. Peaker. London: Academic, 1975, p. 1–12.
 57. Hillerman, J. P., F. H. Kratzer, and W. O. Wilson. Food passage through chickens and turkeys and some regulating factors. Poult. Sci. 32: 332–335, 1953.
 58. Hodgkiss, J. P. Peristalsis and antiperistalsis in the chicken caecum are myogenic. Q. J. Exp. Physiol. Cogn. Med. Sci. 69: 161–170, 1984.
 59. Imabayashi, K., M. Kametaka, and T. Hatano. Studies on digestion in the domestic fowl. Tohoku J. Agric. Res. 6: 99–11, 1955.
 60. Jerrett, S. A., and W. R. Goodge. Evidence for amylase in avian salivary glands. J. Morphol. 139: 27–46, 1973.
 61. Kostuch, T. E., and G. E. Duke. Gastric motility in great‐horned owls. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A. Comp. Physiol. 51: 201–205, 1975.
 62. Lai, H. C., and G. E. Duke. Colonic motility in domestic turkeys. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 23: 673–681, 1978.
 63. Larbier, M., N. C. Baptista, and J. C. Blum. Effect of diet composition on digestive transit and amino acid intestinal absorption in chickens. Ann. Biol. Anim. Biochim. Biophys. 17: 597–603, 1977.
 64. Ludwick, J. R., and P. Bass. Contractile and electric activity of the extrahepatic biliary tract and duodenum. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 124: 536–546, 1967.
 65. Macowan, M. M., and H. E. Magee. Observations on digestion and absorption in fowls. Q. J. Exp. Physiol. Cogn. Med. Sci. 21: 275–280, 1932.
 66. Malagelada, J. R., S. E. Carter, M. L. Brown, and G. L. Carlson. Radiolabeled fiber, a physiologic marker for gastric emptying and intestinal transit of solids. Dig. Dis. Sci. 25: 81–87, 1980.
 67. Mangold, E. Die Verdauung bei den Nutztieren. Berlin: Akademie, 1950, p. 87–93.
 68. Mateos, G. G., J. L. Sell, and J. A. Eastwood. Rate of food passage (transit time) as influenced by level of supplemental fat. Poult. Sci. 61: 94–100, 1982.
 69. McLelland, J. Digestive system. In: Form and Function in Birds, edited by A. S. King and J. McLelland. London: Academic, 1979, p. 69–181.
 70. Nolf, P. On the existence in the bird of a system of intrinsic fibers connecting the stomach to the small intestine (Abstract). J. Physiol. Lond. 90: 53P–54P, 1937.
 71. Nolf, P. L'appareil nerveux de l'automatisme gastrique de l'oiseau. I. Essai d'analyse par la nicotine. Arch. Int. Physiol. Biochim. 46: 1–85, 1938.
 72. Nolf, P. L'appareil nerveux de l'automatisme gastrique de l'oiseau. II. Etude des effects causés par une ou plusieurs sections de l'anneau nerveaux du gesier. Arch. Int. Physiol. Biochim. 46: 441–559, 1938.
 73. Ohashi, H. An electrophysiological study of transmission from intramural excitory nerve to smooth muscle cells of the chicken oesophagus. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. 21: 585–596, 1971.
 74. Oshima, S., K. Shimada, and T. Tonoue. Radiotelemetric observations of the diurnal changes in respiration rate, heart rate and intestinal motility of domestic fowl. Poult. Sci. 53: 503–507, 1975.
 75. Pastea, E., A. Nicolau, and J. Rosca. Dynamics of the digestive tract in hens and ducks. Acta Physiol. Hung. 33: 305–310, 1968.
 76. Patterson, T. L. Gastric movements in the pigeon with economy of animal material. Comparative studies. V. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 12: 1003–1008, 1927.
 77. Pintea, V., V. Jarubescu, and M. Cotrut. Contributiuni la studiul esofagului de gaina. Lucr. Stiint. 1: 297–310, 1957 [Cited in McLelland (70).].
 78. Polin, D., E. R. Wynosky, M. Loukides, and C. C. Porter. A possible urinary back flow to ceca revealed by studies on chicks with artificial anus and fed amprolium‐C14 or thiamine‐C14. Poult. Sci. 46: 89–94, 1967.
 79. Rea, A. M. Turkey vultures casting pellets. Auk 90: 209–210, 1973.
 80. Reed, C. I., and B. P. Reed. The mechanism of pellet formation in the Great‐horned owl (Bubo virginianus). Science 68: 359–360, 1928.
 81. Rhoades, D. D., and G. E. Duke. Cineradiographic studies of gastric motility in great‐horned owls (Bubo virginianus). Condor 79: 328–334, 1977.
 82. Roche, M., and J. Decerprit. Contrôles hormonal et nerveux de la motricité du tractus digestif de la poule. Ann. Rech. Vet. 8: 25–40, 1977.
 83. Rogers, F. T. Contribution to the physiology of the stomach. XXXIX. The hunger mechanism of the pigeon and its relation to the central nervous system. Am. J. Physiol. 41: 555–570, 1916.
 84. Rouff, H. J., and K. F. Sewing. Die rolle der kropfs bei der steurung der magensaftsekretion von huhnern. Naunyn‐Schmiedebergs Arch. Exp. Pathol. Pharmakol. 271: 142–148, 1971.
 85. Russell, J., and P. Bass. Labeling and gastric emptying of gels in dogs (Abstract). Federation Proc. 42: 759, 1983.
 86. Savory, C. J., G. E. Duke, and R. W. Bertoy. Influence of intravenous injections of cholecystokinin on gastrointestinal motility in turkeys and domestic fowls. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A. Comp. Physiol. 70: 179–189, 1981.
 87. Savory, C. J., and M. J. Gentle. Intravenous injections of cholecystokinin and caerulin suppress food intake in domestic fowls. Experientia Basel 36: 1191–1197, 1980.
 88. Sibbald, I. R. Passage of feed through the adult rooster. Poult. Sci. 58: 446–459, 1979.
 89. Sturkie, P. D. Alimentary canal: anatomy, prehension, deglutition, feeding, drinking, passage of ingesta and motility. In: Avian Physiology (3rd ed.), edited by P. D. Sturkie New York: Springer‐Verlag, 1976, p. 185–195.
 90. Suzuki, M., and S. Nomura. Electromyographic studies on the deglutition movement in the fowl. Jpn. J. Vet. Sci. 37: 289–293, 1975.
 91. Thornton, P. A., P. J. Schaible, and L. F. Wolterink. Intestinal transit and skeletal retention of radioactive strontium in the chick. Poult. Sci. 35: 1055–1060, 1956.
 92. Tuckey, R., B. E. March, and J. Biely. Diet and the rate of food passage in the growing chick. Poult. Sci. 37: 786–792, 1958.
 93. Uden, P., P. E. Colucci, and P. J. Van Soest. Investigation of chromium, cerium and cobalt as markers in digesta. Rate of passage studies. J. Sci. Food Agric. 31: 625–629, 1980.
 94. Vonk, H. H., and N. Postma. X‐ray studies on the movements of the hen's intestine. Physiol. Comp. Oecol. 1: 15–23, 1949.
 95. Webb, T. E., and J. R. Colvin. The composition, structure and mechanism of formation of the lining of the gizzard of the chicken. Can. J. Biochem. Physiol. 42: 59–70, 1964.
 96. White, S. S. The Larynx of Gallus domesticus. Liverpool: Univ. of Liverpool, 1970 PhD thesis. [Cited in: McLelland (70).].
 97. Wilson, E. K., F. W. Pierson, P. Y. Hester, R. L. Adams, and W. J. Stadelman. The effects of high environmental temperature on feed passage time and performance traits of Pekin ducks. Poult. Sci. 59: 2322–2330, 1980.
 98. Yntema, C. L., and W. S. Hammond. Experiments on the origin and development of the sacral autonomic nerves in chick embryo. J. Exp. Zool. 129: 375–381, 1952.
 99. Ziswiler, V., and D. S. Farner. Digestion and digestive system. In: Avian Biology, edited by D. S. Farner and J. R. King. London: Academic, 1972, vol. II, chapt. 13, p. 343–430.

Contact Editor

Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite

Gary E. Duke. Avian gastrointestinal motor function. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 16: Handbook of Physiology, The Gastrointestinal System, Motility and Circulation: 1283-1300. First published in print 1989. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp060135