Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Physiology of gastric circulation

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Anatomy
1.1 Supplying Vessels
1.2 Microvessels
1.3 Modificàtion of Stomach Wall Blood Flow
1.4 Gastric Lymphatic System
2 Techniques for Measuring Gastric Blood Flow
2.1 Gross Flow
2.2 Mucosal Blood Flow
2.3 Techniques for Studying Gastric Microvasculature
3 Control of Gastric Blood Flow
3.1 Neural
3.2 Biogenic Amines
3.3 Gastrointestinal Hormones
3.4 Prostaglandins
3.5 Leukotrienes
4 Gastric Mucosal Blood Flow in Gastric Physiology
4.1 Acid Secretion
4.2 Autoregulation
4.3 Eating
4.4 Changes in Gastric Blood Flow With Age
4.5 Gastric Motility
4.6 Pulse Pressure
5 Gastric Mucosal Blood Flow in Gastric Pathophysiology
5.1 Effect of Disruption of Gastric Mucosal Barrier to Acid Backdiffusion
5.2 Prevention of Mucosal Injury
5.3 Role of Oxygen‐Derived Free Radicals in Ischemic Gastric Injury
5.4 Effect of Local and Systemic Hypothermia
5.5 Effect of Portal Hypertension
5.6 Effect of Nicotine and Cigarette Smoke
5.7 Measurement of Gastric Hemodynamics in Humans
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Arterial supply of the stomach.

From Guth and Ballard a). In: Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, © 1981, Raven Press, New York
Figure 2. Figure 2.

Photomicrograph of histological section taken after intravascular injection of india ink. A: terminal arcade (A) of submucosal arteriolar plexus actually courses in the base of the mucosa, in or just above muscularis mucosae (MM). Short mucosal arterioles arise from arcade to supply capillaries at base of mucosa. B: collecting venule (CV) also actually lies in the base of mucosa in or just above muscularis mucosae (MM).

From Guth
Figure 3. Figure 3.

In vivo photomicrograph of rat gastric submucosal vascular bed. Characteristic submucosal arterial (A) and venous (V) plexi are seen. Venous network can be distinguished by larger diameter of its vessels and presence of collecting veins (CV), seen in cross‐section, which drain into venous anastomotic network. Arterial arcade gives rise to mucosal arteriole (MA), which divides and enters the capillary network. This mucosal arteriole appears to be entering a vein; in actuality, it goes beneath the vein to enter the mucosa. Honeycomb‐like appearance of mucosal capillary bed is barely visible, x 80.

From Guth and Smith , © by Williams & Wilkins, 1975
Figure 4. Figure 4.

In vivo photomicrograph of surface of rat gastric mucosa. Honeycomb‐like appearance of capillaries (C) surrounding glands and ultimately draining into collecting veins (CV) is clearly seen. Orifices (GO) of glands in center of surrounding capillaries can be seen in some areas. × 75.

From Guth and Smith , © by Williams & Wilkins, 1975
Figure 5. Figure 5.

Gastric mucosal venous vasculature. Scanning electron micrographs of (retrograde) venous partial casts; i.e., only venous vessels and venous portions of capillary network are filled with casting medium. A: mucosal venules (V) receive capillary tributaries at luminal surface (LS) but then penetrate mucosal region without further capillary connections. Bar, 0.3 mm. B: as seen in Fig. A, with greater filling of venous end of capillary network adjacent to luminal surface (LS). Venules converge within mucosal region but again are without further direct capillary tributaries en route to submucosa. Bar, 0.25 mm.

From Gannon et al.
Figure 6. Figure 6.

FIG. 6. Gastric microcirculation. MA, mucosal arteriole; C, capillary; CV, collecting vein. Microvasculature of muscle layer is in parallel with that of mucosa, while microvasculature of submucosa is in series with that of mucosa. There are no arteriovenous anastomoses.

From Guth and Leung a). In: Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, © 1987, Raven Press, New York
Figure 7. Figure 7.

Pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism.

From Guth and Leung a). In: Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, © 1987, Raven Press, New York


Figure 1.

Arterial supply of the stomach.

From Guth and Ballard a). In: Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, © 1981, Raven Press, New York


Figure 2.

Photomicrograph of histological section taken after intravascular injection of india ink. A: terminal arcade (A) of submucosal arteriolar plexus actually courses in the base of the mucosa, in or just above muscularis mucosae (MM). Short mucosal arterioles arise from arcade to supply capillaries at base of mucosa. B: collecting venule (CV) also actually lies in the base of mucosa in or just above muscularis mucosae (MM).

From Guth


Figure 3.

In vivo photomicrograph of rat gastric submucosal vascular bed. Characteristic submucosal arterial (A) and venous (V) plexi are seen. Venous network can be distinguished by larger diameter of its vessels and presence of collecting veins (CV), seen in cross‐section, which drain into venous anastomotic network. Arterial arcade gives rise to mucosal arteriole (MA), which divides and enters the capillary network. This mucosal arteriole appears to be entering a vein; in actuality, it goes beneath the vein to enter the mucosa. Honeycomb‐like appearance of mucosal capillary bed is barely visible, x 80.

From Guth and Smith , © by Williams & Wilkins, 1975


Figure 4.

In vivo photomicrograph of surface of rat gastric mucosa. Honeycomb‐like appearance of capillaries (C) surrounding glands and ultimately draining into collecting veins (CV) is clearly seen. Orifices (GO) of glands in center of surrounding capillaries can be seen in some areas. × 75.

From Guth and Smith , © by Williams & Wilkins, 1975


Figure 5.

Gastric mucosal venous vasculature. Scanning electron micrographs of (retrograde) venous partial casts; i.e., only venous vessels and venous portions of capillary network are filled with casting medium. A: mucosal venules (V) receive capillary tributaries at luminal surface (LS) but then penetrate mucosal region without further capillary connections. Bar, 0.3 mm. B: as seen in Fig. A, with greater filling of venous end of capillary network adjacent to luminal surface (LS). Venules converge within mucosal region but again are without further direct capillary tributaries en route to submucosa. Bar, 0.25 mm.

From Gannon et al.


Figure 6.

FIG. 6. Gastric microcirculation. MA, mucosal arteriole; C, capillary; CV, collecting vein. Microvasculature of muscle layer is in parallel with that of mucosa, while microvasculature of submucosa is in series with that of mucosa. There are no arteriovenous anastomoses.

From Guth and Leung a). In: Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, © 1987, Raven Press, New York


Figure 7.

Pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism.

From Guth and Leung a). In: Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, © 1987, Raven Press, New York
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Paul H. Guth, Felix W. Leung, Gordon L. Kauffman. Physiology of gastric circulation. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 16: Handbook of Physiology, The Gastrointestinal System, Motility and Circulation: 1371-1404. First published in print 1989. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp060138