Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library
Home Browse Topics Latest Articles All Issues

Motilin

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Structure, Systhesis, and Heterogeneity
2 Radioimmunoassay and Antigenicity
3 Localization
4 Ontogeny
5 Release
5.1 Intraluminal Factors
5.2 Peptides
5.3 Neural Pathways
5.4 Periodic Release During Fasting
6 In Vivo Effects on Gastrointestinal Motility
6.1 Lower Esophageal Sphincter
6.2 Stomach and Small Intestine
6.3 Gallbladder and Biliary Tract
7 Effects on Gastrointestinal Sceretions
8 Other Effects
9 Mechanism of Action
10 Normal and Abnormal Motilin Levels
11 Conclusions
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Amino acid sequence of porcine motilin and substitutions (top row) found in canine motilin.

Figure 2. Figure 2.

Elution pattern on Sephadex G‐50 superfine of immunoreactive motilin from human antrum (top), duodenum (middle), and jejunum (bottom) with antibody M1 (left) and antibody GP71 (right). Antibody M1 recognizes NH2 terminus of porcine motilin; antibody GP71 recognizes COOH terminus.

From Bloom and Polak
Figure 3. Figure 3.

Distribution of motilin in human gastrointestinal tract.

Figure 4. Figure 4.

Endocrine non‐EC cell of human duodenum stained with motilin antiserum and protein immunogold technique. Note deposition of gold particles over secretory granules (× 56,000).

From Usellini et al.
Figure 5. Figure 5.

Correlation of motilin values demonstrating close association between motilin fluctuations and occurrence of phase 3 activity in duodenum of 10 human volunteers. Because of variability of MMC cycle, each cycle was divided into 10 time units, and plasma motilin values at these units were calculated by linear interpolation from values originally obtained in samples taken every 10 min. For every volunteer, motilin values were transformed into normal variates, and all data were arranged into continuous string. As shown, autocovariance of transformed motilin values fluctuated sinusoidally, reaching positive and negative peaks every 10 time units. ▾, Ideal position of positive peaks; Δ;, ideal position of negative peaks.

From Peeters et al. ). Copyright 1980 by The American Gastroenterological Association


Figure 1.

Amino acid sequence of porcine motilin and substitutions (top row) found in canine motilin.



Figure 2.

Elution pattern on Sephadex G‐50 superfine of immunoreactive motilin from human antrum (top), duodenum (middle), and jejunum (bottom) with antibody M1 (left) and antibody GP71 (right). Antibody M1 recognizes NH2 terminus of porcine motilin; antibody GP71 recognizes COOH terminus.

From Bloom and Polak


Figure 3.

Distribution of motilin in human gastrointestinal tract.



Figure 4.

Endocrine non‐EC cell of human duodenum stained with motilin antiserum and protein immunogold technique. Note deposition of gold particles over secretory granules (× 56,000).

From Usellini et al.


Figure 5.

Correlation of motilin values demonstrating close association between motilin fluctuations and occurrence of phase 3 activity in duodenum of 10 human volunteers. Because of variability of MMC cycle, each cycle was divided into 10 time units, and plasma motilin values at these units were calculated by linear interpolation from values originally obtained in samples taken every 10 min. For every volunteer, motilin values were transformed into normal variates, and all data were arranged into continuous string. As shown, autocovariance of transformed motilin values fluctuated sinusoidally, reaching positive and negative peaks every 10 time units. ▾, Ideal position of positive peaks; Δ;, ideal position of negative peaks.

From Peeters et al. ). Copyright 1980 by The American Gastroenterological Association
References
 1. Abe, K., K., Yamaguchi, I. Adachi, and N. Yanaihara, Multiple hormone production in islet‐cell tumors. In: Symposium on Proinsulin, Insulin, and C‐peptide, Tokushima, Japan, 1979. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1979, p. 473–479.
 2. Achem‐Karam, S. R., A., Funakoshi, A. I. Vinik, and C. Owyang, Dopaminergic regulation of the interdigestive migrating motor complex “independent” of motilin. Gastroenterology 82: 1005, 1982.
 3. Achem‐Karam, S. R., A., Funakoshi, A. I. Vinik, and C. Owyang, Plasma motilin concentration and interdigestive migrating motor complex in diabetic gastroparesis: effect of metoclopramide. Gastroenterology 88: 492–499, 1984.
 4. Adachi, H., N., Toda, S. Hayashi, M. Noguchi, T. Suzuki, K. Torizuka, H. Yajima, and K. Koyama, Mechanism of the excitatory action of motilin on isolated rabbit intestine. Gastroenterology 80: 783–788, 1981.
 5. Adrian, T. E., G. R., Greenberg, A. J. Barnes, N. D. Christofides, K. G. Alberti, and S. R. Bloom, Effects of pancreatic polypeptide on motilin and circulating metabolite in man. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 10: 235–240, 1980.
 6. Allen, J. M., N. D. Christofides, P. A. Cramer, J. Steinert, and S. R. Bloom. Elevated motilin levels in patients treated with antidepressant and neuroleptic drugs. Br. J. Psychiatry 141: 27–29, 1982.
 7. Aoyagi, K., Y., Mishima, S. Murakami, and K. Ito, Serum gastrin and motilin in treated and untreated hyperthyroidism. Bull. Tokyo Med. Dent. Univ. 29: 153–159, 1982.
 8. Beinfeld, M. C., and G. J. Bailey, The distribution of motilin‐like peptides in rhesus monkey brain as determined by radioimmunoassay. Neurosci. Lett. 54: 345–450, 1985.
 9. Beinfeld, M. C., D. M. Korchak, G. Nilaver, and T. M. O'Dorisio. The development of motilin, cholecystokinin and vasoactive intestinal peptide immunoreactivity in the forebrain and hindbrain of the rat, as determined by radioimmunoassay. Brain Res. 312: 146–150, 1983.
 10. Besterman, H. S., T. E., Adrian, C. N. Mallinson, N. D. Christofides, D. L. Sarson, A. Pera, L. Lombardo, R. Modigliani, and S. R. Bloom, Gut hormone release after intestinal resection. Gut 23: 854–861, 1982.
 11. Besterman, H. S., S. R., Bloom, N. D. Christofides, C. N. Mallinson, A. Pera, and R. Modigliani, Gut hormone profile in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 19: 988–989, 1978.
 12. Besterman, H. S., N. D., Christofides, P. D. Welsby, T. E. Adrian, D. L. Sarson, and S. R. Bloom, Gut hormones in acute diarrhoea. Gut 24: 665–671, 1983.
 13. Besterman, H. S., G. C., Cook, and D. L. Sarson, Gut hormones in tropical malabsorption. Br. Med. J. 2: 1252–1255, 1979.
 14. Besterman, H. S., D. L., Sarson, J. C. Rambaud, J. S. Steward, S. Guerin, and S. R. Bloom, Gut hormone response in the irritable bowel syndrome. Digestion 21: 219–224, 1981.
 15. Bloom, S. R., T. E., Adrian, P. Michenere, G. R. Sagor, and N. D. Christofides, Motilin‐induced gall‐bladder contraction: a new mechanism (Abstract). Gastroenterology 80: 1113, 1981.
 16. Bloom, S. R., N. D., Christofides, E. D. Goodall, and V. Rayner, Motilin and the migrating myoelectric complex in pigs (Abstract). J. Physiol. Lond. 322: 54P, 1981.
 17. Bloom, S. R., S. J., Mitchell, G. R. Greenberg, N. Christofides, W. Domschke, S. Domschke, P. Mitznegg, and L. Demling, Release of VIP, secretin and motilin after duodenal acidification in man. Acta Hepato‐Gastroenterol. 25: 365–368, 1978.
 18. Bloom, S. R., P., Mitznegg, and M. G. Bryant, Measurement of human plasma motilin. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 11: 47–52, 1976.
 19. Bloom, S. R., and J. M. Polak, Motilin and neurotensin. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 8: 401–411, 1979.
 20. Bormans, V., D., Pearce, T. L. Peeters, and G. R. Vantrappen, Smooth muscle motilin receptors in rabbit stomach and duodenum. In: Gastrointestinal Motility, edited by G. Labo and M. Bortolotti. Verona, Italy: Cortini International, 1983, p. 33–36.
 21. Borody, T. J., D. J., Byrnes, J. G. Slowiaczek, and D. A. Titchen, Motilin and migrating myoelectric complexes in pigs. J. Physiol. Lond. 310: 37P–38P, 1981.
 22. Borody, T. J., D. J., Byrnes, and D. A. Titchen, Motilin and migrating myoelectric complexes in the pig and the dog. J. Exp. Physiol. 69: 875–890, 1984.
 23. Bortolotti, M., P., Vezzadini, G. Frada, G. Bonora, G. Bersani, G. Barbagallo‐Sangiorgi, and G. Labo, Interdigestive gastric motility and serum motilin in elderly subjects with and without chronic atrophic gastritis (Abstract). Dig. Dis. Sci. 30: 761, 1985.
 24. Brown, J. C, Presence of a gastric motor‐stimulating property in duodenal extracts. Gastroenterology 52: 225–229, 1967.
 25. Brown, J. C., M. A., Cook, and J. R. Dryburgh, Motilin, a gastric motor activity‐stimulating polypeptide: final purification, amino acid composition, and C‐terminal residues. Gastroenterology 62: 401–404, 1972.
 26. Brown, J. C., M. A., Cook, and J. R. Dryburgh, Motilin, a gastric motor activity‐stimulating polypeptide: the complete amino acid sequence. Can. J. Biochem. 51: 533–537, 1973.
 27. Brown, J. C., and J. R. Dryburgh, Radioimmunoassay of motilin. Methods Enzymol. 84: 359–368, 1982.
 28. Brown, J. C., L. P., Johnson, and D. F. Magee, Effect of duodenal alkalinisation on gastric motility. Gastroenterology 50: 333–339, 1966.
 29. Brown, J. C., V., Mutt, and J. R. Dryburgh, The further purification of motilin, a gastric motor activity‐stimulating polypeptide from the mucosa of the small intestine of dogs. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 49: 399–405, 1971.
 30. Bueno, L., J., Fioramonti, V. Rayner, and Y. Ruckebusch, Effects of motilin, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide on the migrating myoelectric complex in pig and dog. Gastroenterology 82: 1395–1402, 1982.
 31. Chang, T., D., Wagner, W. Chey, and H. Yajima, Motilin‐antimotilin reaction reveals two antigenic determinants in motilin. Peptides Fayetteville 2: 31–37, 1981.
 32. Chan‐Palay, V, Immunocytochemical and autoradiographic methods to demonstrate the coexistence of neuroactive substance: cerebellar Purkinje cells have glutamic acid decarboxylase, cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase, and motilin immunoreactivity. Acta Morphol. Hung. 31: 193–212, 1982.
 33. Chang‐Palay, V., M., Ito, P. Tongroach, M. Sakurai, and S. Palay, Inhibitory effects of motilin, somatostatin, leu‐enkephalin, met‐enkephalin, and taurine on neurons of the lateral vestibular nucleus: interactions with gamma‐aminobutyric acid. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 3355–3359, 1982.
 34. Chan‐Palay, V., G., Nilaver, S. L. Palay, M. C. Beinfeld, E. A. Zimmerman, J. Y. Wu, and T. L. O'Donohue, Chemical heterogeneity in cerebellar Purkinje cells: existence and coexistence of glutamic acid decarboxylase‐like and motilinlike immunoreactivities. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 7787–7791, 1981.
 35. Chey, W., and K. Y. Lee, Actions of motilin on gastrointestinal motility and plasma immunoreactive motilin concentration in interdigestive and postprandial states. Endocrinol. Jpn. 1: 173–177, 1980.
 36. Chey, W., and K. Y. Lee, Motilin. Clin. Gastroenterol. 9: 645–656, 1980.
 37. Christofides, N. D, Motilin. In: Radioimmunoassay of Gut Regulatory Peptides, edited by S. R. Bloom and R. G. Long. London: Saunders, 1982, p. 111–119.
 38. Christofides, N. D., F., Arreola, T. Svenberg, and S. R. Bloom, Chromatographic analysis of plasma motilin immunoreactivity in human disease using region‐specific antibodies. Clin. Chim. Acta 123: 51–57, 1982.
 39. Christofides, N. D., S. R., Bloom, H. S. Besterman, T. E. Adrian, and M. A. Chatei, Release of motilin by oral and intravenous nutrients in man. Gut 20: 102–106, 1979.
 40. Christofides, N. D., M G., Bryant, M. A. Ghatel, S. Kishimoto, A. M. J. Buchan, J. M. Polak, and S. R. Bloom, Molecular forms of motilin in the mammalian and human gut and human plasma. Gastroenterology 80: 292–300, 1981.
 41. Christofides, N. D., M. A., Gatei, S. R. Bloom, C. Borberg, and M. D. Gillmer, Decreased plasma motilin concentrations in pregnancy. Br. Med. J. 285: 1453–1454, 1982.
 42. Christofides, N. D., R. G., Long, M. L. Fitzpatrick, G. P. Mcgregor, and S. R. Bloom, Effect of motilin on the gastric emptying of glucose and fat in humans. Gastroenterology 80: 456–460, 1981.
 43. Christofides, N. D., I. M., Modlin, M. L. Fitzpatrick, and S. R. Bloom, Effect of motilin on the rate of gastric emptying and gut hormone release during breakfast. Gastroenterology 76: 903–907, 1979.
 44. Christofides, N. D., D. L., Sarson, R. H. Albuquerque, T. E. Adrian, M. A. Ghatei, I. M. Modlin, and S. R. Bloom, Release of gastrointestinal hormones following an oral water load. Experientia Basel 35: 1521–1523, 1979.
 45. Chung, S. A., K. E., Hall, and N. E. Diamant, Vagal control of small intestinal motility in the fasted and postprandial states (Abstract). Dig. Dis. Sci. 30: 763, 1985.
 46. Collins, S. M., T. D., Lewis, J. E. T. Fox, N. Track, M. M. Meghji, and E. E. Daniel, Changes in plasma motilin concentration in response to manipulation of intragastric and intraduodenal contents in man. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 59: 188–194, 1981.
 47. Cuber, J. C., C., Bernard, J. P. Laplace, and J. A. Chayvialle, Comparative assessment of secretin and motilin responses to graded duodenal acidification in anaesthetised pigs. Digestion 32: 35–41, 1985.
 48. Daniel, E. E., J. E., Fox, S. M. Collins, T. D. Lewis, M. Meghji, and N. S. Track, Initiation of migrating myoelectric complexes in human subjects: role of duodenal acidification and plasma motilin. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 59: 173–179, 1981.
 49. Dawson, J., M. G., Bryant, A. G. Cox, N. D. Christofides, S. R. Bloom, and T. J. Peters, Subcellular localization of serotonin and motilin in the human jejunum. Clin. Sci. 59: 505–508, 1980.
 50. Debas, H. T., T., Yamagishi, and J. R. Dryburgh, Motilin enhances gastric emptying of liquids in dogs. Gastroenterology 73: 777–780, 1977.
 51. Domschke, S., W., Domschke, B. Schmack, F. Tympner, O. Junge, E. Wuensch, E. Jaeger, and L. Demling, Effects of 13‐Nle‐motilin on salivary, gastric and pancreatic secretions in man. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 21: 789–792, 1976.
 52. Domschke, W, Motilin: spectrum and mode of gastrointestinal actions. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 22: 454–491, 1977.
 53. Domschke, W., G., Lux, P. Mitznegg, W. Roesch, S. Domschke, S. R. Bloom, E. Wuensch, and L. Demling, Relationship of plasma motilin response to lower esophageal sphincter pressure in man. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 11: 81–84, 1976.
 54. Domschke, W., U., Strunz, P. Mitznegg, S. Domschke, E. Wuensch, and L. Demling, Motilin and motilin analogues: mode of action. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 11: 25–28, 1976.
 55. Dryburgh, J. R., and J. C. Brown, Radioimmunoassay for motilin. Gastroenterology 68: 1169–1176, 1975.
 56. Eckardt, V., and N. D. Grace, Lower esophageal sphincter pressure and serum motilin levels. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 21: 1008–1011, 1976.
 57. Eimerl, J., M. A., Bayorm, Z. Zukowska‐Grojec, and G. Feuerstein, Motilin effects on the heart and blood vessels of the pithed rat. Neuropeptides 6: 157–165, 1985.
 58. Forssmann, W. G., N., Yanaihara, V. Helmstaedter, and D. Grube, Differential demonstration of the motilin cell and the enterochromaffin cell. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 11: 43–45, 1976.
 59. Fox, J. E, Motilin: an update. Life Sci. 35: 695–706, 1984.
 60. Fox, J. E. T., E. E., Daniel, J. Jury, A. E. Fox, and A. M. Collins, Sites and mechanism of action of neuropeptides on canine gastric motility differ in vivo and in vitro. Life Sci. 33: 817–825, 1983.
 61. Fox, J. E. T., E. E., Daniel, J. Jury, and H. Robotham, The mechanism of motilin excitation of the canine small intestine. Life Sci. 34: 1001–1006, 1984.
 62. Fox, J. E. T., E. E., Daniel, J. Jury, N. Track, and S. Chiu, Cholinergic control mechanisms for immunoreactive motilin release and motility in the canine duodenum. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 61: 1042–1049, 1983.
 63. Fox, J. E. T., N. S., Track, and E. E. Daniel, Relationship of plasma motilin concentration to fat ingestion, duodenal acidification and alkalinization and migrating motor complexes in dogs. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 59: 180–187, 1981.
 64. Fox, J. E. T., N. S., Track, E. E. Daniel, and N. Yanaihara, Immunoreactive motilin is not exclusive to the gastrointestinal tract. Biomed. Res. 2: 321–324, 1981.
 65. Fujimoto, S., M., Miyazaki, H. Ishigami, Y. Tsuruta, and K. Okui, Plasma motilin levels in patients with abdominal surgery. Acta Chir. Scand. 148: 33–37, 1982.
 66. Funakoshi, A., J., Glowniak, C. Owyang, and A. I. Vinik, Evidence for cholinergic and vagal noncholinergic mechanisms modulating plasma motilin‐like immunoreactivity. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 54: 1129–1134, 1982.
 67. Funakoshi, A., M., Matsumoto, K. Sekiya, I. Nakano, H. Shinazoki, and H. Ibayashi, Cholinergic‐independent dopaminergic regulation of motilin release in man. Gastroenterol. Jpn. 18: 525–529, 1982.
 68. Garthwaite, T. L, Peripheral motilin administration stimulates feeding in fasted rats. Peptides Fayetteville 6: 41–44, 1985.
 69. Gutierrez, J. G., K. D., Thanik, W. Chey, and H. Yajima, Effect of motilin on the lower esophageal sphincter of the opossum. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 22: 402–405, 1977.
 70. Hall, K. E., N. E., Diamant, T. Y. El‐Sharkawy, and G. R. Greenberg, Effect of pancreatic polypeptide on canine migrating motor complex and plasma motilin. Am. J. Physiol. 245 (Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 8): G178–G185, 1983.
 71. Hall, K. E., G. R., Greenberg, T. Y. El‐Sharkawy, and N. E. Diamant, Vagal control of migrating motor complex‐related peaks in canine plasma motilin, pancreatic polypeptide, and gastrin. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 61: 1289–1298, 1982.
 72. Hall, K. E., G. R., Greenberg, T. Y. El‐Sharkawy, and N. E. Diamant, Relationship between porcine motilin‐induced migrating motor complex‐like activity, vagal integrity, and endogenous motilin release in dogs. Gastroenterology 87: 76–85, 1984.
 73. Heitz, J. M., M., Kasper, J. M. Polak, and A. G. E. Pearse, Immunoelectron cytochemical localization of motilin in duodenal enterochromaffin cells. Gastroenterology 74: 713–717, 1978.
 74. Hellemans, J., G., Vantrappen, and S. R. Bloom, Endogenous motilin and LES pressure. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. Suppl. 39: 67–73, 1976.
 75. Helmstaedter, V., W., Kreppein, W. Domschke, P. Mitz‐Negg, N. Yanaihara, E. Wuensch, and W. Forssmann, Immunohistochemical localization of motilin in endocrine nonenterochromaffin cells of the small intestine of humans and monkeys. Gastroenterology 76: 897–902, 1979.
 76. Holloway, R. M., E., Blank, I. Takahashi, W. J. Dodds, and R. D. Layman, Motilin: a mechanism incorporating the opossum lower esophageal sphincter into the migrating motor complex. Gastroenterology 89: 507–515, 1985.
 77. Imura, H., Y., Seino, K. Mori, Z. Itoh, and N. Yanaihara, Plasma motilin levels in normal subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus and certain other diseases. Fasting levels and responses to food and glucose. Endocrinol. Jpn. 27: 151–155, 1980.
 78. Itoh, Z., I., Aizawa, R. Honda, K. Hiwaiashi, and E. F. Couch, Control of lower‐esophageal sphincter contractile activity by motilin in conscious dogs. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 23: 341–345, 1978.
 79. Itoh, Z., I., Aizawa, R. Honda, S. Takeuchi, and K. Mori, Regular and irregular cycles of interdigestive contractions in the stomach. Am. J. Physiol. 238 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 1): G85–G90, 1980.
 80. Itoh, Z., R., Aizawa, S. Takeuchi, and E. F. Couch, Hunger contractions and motilin. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Gastrointestinal Motility, edited by G. Vantrappen. Herentals, Belgium: Typoff, 1975, p. 48–55.
 81. Itoh, Z., R., Honda, K. Hiwatashi, S. Takeuchi, I. Aizawa, R. Takayanagi, and E. F. Couch, Motilin‐induced mechanical activity in the canine alimentary tract. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. Suppl. 39: 93–110, 1976.
 82. Itoh, Z., M., Nakaya, and T. Suzuki, Neurohormonal control of gastrointestinal motor activity in conscious dogs. Peptides Fayetteville 2: 223–228, 1981.
 83. Itoh, Z., M., Nakaya, T. Suzuki, H. Arai, and K. Wakabayashi, Erythromycin mimics exogenous motilin in gastrointestinal contractile activity in the dog. Am. J. Physiol. 247 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 10): G688–G694, 1984.
 84. Itoh, Z., S., Takeuchi, I. Aizawa, K. Mori, T. Taminato, Y. Seino, H. Imura, and N. Yanaihara, Changes in plasma motilin concentration and gastrointestinal contractile activity in conscious dogs. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 23: 929–935, 1978.
 85. Itoh, Z., S., Takeuchi, I. Aizawa, and R. Takayanagi, Effect of synthetic motilin on gastric motor activity in conscious dogs. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 22: 813–819, 1977.
 86. Jacobowitz, D. M., T. L., O'Donohue, W. Y. Chey, and T. M. Chang, Mapping of motilin‐immunoreactive neurons of the rat brain. Peptides Fayetteville 2: 479–487, 1981.
 87. Jaerhult, J., H., Graffner, and S. R. Bloom, The influence of modified sham feeding on plasma polypeptide, CCK, gastrin, motilin, neurotensin and somatostatin concentrations in duodenal ulcer disease. Acta Chir. Scand. 150: 141–144, 1984.
 88. Janik, J. S., N. S., Track, and R. M. Filler, Motilin, human pancreatic polypeptide, gastrin, and insulin plasma concentrations in fasted children. J. Pediatr. 101: 51–56, 1982.
 89. Janssens, J., J., Hellemans, T. J. Adrian, S. R. Bloom, T. L. Peeters, N. Christofides, and G. Vantrappen, Pancreatic polypeptide is not involved in the regulation of the MMC in man. Regul. Pept. 3: 91–99, 1982.
 90. Janssens, J., D., Pearce, T. L. Peeters, and G. Vantrappen, In man, only activity fronts that originate in the stomach correlate with plasma motilin peaks. Gastroenterology 84: 1198, 1983.
 91. Janssens, J., G., Vantrappen, and T. L. Peeters, The activity front of the migrating complex of the human stomach but not of the small intestine is motilin‐dependent. Regul. Pept. 6: 363–369, 1983.
 92. Jennewein, H. M., R., Bauer, H. Hummelt, G. Lepsin, R. Siewert, and F. Waldeck, Motilin effects on gastrointestinal motility and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure in dogs. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 11: 63–65, 1976.
 93. Jennewein, H. M., H., Hummelt, R. Siewert, and F. Waldeck, The motor‐stimulating effect of natural motilin on the lower esophageal sphincter, fundus, antrum and duodenum in dogs. Digestion 13: 246–250, 1975.
 94. Jenssen, T. G., P. G., Burhol, R. Jorde, J. Florholmen, and I. Lygren, Radioimmunoassayable plasma motilin in man. Secretagogues, insulin‐induced suppression, renal removal, and plasma components. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 19: 717–723, 1984.
 95. Jenssen, T. G., A., Revaug, P. G. Burhol, K. E. Giercksky, and I. Lygren, The origin and fall of plasma motilin during Escherichia coli endotoxin shock in pigs. Acta Physiol. Scand. 123: 399–404, 1985.
 96. Kachel, G. W., L. L., Frase, W. Domschke, W. Y. Chey, and G. J. Krejs, Effect of 13‐norleucin motilin on water and ion transport in the human jejunum. Gastroenterology 87: 550–556, 1984.
 97. Keane, F. B., E., Dimagno, R. Dozois, and V. Liang, Relationships among canine interdigestive exocrine pancreatic and biliary flow, duodenal motor activity, plasma pancreatic polypeptide and motilin. Gastroenterology 78: 310–316, 1980.
 98. Kishimoto, S., J. M., Polak, A. M. Buchan, A. A. Verhofstad, H. W. Steinbusch, N. Yanaihara, S. R. Bloom, and A. G. Pearse, Motilin cells investigated by the use of regionspecific antisera. Virchows Arch. B Cell Pathol. 36: 207–218, 1981.
 99. Kitagawa, K., K., Yoneto, S. Kiyama, K. Ando, T. Kawamoto, T. Akita, A. Inoue, and T. Segawa, Synthesis of canine motilin, a gastric motor activity‐stimulating polypeptide, and its N1‐substituted analogs. Chem. Pharm. Bull. Tokyo 33: 3307–3316, 1985.
 100. Klapdor, R., and E. Hammer, Interdigestive motilin secretion and gallstone disease. Klin. Wochenschr. 61: 251–253, 1983.
 101. Kobayashi, S., T., Iwanaga, T. Fujita, and N. Yanaihara, Do enterochromaffin (EC) cells contain motilin? Arch. Histol. Jpn. 43: 85–98, 1980.
 102. Konturek, S. J., A., Dembinski, R. Krol, and E. Wuensch, Effects of motilin on gastric and pancreatic secretion in dogs. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 11: 57–61, 1976.
 103. Konturek, S. J., A., Dembinski, R. Krol, and E. Wuensch, Effect of 13‐Nle‐motilin on gastric secretion, serum gastrin level and mucosal blood flow in dogs. J. Physiol. Lond. 264: 665–672, 1977.
 104. Korchak, D. M., G., Nilaver, and M. C. Beinfeld, The development of motilin‐like immunoreactivity in the rat cerebellum and pituitary as determined by radioimmunoassay. Neurosci. Lett. 48: 267–272, 1984.
 105. Leduque, P., C., Paulin, J. A. Chayvialle, and P. M. Dubois, Immunocytological evidence of motilin‐ and secretin‐containing cells in the human fetal gastro‐entero‐pancreatic system. Cell Tissue Res. 218: 519–527, 1981.
 106. Lee, K. Y., T., Chang, and W. Chey, Effect of electrical stimulation of the vagus on plasma motilin concentration in dog. Life Sci. 29: 1093–1097, 1981.
 107. Lee, K. Y., T.‐M., Chang, and W. Y. Chey, Effect of rabbit antimotilin serum on myoelectric activity and plasma motilin concentration in fasting dog. Am. J. Physiol. 245 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 8): G547–G553, 1983.
 108. Lee, K. Y., W., Chey, H. Tai, and H. Yajima, Radioimmunoassay of motilin. Validation and studies on the relationship between plasma motilin and interdigestive myoelectric activity of the duodenum of dog. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 23: 789–796, 1978.
 109. Lee, K. Y., M. S., Kim, and W. Y. Chey, Effects of a meal and gut hormones on plasma motilin and duodenal motility in dog. Am. J. Physiol. 238 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 1): G280–G283, 1980.
 110. Lee, K. Y., H. J., Park, T. M. Chang, and W. Y. Chey, Cholinergic role on release and action of motilin. Peptides Fayetteville 4: 375–380, 1983.
 111. Lemoyne, M., R., Wassef, D. Tasse, L. Trudel, and P. Poitras, Motilin and the vagus in dogs. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 62: 1092–1096, 1984.
 112. Lewis, T. D., S. M., Collins, J. E. T. Fox, N. S. Track, and E. E. Daniel, Initiation of migrating myoelectric complexes in humans. Gastroenterology 77: 1125–1234, 1979.
 113. Long, R. G., N. D., Christofides, M. L. Fitzpatrick, D. J. O'Shaughnessy, and S. R. Bloom, Effects of intravenous somatostatin and motilin on the blood glucose and hormonal response to oral glucose. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 12: 331–336, 1982.
 114. Lucas, A., T. E., Adrian, N. Christofides, and S. R. Bloom, Plasma motilin, gastrin and enteroglucagon and feeding in the human newborn. Arch. Dis. Child. 55: 673–677, 1980.
 115. Lux, G., W., Roesch, S. Domschke, E. Wuensch, E. Jaeger, and L. Demling, Intravenous 13‐Nle‐motilin increases the human lower esophageal sphincter pressure. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 11: 75–79, 1976.
 116. Magee, D. F., and S. Naruse, The role of motilin in periodic interdigestive pancreatic secretion in dogs. J. Physiol. Lond. 355: 441–447, 1984.
 117. Meissner, A. J., K. L., Bowes, R. Zwick, and E. E. Daniel, Effect of motilin on the lower oesophageal sphincter. Gut 17: 925–932, 1976.
 118. Mitznegg, P., S. R., Bloom, N. Christofides, H. Besterman, W. Domschke, S. Domschke, W. Wuensch, and L. Demling, Release of motilin in man. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. Suppl. 39: 53–56, 1976.
 119. Mitznegg, P., S. R., Bloom, W. Domschke, S. Domschke, E. Wuensch, and L. Demling, Release of motilin after duodenal acidification. Lancet 1: 888–889, 1976.
 120. Mitznegg, P., S. R., Bloom, W. Domschke, S. Domschke, E. Wuensch, and L. Demling, Pharmacokinetics of motilin in man. Gastroenterology 72: 413–416, 1977.
 121. Mitznegg, P., S. R., Bloom, and W. Domschke, W. H. Haecki, S. Domschke, D. Behohlavek, E. Wuensch, and L. Demling, Effect of secretin on plasma motilin in man. Gut 18: 468–471, 1977.
 122. Mitznegg, P., W., Domschke, S. Domschke, D. Behohlavek, W. Spruegel, U. Strunz, E. Wuensch, E. Jaeger, and L. Demling, Effects of in vivo administration of pentagastrin, secretin, and 13‐Nle‐motilin on the in vitro incorporation of 14C‐leucine into protein of human gastric mucosa. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 11: 657–660, 1976.
 123. Modlin, I. M., S. R., Bloom, and N. Christofides, Plasmamotilin in carcinoid tumors. Lancet 2: 979, 1977.
 124. Modlin, I. M., P., Mitznegg, and S. R. Bloom, Motilin release in the pig. Gut 19: 399–402, 1978.
 125. Morgan, K. G., V. L. W., Go, and J. H. Szurzewski, Motilin increases the influence of excitatory myenteric plexus neurons on gastric smooth muscle in vitro. In: Gastrointestinal Motility, edited by J. Christensen. New York: Raven, 1980, p. 129.
 126. Mori, K., Y., Seino, Z. Itoh, N. Yanaihara, and H. Imura, Motilin release by intravenous infusion of nutrients and somatostatin in conscious dogs. Regul. Pept. 1: 265–270, 1981.
 127. Mori, K., Y., Seino, N. Yanaihara, and H. Imura, Role of the duodenum in motilin release. Regul. Pept. 1: 271–277, 1981.
 128. Nakanome, C., H., Akai, M. Hongo, N. Imai, T. Toyota, Y. Goto, F. Okuguchi, and K. Komatsu, Disturbances of the alimentary tract motility and hypermotilinemia in the patients with diabetes mellitus. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 139: 205–215, 1983.
 129. Nakaya, M., T., Suzuki, H. Arai, K. Wabayashi, and Z. Itoh, Does motilin control interdigestive pepsin secretion in the dog? Peptides Fayetteville 4: 439–444, 1983.
 130. Neya, T., M., Mizutani, M. Takaki, and S. Nakayama, Effect of motilin on the sphincter of oddi in the dog. Acta Med. Okayama 35: 417–420, 1981.
 131. O'Donohue, T. L., M. C., Beinfeld, W. Y. Chey, T. M. Chang, G. Nilaver, E. A. Zimmerman, H. Vajima, H. Adachi, M. Poth, R. P. Mcdevitt, and D. M. Jacobowitz, Identification, characterization and distribution of motilin immunoreactivity in the rat central nervous system. Peptides Fayetteville 2: 467–477, 1981.
 132. Ormsbee, H., L., Stewart, L. Koehler, and G. Telford, Somatostatin inhibits motilin‐induced interdigestive contractile activity in the dog. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 23: 781–788, 1978.
 133. Osaka, M., T., Fujita, and Y. Vanatori, On the possible role of intestinal hormones as the diarrheagenic messenger in cholera. Virchows Archiv. B Cell Pathol. 18: 287–296, 1975.
 134. Owyang, C., A., Funakoshi, and A. I. Vinik, Evidence for modulation of motilin secretion by pancreatic biliary juice in health and in chronic pancreatitis. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 57: 1015–1020, 1983.
 135. Pearse, A. G. E, The cellular origin of motilin in the gastrointestinal tract. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 11: 35–38, 1976.
 136. Pearse, A. G. E., J. M., Polak, S. R. Bloom, C. Adams, J. R. Dryburgh, and J. C. Brown, Enterochromaffin cells of the mammalian small intestine as the source of motilin. Virchows Arch. B Cell Pathol. 16: 111–120, 1974.
 137. Peeters, T. L., V., Bormans, and G. Vantrappen, Regional and temporal variations of motilin receptor density in the human and rabbit gastrointestinal tract (Abstract). Dig. Dis. Sci. 30: 787, 1985.
 138. Peeters, T. L., J., Janssens, and G. R. Vantrappen, Somatostatin and the interdigestive migrating motor complex in man. Regul. Pept. 5: 209–217, 1983.
 139. Peeters, T. L., G., Vantrappen, and J. Janssens, Bile acid output and the interdigestive migrating motor complex in normals and in cholecystectomy patients. Gastroenterology 79: 678–681, 1980.
 140. Peeters, T. L., G., Vantrappen, and J. Janssens, Fasting motilin levels are related to the interdigestive motility complex. Gastroenterology 79: 716–719, 1980.
 141. Phyllis, J. W., and J. R. Kirkpatrick, The actions of motilin, luteinizing hormone‐releasing hormone, cholecystokinin, somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and other peptides on rat cerebral cortical neurons. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 58: 612–623, 1979.
 142. Phyllis, J. W., and J. R. Kirkpatrick, Motilin excites neurons in the cerebral cortex and spinal cord. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 58: 469–472, 1979.
 143. Pinnington, J., and D. L. Wingate, The effects of motilin on periodic myoelectric spike activity in intact and transected canine small intestine. J. Physiol Lond. 337: 471–478, 1983.
 144. Poitras, P, Motilin is a digestive hormone in the dog. Gastroenterology 87: 909–913, 1984.
 145. Poitras, P., J. R., Reeve, M. W. Hunkapiller, L. E. Hood, and J. H. Walsh, Purification and characterization of canine intestinal motilin. Regul. Pept. 5: 197–208, 1983.
 146. Poitras, P., J. H., Steinbach, G. Vandeventer, C. F. Code, and J. H. Walsh, Effect of somatostatin on blood levels of motilin and the interdigestive myoelectric complex in dogs. Endocrinol. Jpn. 27: 163–166, 1980.
 147. Poitras, P., J. H., Steinbach, G. Vandeventer, C. F. Code, and J. H. Walsh, Motilin‐independent ectopic fronts of the interdigestive myoelectric complex in dogs. Am. J. Physiol. 239 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 2): G215–G220, 1980.
 148. Poitras, P., D., TassÉ, and P. Laprise, Stimulation of motilin release by bombesin in dogs. Am. J. Physiol. 245 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 8): G249–G256, 1982.
 149. Polak, J. M., and A. M. Buchan, Motilin. Immunocytochemical localization indicates possible molecular heterogeneity or the existence of a motilin family. Gastroenterology 76: 1065–1066, 1979.
 150. Polak, J. M., A. M., Buchan, J. R. Dryburgh, H. Christofides, S. R. Bloom, and N. Yanaihara, Immunoreactive motilins? Lancet 1: 1364–1365, 1978.
 151. Polak, J. M., P., Heitz, and A. G. E. Pearse, Differential localisation of substance P and motilin. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 11: 39–42, 1976.
 152. Polak, J., A. G. E., Pearse, and C. M. Heath, Complete identification of endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract using semithin sections to identify motilin cells in human and animal intestine. Gut 16: 225–229, 1975.
 153. Pomeranz, I. S., J. S., Davison, and E. A. Shaffer, In vitro effects of pancreatic polypeptide and motilin on contractility of human gallbladder. Dig. Dis. Sci. 28: 539–544, 1983.
 154. Porreca, F., and A. Dray, Motilin acts within the CNS to inhibit urinary bladder contractions. Life Sci. 34: 2577–2581, 1984.
 155. Preston, D. M., T. E., Adrian, N. D. Christofides, J. E. Lennard‐Jones, and S. R. Bloom, Positive correlation between symptoms and circulating motilin, pancreatic polypeptide and gastrin concentrations in functional bowel disorders. Gut 26: 1059–1064, 1985.
 156. Rees, W. D. W., J. R., Malagelada, L. J. Miller, and V. L. W. Go, Human interdigestive and postprandial gastrointestinal motor and gastrointestinal hormone patterns. Dig. Dis. Sci. 27: 321–329, 1982.
 157. Reeve, J. R., F. J., Ho, J. H. Walsh, C. M. Ben‐Avram, and J. E. Shively, Rapid high‐yield purification of canine intestinal motilin and its complete sequence determination. J. Chromatogr. 321: 421–432, 1985.
 158. Ruppin, H., S., Domschke, W. Domschke, E. Wuensch, E. Jaeger, and L. Demling, Effects of 13‐Nle‐motilin in man: inhibition of gastric evacuation and stimulation of pepsin secretion. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 10: 199–202, 1975.
 159. Ruppin, H., D., Kirndoerfer, S. Domschke, W. Domschke, K. Schwemmie, E. Wuensch, and L. Demling, Effect of 13‐Nle‐motilin in postoperative ileus patients: a double‐blind trial. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 11: 89–92, 1976.
 160. Ruppin, H., G., Strunz, D. Wethoff, S. Domschke, W. Domschke, E. Wuensch, and L. Demling, Effect of 13‐Nle‐motilin on small intestinal transit time in healthy subjects. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 11: 85–88, 1976.
 161. Saito, S., T., Ogawa, H. Saito, K. Ishimaru, I. Oshima, and Y. Sonaka, Regulation of motilin secretion in the postprandial state in mam. Endocrinol. Jpn. 1: 157–162, 1980.
 162. Samson, W. K., M. D., Lumpkin, G. Nilaver, and S. M. Mccann, Motilin: a novel growth hormone‐releasing agent. Brain Res. Bull. 12: 57–62, 1984.
 163. Sarles, J. C., P., Delecourt, M. A. Devaux, J. P. Amoros, J. C. Guicheney, and E. Wuensch, In vivo effect of 13‐leumotilin on the electric activity of the rabbit sphincter of Oddi. Horm. Metab. Res. 13: 340–342, 1981.
 164. Sarna, S, Cyclic motor activity; migrating motor complex. 1985. Gastroenterology 89: 894–913, 1985.
 165. Sarna, S., W. Y., Chey, R. E. Condon, W. J. Dodds, T. Myers, and T. M. Chang, Cause‐and‐effect relationship between motilin and migrating myoelectric complexes. Am. J. Physiol. 245 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 8): G277–G284, 1983.
 166. Sarna, S., R. E., Condon, and V. Cowles, Morphine versus motilin in the initiation of migrating myoelectric complexes. Am. J. Physiol. 245 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 8): G217–220, 1983.
 167. Sarr, M. G., K. A., Kelly, and V. L. M. Go, Motilin regulation of canine interdigestive motility. Dig. Dis. Sci. 28: 249–256, 1983.
 168. Schubert, H., and J. C. Brown, Correction to the amino acid sequence of porcine motilin. Can. J. Biochem. 52: 7–8, 1974.
 169. Scott, R. B., S. M., Strasberg, T. Y. El‐Sharkawy, and N. E. Diamant, Regulation of the fasting enterohepatic circulation of bile acids by the migrating myoelectric complex in dogs. J. Clin. Invest. 71: 644–654, 1983.
 170. Shay, H., and J. Gershon‐Cohen, Experimental studies in gastric physiology in man. II. A study of pyloric control. Role of acid and alkali. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 58: 939–955, 1934.
 171. Shima, K., S., Shin, A. Tanaka, E. Hashimura, T. Nishino, K. Imagawa, Y. Kumahara, and N. Yanaihara, Heterogeneity of plasma motilin in patients with chronic renal failure. Horm. Metab. Res. 12: 328–331, 1980.
 172. Shin, S., K., Imagawa, F. Shimizu, E. Hashimura, K. Nagai, C. Yanaihara, and N. Yanaihara, Heterogeneity of immunoreactive motilin. Endocrinol. Jpn. 1: 141–149, 1980.
 173. Smith, P. H., B. J., Davis, Y. Seino, and N. Yanaihara, Localization of motilin‐containing cells in the intestinal tract of mammals: a further comparison using region‐specific motilin antisera. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 44: 288–291, 1981.
 174. Strunz, U., W., Domschke, S. Domschke, P. Mitznegg, E. Wuensch, E. Jaeger, and L. Demling, Gastroduodenal motor response to natural motilin and synthetic position 13‐substituted motilin analogues: a comparative in vitro study. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 11: 199–203, 1976.
 175. Strunz, U., W., Domschke, S. Domschke, P. Mitznegg, E. Wuensch, E. Jaeger, and L. Demling, Potentiation between 13‐Nle‐motilin and acetylcholine on rabbit pyloric muscle in vitro. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 11: 29–33, 1976.
 176. Strunz, U., W., Domschke, P. Mitznegg, S. Domschke, E. Schubert, E. Wuensch, E. Jaeger, and L. Demling, Analysis of the motor effects of 13‐norleucine motilin on the rabbit, guinea pig, rat and human alimentary tract in vitro. Gastroenterology 68: 1485–1491, 1975.
 177. Suzuki, T., I., Takahashi, and Z. Itoh, Motilin and gallbladder: new dimensions in gastrointestinal physiology. Peptides Fayetteville 2: 229–233, 1981.
 178. Svenberg, T., N. D., Christofides, M. L. Fitzpatrick, S. R. Bloom, and R. B. Welbourn, Interdigestive biliary output in man: relationship to fluctuations in plasma motilin and effect of atropine. Gut 23: 1024–1028, 1982.
 179. Svenberg, T., I., Nilsson, K. Samuelson, and R. D. Welbourn, Studies on the causal relationship between gallbladder emptying and motilin release in man. Acta Chir. Scand. 520: 59–61, 1984.
 180. Szurszewski, J. H. A migrating electric complex of the canine small intestine. Am. J. Physiol. 217 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 6): G1757–G1763, 1969.
 181. Tai, H. H., and W. Y. Chey, Development of radioimmunoassay for motilin. Anal. Biochim. 87: 350–358, 1978.
 182. Takahashi, I., R., Honda, W. J. Dodds, S. Sarna, J. Toouli, Z. Itoh, W. Y. Chey, W. J. Hogan, D. Greiff, and K. Baker, Effect of motilin on the opossum upper gastrointestinal tract and sphincter of Oddi. Am. J. Physiol. 245 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 8): G476–481, 1983.
 183. Takahashi, I., T., Suzuki, I. Aizawa, and Z. Itoh, Comparison of gallbladder contractions induced by motilin and cholecystokinin in dogs. Gastroenterology 82: 419–424, 1982.
 184. Thomas, J. E., J. O., Crider, and C. J. Morgan, A study of reflexes involving the pyloric sphincter and antrum and their role in gastric evacuation. Am. J. Physiol. 108: 683–700, 1934.
 185. Thomas, P., K. A., Kelly, and V. L. M. Go, Does motilin regulate canine interdigestive gastric motility? Dig. Dis. Sci. 24: 577–582, 1979.
 186. Tobe, T., S. T., Chen, H. Vajima, Y. Kai, and H. Kawatani, Localization of motilin in human and dog gastrointestinal tract by immunofluorescence. In: Endocrine Gut and Pancreas, edited by T. Fujita. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1976, p. 113–118.
 187. Track, N. S., L. M., Watters, and J. Gauldie, Motilin, human pancreatic polypeptide (HPP) and gastrin plasma concentrations in fasting subjects. Clin. Biochem. 12: 109–117, 1979.
 188. Usellini, L., A. M., Buchan, J. M. Polak, C. Capella, M. Cornaggia, and E. Solcia, Ultrastructural localization of motilin in endocrine cells of human and dog intestine by the immunogold technique. Histochemistry 81: 363–368, 1984.
 189. Vantrappen, G., J., Janssens, T. L. Peeters, S. R. Bloom, N. Christofides, and J. Hellemans, Motilin and the inter‐digestive migrating motor complex in man. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 24: 497–500, 1979.
 190. Vantrappen, G., T. L., Peeters, and J. Janssens, The secretory component of the interdigestive migrating motor complex in man. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 14: 663–668, 1979.
 191. Wingate, D. L., H., Ruppin, W. E. R. Green, H. H. Thompson, W. Domschke, E. Wuensch, L. Demling, and H. D. Ritchie, Motilin‐induced electrical activity in the canine gastrointestinal tract. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. Suppl. 39: 111–118, 1976.
 192. Wingate, D. L., H., Ruppin, H. H. Thompson, W. E. R. Green, W. Domschke, E. Wuensch, L. Demling, and H. D. Ritchie, 13‐Norleucine motilin versus pentagastrin: contrasting and competitive effects on gastrointestinal myoelectric activity in conscious dogs. Acta Hepato‐Gastroenterol. 22: 409–410, 1975.
 193. Wingate, D. L., H., Ruppin, H. H. Thompson, W. E. Green, W. Domschke, E. Wuensch, L. Demling, and H. D. Ritchie, The gastrointestinal myoelectric response to 13‐Nle‐motilin infusion during interdigestive and digestive states in the concious dog. Acta Hepato‐Gastroenterol. 24: 278–287, 1977.
 194. Wuensch, E, Syntheses of motilin analogues. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 11: 19–24, 1976.
 195. Wuensch, E., J. C., Brown, K. H. Deimer, F. Drees, E. Jaeger, J. Musiol, R. Scharf, H. Stocker, P. Thamm, and G. Wendleberger, The total synthesis of norleucine‐13‐motilin. Z. Naturforsch. 28: 235–240, 1973.
 196. Yajima, H., Y., Kai, H. Ogawa, M. Kubota, Y. Mori, and K. Koyama, Structure‐activity relationships of gastrointestinal hormones: motilin, GIP and [27‐TYR] CCK‐PZ. Gastroenterology 72: 793–796, 1977.
 197. Yanaihara, C., H., Sato, N. Yanaihara, S. Naruse, W. G. Forssmann, V. Helmstaedter, T. Fujita, K. Yamaguchi, and K. Abe, Motilin‐, substance P‐ and somatostatin‐like immunoreactivities in extracts from dog, tupaia and monkey brain and GI tract. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 106: 269–283, 1978.
 198. Yanaihara, N., C., Yanaihara, K. Nagai, H. Sato, F. Shimizu, K. Yamaguchi, and K. Abe, Motilin‐like immunoreactivity in porcine, canine, human and rat tissues. Biomed. Res. 1: 76–83, 1980.
 199. Yoshiya, K., T., Yamamura, Y. Ishikawa, J. Utsunomiya, K. Mori, Y. Seino, H. Imura, and N. Yanaihara, The failure of truncal vagotomy to affect motilin release in dogs. J. Surg. Res. 38: 263–266, 1985.
 200. You, C. H., W., Chey, and K. Y. Lee, Studies on plasma motilin concentration and interdigestive motility of the duodenum in humans. Gastroenterology 79: 62–66, 1980.

Contact Editor

Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite

G. Vantrappen, T. L. Peeters. Motilin. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 17: Handbook of Physiology, The Gastrointestinal System, Neural and Endocrine Biology: 545-558. First published in print 1989. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp060222