Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Salt and Water Transport by Gallbladder Epithelium

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Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Morphology
2 Basic Transport Functions
3 Mechanisms of Transepithelial Salt Transport
3.1 Basic Electrophysiology of Gallbladder Epithelium
3.2 Paracellular Pathway
3.3 Apical Cell Membrane
3.4 Basolateral Cell Membrane
3.5 Intracellular Ionic Activities
3.6 Transepithelial Ion Fluxes
3.7 Mechanisms of Salt Transport at Apical Membrane
3.8 Mechanisms of Salt Transport at Basolateral Membrane
4 Mechanisms of Transepithelial Water Transport
4.1 Pinocytotic Theory
4.2 Electroosmotic Theory
4.3 Osmotic Theory
5 Conclusions
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Passive, steady‐state equivalent electrical circuits for gallbladder epithelium. M, apical (mucosal) solution; C, cell interior; S, basolateral (serosal) solution. Left, basolateral membrane is represented by lumped equivalent (Rb). Ra and Rs, electrical resistances of apical membrane and paracellular pathway, respectively. Right, lateral membrane has distributed resistance (R1) in series with lateral intercellular space (RLIS). R*b, resistance of basal region of basolateral membrane; Rj, resistance of junctions (see refs. , ).

Figure 2. Figure 2.

Thévenin equivalent circuit for gallbladder epithelium. Each element of circuit is represented by equivalent resistance (R) in series with equivalent electromotive force (or zero‐current voltage, E). a, Apical membrane; b, basolateral membrane; s, paracellular pathway. Measured membrane voltages are depicted on right. Polarity convention is Vms = VmVs; Vmc = VcVm; Vcs = VcVs.

[From Reuss .]
Figure 3. Figure 3.

Intracellular and extracellular ionic activities (a) in Necturus gallbladder. V, voltages; , electrodiffusive driving forces. Arrows, direction of net driving forces for electrodiffusion.

(Data from refs. , , , , , , , , , .)
Figure 4. Figure 4.

Effects of nominal apical removal of Na+ or Cl on membrane voltages and intracellular sodium ion activity (aNai+) (see Table ).

[From Reuss .]
Figure 5. Figure 5.

Working hypothesis of ion transport mechanisms in Necturus gallbladder epithelium. Top, apical solution; bottom, basolateral solution. Only primary active element is Na+ pump (P). Open circles, carriers; parallel lines, channels. Basolateral membrane Na+ entry pathway is hypothetical.

Figure 6. Figure 6.

Three‐compartment model of water transport. Membrane separating compartments 1 and 2 is semipermeable, i.e., permeable to water but not to solute, i.e., reflection coefficient σs = 1. Membrane separating compartments 2 and 3 is porous, i.e., equally permeable to water and small solutes (σs = 0). Water transport is in direction shown by arrows, provided that compartment 2 is hyperosmotic relative to compartment 1, independent of osmolality in compartment 3.

[Adapted from Curran and MacIntosh .]
Figure 7. Figure 7.

Standing‐gradient model. Active solute transport into channel makes channel fluid hypertonic. Water follows down osmotic gradient, across channel walls. As solute diffuses along channel, osmolality decreases progressively from closed to open end. In steady state, standing osmotic gradient is maintained.

[From Diamond and Bossert .]
Figure 8. Figure 8.

Top, epithelium, with lateral intercellular space (LIS) and unstirred layers (USL) of thicknesses δ1 and δ2, respectively. Middle, concentration (C) profile of osmotic probe added to solution 1. Bottom, simultaneous concentration profile of NaCl, present in both solutions at equal concentrations. Profile of [NaCl] will be reversed if osmotic probe is instead added to solution 2.

[From Diamond .]


Figure 1.

Passive, steady‐state equivalent electrical circuits for gallbladder epithelium. M, apical (mucosal) solution; C, cell interior; S, basolateral (serosal) solution. Left, basolateral membrane is represented by lumped equivalent (Rb). Ra and Rs, electrical resistances of apical membrane and paracellular pathway, respectively. Right, lateral membrane has distributed resistance (R1) in series with lateral intercellular space (RLIS). R*b, resistance of basal region of basolateral membrane; Rj, resistance of junctions (see refs. , ).



Figure 2.

Thévenin equivalent circuit for gallbladder epithelium. Each element of circuit is represented by equivalent resistance (R) in series with equivalent electromotive force (or zero‐current voltage, E). a, Apical membrane; b, basolateral membrane; s, paracellular pathway. Measured membrane voltages are depicted on right. Polarity convention is Vms = VmVs; Vmc = VcVm; Vcs = VcVs.

[From Reuss .]


Figure 3.

Intracellular and extracellular ionic activities (a) in Necturus gallbladder. V, voltages; , electrodiffusive driving forces. Arrows, direction of net driving forces for electrodiffusion.

(Data from refs. , , , , , , , , , .)


Figure 4.

Effects of nominal apical removal of Na+ or Cl on membrane voltages and intracellular sodium ion activity (aNai+) (see Table ).

[From Reuss .]


Figure 5.

Working hypothesis of ion transport mechanisms in Necturus gallbladder epithelium. Top, apical solution; bottom, basolateral solution. Only primary active element is Na+ pump (P). Open circles, carriers; parallel lines, channels. Basolateral membrane Na+ entry pathway is hypothetical.



Figure 6.

Three‐compartment model of water transport. Membrane separating compartments 1 and 2 is semipermeable, i.e., permeable to water but not to solute, i.e., reflection coefficient σs = 1. Membrane separating compartments 2 and 3 is porous, i.e., equally permeable to water and small solutes (σs = 0). Water transport is in direction shown by arrows, provided that compartment 2 is hyperosmotic relative to compartment 1, independent of osmolality in compartment 3.

[Adapted from Curran and MacIntosh .]


Figure 7.

Standing‐gradient model. Active solute transport into channel makes channel fluid hypertonic. Water follows down osmotic gradient, across channel walls. As solute diffuses along channel, osmolality decreases progressively from closed to open end. In steady state, standing osmotic gradient is maintained.

[From Diamond and Bossert .]


Figure 8.

Top, epithelium, with lateral intercellular space (LIS) and unstirred layers (USL) of thicknesses δ1 and δ2, respectively. Middle, concentration (C) profile of osmotic probe added to solution 1. Bottom, simultaneous concentration profile of NaCl, present in both solutions at equal concentrations. Profile of [NaCl] will be reversed if osmotic probe is instead added to solution 2.

[From Diamond .]
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Luis Reuss. Salt and Water Transport by Gallbladder Epithelium. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 19: Handbook of Physiology, The Gastrointestinal System, Intestinal Absorption and Secretion: 303-322. First published in print 1991. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp060411