Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Chloride Transport

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Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Proximal Tubule Chloride Transport
2 Amphibian Proximal Tubule
3 Mammalian Proximal Convoluted Tubule
4 Proximal Straight Tubule
5 Descending Limb of Henle
6 Thin Ascending Limb of Henle
7 Thick Ascending Limb of Henle
8 Distal Convoluted Tubule
8.1 Amphibian Distal Tubule
8.2 Mammalian Distal Tubule
9 Collecting Duct
9.1 Cortical Collecting Tubule
9.2 Outer Medullary Collecting Duct
9.3 Inner Medullary Collecting Duct
10 Summary
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Axial profile of solute and transepithelial potential difference changes along mammalian proximal convoluted tubule .

Figure 2. Figure 2.

Summary of the transport processes in amphibian proximal tubule.

Figure 3. Figure 3.

Chloride flux plotted as a function of the electrochemical driving force in rat proximal convoluted tubule . At the point where driving force is zero, there remains a significant net chloride flux.

Figure 4. Figure 4.

Summary of the transport processes in mammalian proximal tubule. The proximal straight tubule has an apical sodium conductance (not shown).

Figure 5. Figure 5.

Schematics of Cl transport across thick ascending limb of Henle. Not shown are the parallel Na+‐H+ and Cl exchanges present in the mouse cortical thick ascending limb of Henle . “1” and “2” on chloride cotransporter refer to the two chloride binding sites with differing affinities and specificities (see text). The +5 luminal potential is a representative PD in a rabbit TALH when perfused without Cl gradients. Most of the lumen‐positive PD results when K diffuses down a favorable electrochemical gradient from intracellular space to the luminal side. The PD may be even more lumen positive in vivo with a superimposition of a diffusion PD; Na+ is more permeable than Cl across this segment. The estimated intracellular Cl of 12 mEq/liter is from Amphiuma diluting segment punctures . The K+‐Cl symporter on basolateral membrane is from works of Greger and Schlatter . See text for rest of the transport descriptions.

Figure 6. Figure 6.

Transepithelial response across frog diluting segment to chloride replacement in bath and perfusate .

Figure 7. Figure 7.

Chloride concentration measurement from free‐flow micropuncture samples as a function of distal tubule length in male Wistar rats .

Figure 8. Figure 8.

Model of Cl transport across late part of mammalian distal tubule. This figure is modified from reference to include apical electroneutral KCl influx mechanism.

Figure 9. Figure 9.

Diagram of a superficial and a juxtamedullary nephron. PT, proximal tubule; TL, thin limb of Henle's loop; MTAL, medullary thick ascending limb; CTAL, cortical thick ascending limb; DCT, distal convoluted tubule; CNT, connecting tubule; ICT, initial collecting tubule; OMCDo, collecting duct in outer stripe of outer medulla; OMCDi, collecting duct in inner stripe of outer medulla; IMCD1, outer third of inner medullary collecting duct; IMCD2, middle third of inner medullary collecting duct; IMCD3, inner third of inner medullary collecting duct.

From Madsen and Tisher
Figure 10. Figure 10.

Schematic representation of three cell types found in rabbit cortical collecting tubule. Apical (luminal) membrane is on left of cell. Principal cell (P‐cell) and ‐secreting (beta) cells are found predominantly in cortical collecting tubule. Acid‐secreting (alpha) cells are located in outer medullary collecting tubule (inner stripe) as well as in cortical collecting tubule.

From Schuster and Stokes


Figure 1.

Axial profile of solute and transepithelial potential difference changes along mammalian proximal convoluted tubule .



Figure 2.

Summary of the transport processes in amphibian proximal tubule.



Figure 3.

Chloride flux plotted as a function of the electrochemical driving force in rat proximal convoluted tubule . At the point where driving force is zero, there remains a significant net chloride flux.



Figure 4.

Summary of the transport processes in mammalian proximal tubule. The proximal straight tubule has an apical sodium conductance (not shown).



Figure 5.

Schematics of Cl transport across thick ascending limb of Henle. Not shown are the parallel Na+‐H+ and Cl exchanges present in the mouse cortical thick ascending limb of Henle . “1” and “2” on chloride cotransporter refer to the two chloride binding sites with differing affinities and specificities (see text). The +5 luminal potential is a representative PD in a rabbit TALH when perfused without Cl gradients. Most of the lumen‐positive PD results when K diffuses down a favorable electrochemical gradient from intracellular space to the luminal side. The PD may be even more lumen positive in vivo with a superimposition of a diffusion PD; Na+ is more permeable than Cl across this segment. The estimated intracellular Cl of 12 mEq/liter is from Amphiuma diluting segment punctures . The K+‐Cl symporter on basolateral membrane is from works of Greger and Schlatter . See text for rest of the transport descriptions.



Figure 6.

Transepithelial response across frog diluting segment to chloride replacement in bath and perfusate .



Figure 7.

Chloride concentration measurement from free‐flow micropuncture samples as a function of distal tubule length in male Wistar rats .



Figure 8.

Model of Cl transport across late part of mammalian distal tubule. This figure is modified from reference to include apical electroneutral KCl influx mechanism.



Figure 9.

Diagram of a superficial and a juxtamedullary nephron. PT, proximal tubule; TL, thin limb of Henle's loop; MTAL, medullary thick ascending limb; CTAL, cortical thick ascending limb; DCT, distal convoluted tubule; CNT, connecting tubule; ICT, initial collecting tubule; OMCDo, collecting duct in outer stripe of outer medulla; OMCDi, collecting duct in inner stripe of outer medulla; IMCD1, outer third of inner medullary collecting duct; IMCD2, middle third of inner medullary collecting duct; IMCD3, inner third of inner medullary collecting duct.

From Madsen and Tisher


Figure 10.

Schematic representation of three cell types found in rabbit cortical collecting tubule. Apical (luminal) membrane is on left of cell. Principal cell (P‐cell) and ‐secreting (beta) cells are found predominantly in cortical collecting tubule. Acid‐secreting (alpha) cells are located in outer medullary collecting tubule (inner stripe) as well as in cortical collecting tubule.

From Schuster and Stokes
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Juha P. Kokko, Michel Baum. Chloride Transport. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 25: Handbook of Physiology, Renal Physiology: 739-765. First published in print 1992. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp080117