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Extraauditory Effects of Acoustic Stimulation

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Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Neurophysiological Basis for Extraauditory Effects
2 Specific Extraauditory Effects
2.1 Aspects of Sensory Interaction
2.2 Reflex Response to Sound
3 General Extraauditory Effects
3.1 Effects of Sound Stimulation on Psychological State
3.2 Effects of Sound Stimulation on Physiological State
4 Special Considerations Regarding Extraauditory Response to Sound
4.1 Exposure to Infrasound and Ultrasound
4.2 Stress‐Sensitive Groups
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Suggested organization of the auditory nervous system to account for the auditory and extraauditory effects of acoustic stimulation.

Adapted from Grandjean and Kryter
Figure 2. Figure 2.

Percentage increase in pupil size as a function of the sound level of a broad‐band noise. F, pupil diameter; dB, decibel.

From Jansen
Figure 3. Figure 3.

Average time (in seconds) for subjects to maintain balance standing in heel‐to‐toe fashion on rails, from 0.50 to 1.75 inches in width, for sets of 60‐s test trials. The control condition consisted of ambient noise levels of 70 dB; the balanced noise condition involved exposure to a 120‐dB noise field while wearing ear protectors, effectively reducing the sound level in each ear canal to 80 dB. The unbalanced condition also involved exposures to the 120‐dB noise field, but with differential ear protection, resulting in sound levels of 100 dB in one ear and 80 dB in the other.

From Nixon et al.
Figure 4. Figure 4.

The effects of noise on a serial decoding operation involving multiple‐choice responses to light signals dependent on a programmed code. The signals were presented at three different rates (30, 40, and 50 per min) under 50‐dBA (quiet) and 100‐dBA intermittent noise conditions.

From Cohen
Figure 5. Figure 5.

Relationship between level of arousal, increasing from a sleeplike state to extreme agitation, and performance effectiveness. The arousal level for optimum task performance is noted by the A location at the crest of the inverted U‐shaped function. Sound excitation adds an arbitrary increment to arousal. This can reduce performance effectiveness for task situations already creating arousal conditions at or beyond the high point on the curve such as C, which becomes shifted to C′. On the other hand, such acoustic stimulation can improve performance, if the task situation has otherwise low arousal as shown by point B, which becomes shifted to B′. Sound stimulation may also shift the arousal level from the front to a matching position on the back part of the arousal curve with little consequent effect on performance as depicted by D and D′.

From Carpenter
Figure 6. Figure 6.

Relative proportions of time spent in the five different sleep stages during a given night, and differences in sound levels above background to cause awakening from these various sleep stages. The designated sleep stages represent different states of sleep as classified by certain frequency and waveform features of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings taken during the sleeping period. Stage 1 represents a drowsy, half‐awake condition displaying EEG cyclic variations of low magnitude in the 8–12 Hz and 3–7 Hz ranges. Stage 2 is a deeper stage of sleep characterized by the presence of spindling and sporadic bursts of high voltage positive and negative displacements in the wave form (K‐complex). Stages 3 and 4 are still deeper sleep stages, revealing delta or slower‐wave patterns of significant magnitude. During rapid‐eye‐movement, stage REM, the EEG frequency is much like Stage 1 except that bursts of rapid‐eye‐movements are seen from electrodes attached near the outer canthi. Stage REM is the period during which dreaming generally occurs. During a normal night of sleep, the cycle of different sleep stages repeats approximately every 90–120 min, with decreasing time spent in Stages 3 and 4 and increasing time spent in the REM stage.

From Dobbs
Figure 7. Figure 7.

Percentage decrease of finger pulse amplitudes in response to increasing levels of third‐octave bands of noise centered at the frequencies indicated. dB, decibel.

Figure 8. Figure 8.

Differences in percentage of occurrences of physiological problems in 1,005 German iron and steel workers. Peripheral circulation problems included pale and taut skin, mouth, and pharynx symptoms, abnormal sensations in extremities, paleness of mucous membranes, and other vascular disturbances.

From Jansen as adapted by Kryter


Figure 1.

Suggested organization of the auditory nervous system to account for the auditory and extraauditory effects of acoustic stimulation.

Adapted from Grandjean and Kryter


Figure 2.

Percentage increase in pupil size as a function of the sound level of a broad‐band noise. F, pupil diameter; dB, decibel.

From Jansen


Figure 3.

Average time (in seconds) for subjects to maintain balance standing in heel‐to‐toe fashion on rails, from 0.50 to 1.75 inches in width, for sets of 60‐s test trials. The control condition consisted of ambient noise levels of 70 dB; the balanced noise condition involved exposure to a 120‐dB noise field while wearing ear protectors, effectively reducing the sound level in each ear canal to 80 dB. The unbalanced condition also involved exposures to the 120‐dB noise field, but with differential ear protection, resulting in sound levels of 100 dB in one ear and 80 dB in the other.

From Nixon et al.


Figure 4.

The effects of noise on a serial decoding operation involving multiple‐choice responses to light signals dependent on a programmed code. The signals were presented at three different rates (30, 40, and 50 per min) under 50‐dBA (quiet) and 100‐dBA intermittent noise conditions.

From Cohen


Figure 5.

Relationship between level of arousal, increasing from a sleeplike state to extreme agitation, and performance effectiveness. The arousal level for optimum task performance is noted by the A location at the crest of the inverted U‐shaped function. Sound excitation adds an arbitrary increment to arousal. This can reduce performance effectiveness for task situations already creating arousal conditions at or beyond the high point on the curve such as C, which becomes shifted to C′. On the other hand, such acoustic stimulation can improve performance, if the task situation has otherwise low arousal as shown by point B, which becomes shifted to B′. Sound stimulation may also shift the arousal level from the front to a matching position on the back part of the arousal curve with little consequent effect on performance as depicted by D and D′.

From Carpenter


Figure 6.

Relative proportions of time spent in the five different sleep stages during a given night, and differences in sound levels above background to cause awakening from these various sleep stages. The designated sleep stages represent different states of sleep as classified by certain frequency and waveform features of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings taken during the sleeping period. Stage 1 represents a drowsy, half‐awake condition displaying EEG cyclic variations of low magnitude in the 8–12 Hz and 3–7 Hz ranges. Stage 2 is a deeper stage of sleep characterized by the presence of spindling and sporadic bursts of high voltage positive and negative displacements in the wave form (K‐complex). Stages 3 and 4 are still deeper sleep stages, revealing delta or slower‐wave patterns of significant magnitude. During rapid‐eye‐movement, stage REM, the EEG frequency is much like Stage 1 except that bursts of rapid‐eye‐movements are seen from electrodes attached near the outer canthi. Stage REM is the period during which dreaming generally occurs. During a normal night of sleep, the cycle of different sleep stages repeats approximately every 90–120 min, with decreasing time spent in Stages 3 and 4 and increasing time spent in the REM stage.

From Dobbs


Figure 7.

Percentage decrease of finger pulse amplitudes in response to increasing levels of third‐octave bands of noise centered at the frequencies indicated. dB, decibel.



Figure 8.

Differences in percentage of occurrences of physiological problems in 1,005 German iron and steel workers. Peripheral circulation problems included pale and taut skin, mouth, and pharynx symptoms, abnormal sensations in extremities, paleness of mucous membranes, and other vascular disturbances.

From Jansen as adapted by Kryter
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Alexander Cohen. Extraauditory Effects of Acoustic Stimulation. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 26: Handbook of Physiology, Reactions to Environmental Agents: 31-44. First published in print 1977. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp090103