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Regional Deposition of Particles in the Human Respiratory Tract

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Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Clearance Zones in the Respiratory Tract
1.1 Anterior Nares
1.2 Ciliated Nasal Passages
1.3 Nasopharynx, Oral Passages, and Larynx
1.4 Tracheobronchial Tree
1.5 Alevolar Zone
2 Factors Affecting Regional Particle Deposition
2.1 Deposition Mechanisms
2.2 Aerosol Factors
2.3 Respiratory and Flow Factors
2.4 Anatomical Factors
2.5 Physiological Factors
2.6 Environmental Factors
2.7 Effects of Pollutant Gases and Aerosols
2.8 Effects of Chronic Lung Disease
3 Techniques for Measuring Particle Deposition
3.1 Comparison of Particle Contents in Inhaled and Exhaled Air
3.2 External in vivo Measurement of γ‐Labeled Particle Retention
3.3 Sacrifice and Dissection by Regions in Experimental Animals
3.4 Deposition in Model Systems and Excised Lungs
4 Experimental Regional Deposition Data
4.1 Deposition in Human Beings
4.2 Deposition in Experimental Animals
5 Predictive Deposition Models
6 Deposition of Ambient Atmospheric Aerosol
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Total respiratory tract deposition during mouthpiece inhalations as a function of D (aerodynamic diameter in μm) except below 0.5 μm, where deposition is plotted vs. linear diameter. Previously unpublished data of Lippmann are plotted as individual tests, with eye‐fit average line. Other data on multiple subjects are shown with average and range of individual tests. Monodisperse test aerosols used were Fe2O3 (Lippmann), triphenyl phosphate, carnuba wax, polystyrene latex, and di‐2‐ethyl‐hexyl‐sebacate

Landahl et al. and Altshuleret al. Giacomelli‐Maltoni et al. Martens Muir & Davies , Davies , Heyder et al. , and Lever
Figure 2. Figure 2.

Deposition of monodisperse Fe2O3 aerosol in the head of normal nonsmoking human males during mouthpiece inhalations as a function of D2F, where F is the average inspiratory flow in liters/ min. An eye‐fit line describes the median behavior for deposition between 10 and 80%. Total respiratory tract depositions in these tests are shown in Figure .

Figure 3. Figure 3.

Deposition of monodisperse aerosols in the head during inhalation via the nose vs. D2F. The heavy solid line is the ICRP Task Group deposition model, which is based on the data of Pattle . For the data of Hounam et al. , Giacomelli‐Maltoni et al. and Rudolf & Heyder , the symbol shows the median value, and the bars show the range of the individual observations. The number at the end of the bar indicates the inspiratory flow rate. The monodisperse aerosols used were methylene blue, polystyrene latex, Fe2O3, carnuba wax and di‐2‐ethyl‐hexyl‐sebacate.

Pattle Hounam et al. and Martens and Jacobi Lippmann Giacomelli‐Maltoni et al. Rudolf & Heyder
Figure 4. Figure 4.

Deposition in the ciliated tracheobronchial (TB) region during mouthpiece inhalations, in percent of the aerosol entering the trachea.

Data nonsmokers on the left panel are from the same tests for which total respiratory tract depositions are shown in Figure and head depositions in Figure . Left panel shows data for normal nonsmoking human males. The eye‐fit median line is reproduced on the right panel, which contains data for cigarette smokers. It is apparent that many cigarette smokers have increased tracheobronchial particle deposition.
Figure 5. Figure 5.

Deposition in the nonciliated alveolar region, in percent of aerosol entering the mouthpiece, as a function of aerodynamic diameter, except below 0.5 μm, where linear diameter was used. Individual data points and eye‐fit solid line are for the same Fe2O2 aerosol tests plotted in Figures , , and the left panel of Figure . The dashed line is an eye‐fit through the median best estimates of Altshuler et al. on three subjects whose range is shown by the vertical lines. The lower curve is an estimate of alveolar deposition during nose breathing, and is based on the difference in head depositions shown in Figures and .

Figure 6. Figure 6.

Pulmonary (alveolar) deposition of l40La‐labeled aerosols inhaled by Beagle dogs. Individual test data of Cuddihy et al. are shown for five dogs, along with dashed lines which are their estimates of the boundaries. The solid line represents the human pulmonary deposition according to the ICRP Task Group .

From Cuddihy et al.
Figure 7. Figure 7.

Regional deposition predictions based on model proposed by ICRP Committee II Task Group on Lung Dynamics, indicating effect of variations in σg and flowrate. A: each of the shaded areas (envelopes) indicates the variable deposition for a given mass median (aerodynamic) diameter in each compartment when the distribution parameter σg varies from 1.2 to 4.5 and the tidal volume is 1,450 ml. B: two ventilatory states, i.e., 750 ml and 2,150 ml tidal volume (∼11 and ∼32 liters/min volumes, respectively) are used to indicate the order and direction of change in compartmental deposition which are induced by such physiological factors.

From Task Group on Lung Dynamics
Figure 8. Figure 8.

Comparison of sampler acceptance curves of The British Medical Research Council (BMRC) and The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) with alveolar deposition according to ICRP Task Group Model and median human in vivo data from Figure .



Figure 1.

Total respiratory tract deposition during mouthpiece inhalations as a function of D (aerodynamic diameter in μm) except below 0.5 μm, where deposition is plotted vs. linear diameter. Previously unpublished data of Lippmann are plotted as individual tests, with eye‐fit average line. Other data on multiple subjects are shown with average and range of individual tests. Monodisperse test aerosols used were Fe2O3 (Lippmann), triphenyl phosphate, carnuba wax, polystyrene latex, and di‐2‐ethyl‐hexyl‐sebacate

Landahl et al. and Altshuleret al. Giacomelli‐Maltoni et al. Martens Muir & Davies , Davies , Heyder et al. , and Lever


Figure 2.

Deposition of monodisperse Fe2O3 aerosol in the head of normal nonsmoking human males during mouthpiece inhalations as a function of D2F, where F is the average inspiratory flow in liters/ min. An eye‐fit line describes the median behavior for deposition between 10 and 80%. Total respiratory tract depositions in these tests are shown in Figure .



Figure 3.

Deposition of monodisperse aerosols in the head during inhalation via the nose vs. D2F. The heavy solid line is the ICRP Task Group deposition model, which is based on the data of Pattle . For the data of Hounam et al. , Giacomelli‐Maltoni et al. and Rudolf & Heyder , the symbol shows the median value, and the bars show the range of the individual observations. The number at the end of the bar indicates the inspiratory flow rate. The monodisperse aerosols used were methylene blue, polystyrene latex, Fe2O3, carnuba wax and di‐2‐ethyl‐hexyl‐sebacate.

Pattle Hounam et al. and Martens and Jacobi Lippmann Giacomelli‐Maltoni et al. Rudolf & Heyder


Figure 4.

Deposition in the ciliated tracheobronchial (TB) region during mouthpiece inhalations, in percent of the aerosol entering the trachea.

Data nonsmokers on the left panel are from the same tests for which total respiratory tract depositions are shown in Figure and head depositions in Figure . Left panel shows data for normal nonsmoking human males. The eye‐fit median line is reproduced on the right panel, which contains data for cigarette smokers. It is apparent that many cigarette smokers have increased tracheobronchial particle deposition.


Figure 5.

Deposition in the nonciliated alveolar region, in percent of aerosol entering the mouthpiece, as a function of aerodynamic diameter, except below 0.5 μm, where linear diameter was used. Individual data points and eye‐fit solid line are for the same Fe2O2 aerosol tests plotted in Figures , , and the left panel of Figure . The dashed line is an eye‐fit through the median best estimates of Altshuler et al. on three subjects whose range is shown by the vertical lines. The lower curve is an estimate of alveolar deposition during nose breathing, and is based on the difference in head depositions shown in Figures and .



Figure 6.

Pulmonary (alveolar) deposition of l40La‐labeled aerosols inhaled by Beagle dogs. Individual test data of Cuddihy et al. are shown for five dogs, along with dashed lines which are their estimates of the boundaries. The solid line represents the human pulmonary deposition according to the ICRP Task Group .

From Cuddihy et al.


Figure 7.

Regional deposition predictions based on model proposed by ICRP Committee II Task Group on Lung Dynamics, indicating effect of variations in σg and flowrate. A: each of the shaded areas (envelopes) indicates the variable deposition for a given mass median (aerodynamic) diameter in each compartment when the distribution parameter σg varies from 1.2 to 4.5 and the tidal volume is 1,450 ml. B: two ventilatory states, i.e., 750 ml and 2,150 ml tidal volume (∼11 and ∼32 liters/min volumes, respectively) are used to indicate the order and direction of change in compartmental deposition which are induced by such physiological factors.

From Task Group on Lung Dynamics


Figure 8.

Comparison of sampler acceptance curves of The British Medical Research Council (BMRC) and The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) with alveolar deposition according to ICRP Task Group Model and median human in vivo data from Figure .

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Morton Lippmann. Regional Deposition of Particles in the Human Respiratory Tract. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 26: Handbook of Physiology, Reactions to Environmental Agents: 213-232. First published in print 1977. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp090114