Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Tissue and Cellular Reactions to Particles, Fibers, and Aerosols Retained after Inhalation

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Nature and Origin of Materials Retained
2 Tissue and Cellular Reactions to Retained Materials
2.1 Effect of Size and Shape on the Fate of Inhaled Particles and Fibers
2.2 Mechanism of Phagocytosis
3 Silica
3.1 Amorphous Silica
3.2 Crystalline Silica
4 Asbestos
4.1 In Vitro Studies
4.2 In Vivo Effects
4.3 Carcinogenicity of Asbestos
5 Fibrogenesis and The Fibroblastic Reaction
6 Coal
6.1 In Vivo Effects
6.2 Phagocytosis and Cytotoxicity
7 Other Materials
8 Aerosols
8.1 Cigarette Smoke
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Normal hamster peritoneal macrophages fixed and stained with hematoxylin, × 270.

From Bey & Harington
Figure 2. Figure 2.

Hamster peritoneal macrophages fixed and stained with hematoxylin and treated with amorphous silica (Fransil) (72 μg/5 × 105 cells). Photographed 4 h after administration of dust. Note pronounced cytotoxic effects. × 270.

From Bey & Harington
Figure 3. Figure 3.

Diagram showing uptake of silica particle into a phagosome (I), release of lysosomal enzymes into the phagosome and subsequent leakage of these enzymes into the cytoplasm (II).

From Harington & Allison
Figure 4. Figure 4.

Electron micrograph of a special grade of chrysotile fibers from Coalinga, New Idria, California.

From Harington et al.
Figure 5. Figure 5.

Electron micrograph of an ultrasonically dispersed specimen of crocidolite.

From Harington et al.
Figure 6. Figure 6.

Electron micrograph of an ultrasonically dispersed specimen of amosite. .]

Figure 7. Figure 7.

Classification of the major types of asbestos.

From Harington et al.
Figure 8. Figure 8.

Diagram showing the different structures that can be formed by linking the silicon‐oxygen tetrahedra. A, single chains; B, double chains (amphiboles); and C, sheets (chrysotile).

From Harington et al.
Figure 9. Figure 9.

Schematic diagram showing the atomic arrangement in chrysotile.

From Harington et al.
Figure 10. Figure 10.

Schematic diagram showing the structure of amphiboles.

From Harington et al.
Figure 11. Figure 11.

Hamster peritoneal macrophages fixed and stained with hematoxylin. These cells were cultured for 3 days, treated with UICC chrysotile (72 μg/5 × 105 cells), and photographed 4 h after administration of dust. Note pronounced cytotoxic effects, × 270.

From Bey & Harington
Figure 12. Figure 12.

Hamster peritoneal macrophages fixed and stained with hematoxylin. These cells were cultured for 3 days and treated with 100 μm chrysotile. × 310.

From Bey & Harington
Figure 13. Figure 13.

Hamster peritoneal macrophages fixed and stained with hematoxylin. These cells were cultured for 5 days, treated with UICC crocidolite (144 μg/5 × 105 cells), and photographed 72 h after administration of dust. × 270.

From Bey & Harington
Figure 14. Figure 14.

Hamster peritoneal macrophages fixed and stained with hematoxylin. These cells were cultured for 5 days, treated with UICC amosite (144 μmg/5 × 105 cells), and photographed 72 h after administration of dust. Note fibroblast at center showing no phagocytosis, × 270.

From Bey & Harington
Figure 15. Figure 15.

Electron micrograph of mouse peritoneal macrophages given chrysotile asbestos, 100 μg/ml medium. Note uptake of fibers into phagosomes and some lying free in cytoplasm. × 25,000.

Figure 16. Figure 16.

Release of acid phosphatase into cell culture medium after macrophages have been exposed to various mineral dusts over 65 h.

From Miller & Harington
Figure 17. Figure 17.

Measurements of fiber diameters of asbestos from 11 crocidolite mines in the northwestern Cape and from different levels in two crocidolite and three amosite mines in the Transvaal. A, northwestern Cape (crocidolite); B, Transvaal (amosite, crocidolite).

Adapted from Timbrell et al.


Figure 1.

Normal hamster peritoneal macrophages fixed and stained with hematoxylin, × 270.

From Bey & Harington


Figure 2.

Hamster peritoneal macrophages fixed and stained with hematoxylin and treated with amorphous silica (Fransil) (72 μg/5 × 105 cells). Photographed 4 h after administration of dust. Note pronounced cytotoxic effects. × 270.

From Bey & Harington


Figure 3.

Diagram showing uptake of silica particle into a phagosome (I), release of lysosomal enzymes into the phagosome and subsequent leakage of these enzymes into the cytoplasm (II).

From Harington & Allison


Figure 4.

Electron micrograph of a special grade of chrysotile fibers from Coalinga, New Idria, California.

From Harington et al.


Figure 5.

Electron micrograph of an ultrasonically dispersed specimen of crocidolite.

From Harington et al.


Figure 6.

Electron micrograph of an ultrasonically dispersed specimen of amosite. .]



Figure 7.

Classification of the major types of asbestos.

From Harington et al.


Figure 8.

Diagram showing the different structures that can be formed by linking the silicon‐oxygen tetrahedra. A, single chains; B, double chains (amphiboles); and C, sheets (chrysotile).

From Harington et al.


Figure 9.

Schematic diagram showing the atomic arrangement in chrysotile.

From Harington et al.


Figure 10.

Schematic diagram showing the structure of amphiboles.

From Harington et al.


Figure 11.

Hamster peritoneal macrophages fixed and stained with hematoxylin. These cells were cultured for 3 days, treated with UICC chrysotile (72 μg/5 × 105 cells), and photographed 4 h after administration of dust. Note pronounced cytotoxic effects, × 270.

From Bey & Harington


Figure 12.

Hamster peritoneal macrophages fixed and stained with hematoxylin. These cells were cultured for 3 days and treated with 100 μm chrysotile. × 310.

From Bey & Harington


Figure 13.

Hamster peritoneal macrophages fixed and stained with hematoxylin. These cells were cultured for 5 days, treated with UICC crocidolite (144 μg/5 × 105 cells), and photographed 72 h after administration of dust. × 270.

From Bey & Harington


Figure 14.

Hamster peritoneal macrophages fixed and stained with hematoxylin. These cells were cultured for 5 days, treated with UICC amosite (144 μmg/5 × 105 cells), and photographed 72 h after administration of dust. Note fibroblast at center showing no phagocytosis, × 270.

From Bey & Harington


Figure 15.

Electron micrograph of mouse peritoneal macrophages given chrysotile asbestos, 100 μg/ml medium. Note uptake of fibers into phagosomes and some lying free in cytoplasm. × 25,000.



Figure 16.

Release of acid phosphatase into cell culture medium after macrophages have been exposed to various mineral dusts over 65 h.

From Miller & Harington


Figure 17.

Measurements of fiber diameters of asbestos from 11 crocidolite mines in the northwestern Cape and from different levels in two crocidolite and three amosite mines in the Transvaal. A, northwestern Cape (crocidolite); B, Transvaal (amosite, crocidolite).

Adapted from Timbrell et al.
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J. S. Harington, A. C. Allison. Tissue and Cellular Reactions to Particles, Fibers, and Aerosols Retained after Inhalation. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 26: Handbook of Physiology, Reactions to Environmental Agents: 263-283. First published in print 1977. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp090117