Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Immunological Reactions to Inhaled Physical and Chemical Agents

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Classification of Types of Immune Injury
1.1 Type I: Reagin‐Dependent Reactions
1.2 Type II: Cytotoxic Reactions
1.3 Type III: Immune Complex Disposition Reactions
1.4 Type IV: Cell‐Mediated or Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions
1.5 Nonspecific Complement Activation
2 Inhalants
2.1 Physical Agents
2.2 Chemical Agents
2.3 Antigens of Plant Origin
2.4 Antigens of Animal Origin
3 Immunosuppressive Inhalants
3.1 Halothane and Other Inhalant Anesthetics
3.2 Cigarette Smoke
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Type I, reagin‐dependent reactions are due to antigen reacting with specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies that have become bound to mast cells or basophiles. This reaction causes the cells to degranulate and release pharmacologic mediators.

Adapted from Bellanti
Figure 2. Figure 2.

Type II, Cytotoxic reactions occur when antibody reacts with antigen that is an intrinsic part of the cell or that has been adsorbed and bound to the cell. The reaction is subsequently cytotoxic.

Adapted from Bellanti
Figure 3. Figure 3.

Type III, immune‐complex deposition reactions are caused by soluble antigen‐antibody fixing complement and attracting granulocytes to the site of immune complex deposition. These cells release lysozymes, which injure the tissue.

Adapted from Bellanti
Figure 4. Figure 4.

Type IV, cell‐mediated or delayed hypersensitivity reactions occur when antigen reacts with cell membrane receptors of sensitized lymphocytes, which stimulates the release of soluble mediators. These substances are responsible for the various manifestations associated with cell‐mediated immunity.

Adapted from Bellanti


Figure 1.

Type I, reagin‐dependent reactions are due to antigen reacting with specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies that have become bound to mast cells or basophiles. This reaction causes the cells to degranulate and release pharmacologic mediators.

Adapted from Bellanti


Figure 2.

Type II, Cytotoxic reactions occur when antibody reacts with antigen that is an intrinsic part of the cell or that has been adsorbed and bound to the cell. The reaction is subsequently cytotoxic.

Adapted from Bellanti


Figure 3.

Type III, immune‐complex deposition reactions are caused by soluble antigen‐antibody fixing complement and attracting granulocytes to the site of immune complex deposition. These cells release lysozymes, which injure the tissue.

Adapted from Bellanti


Figure 4.

Type IV, cell‐mediated or delayed hypersensitivity reactions occur when antigen reacts with cell membrane receptors of sensitized lymphocytes, which stimulates the release of soluble mediators. These substances are responsible for the various manifestations associated with cell‐mediated immunity.

Adapted from Bellanti
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Robert Burrell. Immunological Reactions to Inhaled Physical and Chemical Agents. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 26: Handbook of Physiology, Reactions to Environmental Agents: 285-298. First published in print 1977. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp090118