Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Alimentary Excretion of Environmental Agents and Unnatural Compounds

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Alimentary Excretion of Organic and Inorganic Substances
1.1 Salivary Excretion
1.2 Excretion From Respiratory to Gastrointestinal Tract
1.3 Transfer of Foreign Compounds Into Gastric Contents
1.4 Intestinal Excretion
1.5 Pancreatic Excretion
1.6 General Mechanisms of Biliary Excretion of Foreign Compounds
1.7 Alimentary Excretion of Selected Pharmacological Agents
1.8 Alimentary Excretion of Selected Environmental Agents
2 Enteric Factors that May Modify Alimentary Excretion
2.1 Mucosal and Hepatic Conjugation
2.2 Presence of Bile
2.3 Gut Bacteria and Enterohepatic Circulation
2.4 Chelating Agents
3 Concluding Remarks
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Schematic presentation of mechanisms of alimentary excretion of foreign compounds: I, glandular excretion; II, ductal excretion; III, mucosal excretion. A, active excretion usually linked with biotransformation; B, passive transfer influenced by lipophilic properties, pKa, and molecular mass of compound; C, absorption linked with biotransformation and excretion at mucous membrane of gut epithelial cells.

Figure 2. Figure 2.

Comparative levels of tetracycline in saliva, plasma, and urine after iv administration of 10 mg/kg of the drug. Values are average levels of four different dogs.

From data of Borzelleca & Cherrick
Figure 3. Figure 3.

Excretion of 60Co into alimentary tract of chicks after iv injection.

From data of Lee & Wolterink
Figure 4. Figure 4.

Cumulative biliary excretion of iv‐administered 64Culabeled cupric acetate by intact rats.

From data of Owen
Figure 5. Figure 5.

Rate of secretion of radioactive DDT metabolite (DDA) in rat bile.

From data of Burns et al.
Figure 6. Figure 6.

Cumulative appearance of 14C in bile after iv administration of 0.25 mg/kg radiolabeled endrin or dieldrin to rats with biliary fistulas. Each point represents mean of three rats.

From data of Cole et al.
Figure 7. Figure 7.

Concentration of HEOD (dieldrin component) in various alimentary tract secretory products after iv administration of HEOD in goat.

From data of Cook


Figure 1.

Schematic presentation of mechanisms of alimentary excretion of foreign compounds: I, glandular excretion; II, ductal excretion; III, mucosal excretion. A, active excretion usually linked with biotransformation; B, passive transfer influenced by lipophilic properties, pKa, and molecular mass of compound; C, absorption linked with biotransformation and excretion at mucous membrane of gut epithelial cells.



Figure 2.

Comparative levels of tetracycline in saliva, plasma, and urine after iv administration of 10 mg/kg of the drug. Values are average levels of four different dogs.

From data of Borzelleca & Cherrick


Figure 3.

Excretion of 60Co into alimentary tract of chicks after iv injection.

From data of Lee & Wolterink


Figure 4.

Cumulative biliary excretion of iv‐administered 64Culabeled cupric acetate by intact rats.

From data of Owen


Figure 5.

Rate of secretion of radioactive DDT metabolite (DDA) in rat bile.

From data of Burns et al.


Figure 6.

Cumulative appearance of 14C in bile after iv administration of 0.25 mg/kg radiolabeled endrin or dieldrin to rats with biliary fistulas. Each point represents mean of three rats.

From data of Cole et al.


Figure 7.

Concentration of HEOD (dieldrin component) in various alimentary tract secretory products after iv administration of HEOD in goat.

From data of Cook
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Carl J. Pfeiffer, Osmo Hänninen. Alimentary Excretion of Environmental Agents and Unnatural Compounds. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 26: Handbook of Physiology, Reactions to Environmental Agents: 513-535. First published in print 1977. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp090133