Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Action of Environmental Agents on Nucleic Acids and Their Metabolism

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Chemical Reactions That Modify Nucleic Acids
1.1 Noncovalent Interactions
1.2 Covalent Interactions
1.3 Chemical Consequences of Modification
2 Biological Consequences of Modification
2.1 Mutagenesis: Carcinogenesis
2.2 DNA Repair Synthesis
3 Examples of Environmental Chemicals that React with Nucleic Acids
3.1 Chemicals Requiring No Prior Activation
3.2 Chemicals Requiring Prior Activation
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Base pairing of double‐stranded DNA.

Adapted from Pauling & Corey
Figure 2. Figure 2.

Chemical formula of a polyribonucleotide.

From James D. Watson, Molecular Biology of the Gene, copyright © 1965 by J. D. Watson; W. A. Benjamin, Inc., Menlo Park, California
Figure 3. Figure 3.

Nucleotide sequence of yeast alanine tRNA presented in cloverleaf form. A, adenosine; G, guanosine; C, cytidine; U, uridine; I, inosine; T, thymine riboside; ψ, pseudouridine; D, dihydrouridine; IMe, 1‐methylinosine; MeG, 1‐methylguanosine; GDiMe,N2N2‐dimethylguanosine.

Adapted from Letham
Figure 4. Figure 4.

The four most common bases found in DNA.

From Fishbein et al.
Figure 5. Figure 5.

Reactions of bisulfite with cytosine and uracil.

From Shapiro et al.
Figure 6. Figure 6.

Base pairing of O6‐methylguanine with thymine.

Figure 7. Figure 7.

Activation and reactions in rat liver of 2‐acetylamino‐fluorene.

From Heidelberger
Figure 8. Figure 8.

Scheme of metabolism of benz[a]anthracene.

From Heidelberger


Figure 1.

Base pairing of double‐stranded DNA.

Adapted from Pauling & Corey


Figure 2.

Chemical formula of a polyribonucleotide.

From James D. Watson, Molecular Biology of the Gene, copyright © 1965 by J. D. Watson; W. A. Benjamin, Inc., Menlo Park, California


Figure 3.

Nucleotide sequence of yeast alanine tRNA presented in cloverleaf form. A, adenosine; G, guanosine; C, cytidine; U, uridine; I, inosine; T, thymine riboside; ψ, pseudouridine; D, dihydrouridine; IMe, 1‐methylinosine; MeG, 1‐methylguanosine; GDiMe,N2N2‐dimethylguanosine.

Adapted from Letham


Figure 4.

The four most common bases found in DNA.

From Fishbein et al.


Figure 5.

Reactions of bisulfite with cytosine and uracil.

From Shapiro et al.


Figure 6.

Base pairing of O6‐methylguanine with thymine.



Figure 7.

Activation and reactions in rat liver of 2‐acetylamino‐fluorene.

From Heidelberger


Figure 8.

Scheme of metabolism of benz[a]anthracene.

From Heidelberger
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How to Cite

Walter Troll, Robert Shapiro. Action of Environmental Agents on Nucleic Acids and Their Metabolism. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 26: Handbook of Physiology, Reactions to Environmental Agents: 615-624. First published in print 1977. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp090140