Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Energy Utilization

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Energy Metabousm and Body Composition
2 Tissue Mass and Tissue Metabolism
3 Mitochondrial Content and Mitochondrial Metabolism
4 Whole‐Body Metabolic Rate
4.1 Twenty‐Four‐Hour Energy Expenditure
4.2 Components of 24‐Hour Energy Expenditure
4.3 Efficiency and Energy Utilization
5 Factors Modulating Metabolic Rate
5.1 Temperature
5.2 Neuroendocrine Factors
5.3 Dietary Restriction
6 Metabolic Rate of Poikilotherms as A Function of Age
7 Energy Metabolism and Theories of Aging
7.1 Rate of Living Theory
7.2 Free Radical Theory
8 Conclusions
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Variation of lean body mass (LBM) with age in males and females. Cross‐sectional data obtained using techniques of densitometry (o), total body water (+) and fat‐soluble gases (○).

Reproduced from Forbes with permission
Figure 2. Figure 2.

Changes in lean body mass (LBM) during the life span of Fischer 344 rats. Longitudinal study in which similar symbols refer to repeated measures of same rat. Group A refers to rats fed ad libitum. Upper panel shows data derived from six longest‐lived rats, lower panel from eight shortest‐lived rats, from a colony of 115 rats.

Reproduced from Yu et al. with permission
Figure 3. Figure 3.

Changes in fat mass over the life span of Fischer 344 rats. Longitudinal measurements in which similar symbols refer to repeated measures of the same rat. Panel A shows data derived from six longest‐lived rats. Panel B shows data from eight shortest‐lived rats.

Reproduced from Bertrand et al. with permission
Figure 4. Figure 4.

Changes of basal metabolic rate (BMR) with age expressed in terms of body weight (solid circles, solid line), surface area (solid circles, dashed line), and summed weight of vital organs (open circles).

Reproduced from Elia with permission
Figure 5. Figure 5.

Components of 24EE.

Reproduced from Elia with permission
Figure 6. Figure 6.

Total daily energy expenditure of young (24 ± 4 yr, open circles) and old (71 ± 6 yr, solid circles) men and women as a function of FFM.

Reproduced from Vaughan et al. with permission
Figure 7. Figure 7.

Total daily energy expenditure of male Fischer 344 rats under usual living conditions. Metabolic rate measured from 6 wk to 24 months of age. Solid squares, rats fed ad libitum; open circles, rats fed 60% ad libitum.

Reproduced from McCarter and Palmer with permission
Figure 8. Figure 8.

Oxygen consumption of male milkweed bugs with age and at different ambient temperatures.

Reproduced from McArthur and Sohal with permission
Figure 9. Figure 9.

Life span of selected mammals as a function of metabolic rate. LSP, life span potential, measured as life span in years for 90% mortality; SMR, specific metabolic rate, measured as basal metabolism in calories per gram body weight per day.

Reproduced from Cutler with permission


Figure 1.

Variation of lean body mass (LBM) with age in males and females. Cross‐sectional data obtained using techniques of densitometry (o), total body water (+) and fat‐soluble gases (○).

Reproduced from Forbes with permission


Figure 2.

Changes in lean body mass (LBM) during the life span of Fischer 344 rats. Longitudinal study in which similar symbols refer to repeated measures of same rat. Group A refers to rats fed ad libitum. Upper panel shows data derived from six longest‐lived rats, lower panel from eight shortest‐lived rats, from a colony of 115 rats.

Reproduced from Yu et al. with permission


Figure 3.

Changes in fat mass over the life span of Fischer 344 rats. Longitudinal measurements in which similar symbols refer to repeated measures of the same rat. Panel A shows data derived from six longest‐lived rats. Panel B shows data from eight shortest‐lived rats.

Reproduced from Bertrand et al. with permission


Figure 4.

Changes of basal metabolic rate (BMR) with age expressed in terms of body weight (solid circles, solid line), surface area (solid circles, dashed line), and summed weight of vital organs (open circles).

Reproduced from Elia with permission


Figure 5.

Components of 24EE.

Reproduced from Elia with permission


Figure 6.

Total daily energy expenditure of young (24 ± 4 yr, open circles) and old (71 ± 6 yr, solid circles) men and women as a function of FFM.

Reproduced from Vaughan et al. with permission


Figure 7.

Total daily energy expenditure of male Fischer 344 rats under usual living conditions. Metabolic rate measured from 6 wk to 24 months of age. Solid squares, rats fed ad libitum; open circles, rats fed 60% ad libitum.

Reproduced from McCarter and Palmer with permission


Figure 8.

Oxygen consumption of male milkweed bugs with age and at different ambient temperatures.

Reproduced from McArthur and Sohal with permission


Figure 9.

Life span of selected mammals as a function of metabolic rate. LSP, life span potential, measured as life span in years for 90% mortality; SMR, specific metabolic rate, measured as basal metabolism in calories per gram body weight per day.

Reproduced from Cutler with permission
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Roger J. M. McCarter. Energy Utilization. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 28: Handbook of Physiology, Aging: 95-118. First published in print 1995. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp110106