Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Aging, Fat Metabolism, and Adiposity

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Fat Mass
1.1 Direct Methods of Measuring Fat Mass
1.2 Indirect Methods of Measuring Fat Mass
1.3 Measurement of Body Fat Distribution
1.4 Recommendations on Fat Mass Measurements
2 Adiposity and Age‐Associated Diseases
2.1 Glucose Intolerance
2.2 Obesity
2.3 Serum lipoproteins and Atherosclerosis
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Prevalence of overweight, United States, 1960–1980.

Division of Health Examination Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Washington, D.C.
Figure 2. Figure 2.

The U‐shaped relationships between BMI and mortality ratio. Data are derived from the Build Study . The curves were constructed from the quadratic relationship between the two variables. A mortality ratio of 100 represents the average or expected mortality for the specific age group. The nadirs of the curves represent BMI associated with minimal mortality. The two points at which the curves intersect the 100 mortality ratio line represent those BMIs associated with mortality ratios less than the average; those BMIs can, therefore, be used to define a recommended weight range.

Figure 3. Figure 3.

The effect of age on the BMI associated with lowest mortality. Minimal mortality points were computed for each age‐sex group as indicated in Table . The regression lines were computed separately for men (—) and for women (—). Note that there is a strong effect of age on the BMI associated with the lowest mortality and that the regression lines for men and women are nearly identical.

Figure 4. Figure 4.

A four‐compartment functional model for body composition.

From Pierson, R. N., Jr., Wang, J., Body Composition, 167, in Section A: Nuclear Medicine, Vol. I, Spencer, R. P., Sect. Ed., in Clinical Laboratory Science Series, Seligson, D., Editor‐in‐Chief. Boca Raton, Florida, 1977. With permission
Figure 5. Figure 5.

Magnetic resonance images of the thigh showing differences in total muscle, intramuscular fat, subcutaneous fat, and bone between a young woman athlete (A) and an old sedentary woman (B). From Evans, W. J., Meredith, C. N., Exercise and Nutrition in the Elderly.

In Nutrition, Aging and the Elderly, Munro H. N. and Danford, D. E., Eds. Plenum Publishing, New York, 1989. With permission
Figure 6. Figure 6.

Changes in lipids and lipoproteins in men and women with respect to age and obesity. Adapted from Assman, G., Schulte, H., Obesity and Hyperlipidemia: Results from the Prospective Cardiovascular Munster (PROCAM) Study.

In Obesity, Bjorntorp, P. and Brodoff, B. N., Eds. J. P. Lippincott Philadelphia, 1992


Figure 1.

Prevalence of overweight, United States, 1960–1980.

Division of Health Examination Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Washington, D.C.


Figure 2.

The U‐shaped relationships between BMI and mortality ratio. Data are derived from the Build Study . The curves were constructed from the quadratic relationship between the two variables. A mortality ratio of 100 represents the average or expected mortality for the specific age group. The nadirs of the curves represent BMI associated with minimal mortality. The two points at which the curves intersect the 100 mortality ratio line represent those BMIs associated with mortality ratios less than the average; those BMIs can, therefore, be used to define a recommended weight range.



Figure 3.

The effect of age on the BMI associated with lowest mortality. Minimal mortality points were computed for each age‐sex group as indicated in Table . The regression lines were computed separately for men (—) and for women (—). Note that there is a strong effect of age on the BMI associated with the lowest mortality and that the regression lines for men and women are nearly identical.



Figure 4.

A four‐compartment functional model for body composition.

From Pierson, R. N., Jr., Wang, J., Body Composition, 167, in Section A: Nuclear Medicine, Vol. I, Spencer, R. P., Sect. Ed., in Clinical Laboratory Science Series, Seligson, D., Editor‐in‐Chief. Boca Raton, Florida, 1977. With permission


Figure 5.

Magnetic resonance images of the thigh showing differences in total muscle, intramuscular fat, subcutaneous fat, and bone between a young woman athlete (A) and an old sedentary woman (B). From Evans, W. J., Meredith, C. N., Exercise and Nutrition in the Elderly.

In Nutrition, Aging and the Elderly, Munro H. N. and Danford, D. E., Eds. Plenum Publishing, New York, 1989. With permission


Figure 6.

Changes in lipids and lipoproteins in men and women with respect to age and obesity. Adapted from Assman, G., Schulte, H., Obesity and Hyperlipidemia: Results from the Prospective Cardiovascular Munster (PROCAM) Study.

In Obesity, Bjorntorp, P. and Brodoff, B. N., Eds. J. P. Lippincott Philadelphia, 1992
References
 1. Abraham, S., Obese and overweight adults in the United States. In: Vital and Health Statistics, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Service, 1983, series 11, no. 230, p. 1–93.
 2. Allen, P. S., In vivo NMR spectroscopy. In: In Vivo Body Composition Studies. Recent Advances, edited by S. Yasumura, J. E. Harrison, K. G. McNeill, A. D. Woodhead, and F. A. Dilmanian. New York: Plenum Press, 1990, p. 419–426.
 3. Allen, T. H., H. J. Krzywicki, and J. E. Roberts. Density, fat, water and solids in freshly isolated tissues. J. Appl. Physiol. 14: 1005, 1959.
 4. Anderson, A. J., K. A. Sobocinski, D. S. Freedman, J. J. Barboriak, A. A. Rimm, and H. W. Gruchow. Body fat distribution, plasma lipids, and lipoproteins. Arteriosclerosis 8: 88–94, 1988.
 5. Anderson, J., S. B. Osborn, R. W. S. Tomlinson, D. Newton, J. Rundo, L. Salmon, and J. W. Smith. Neutron‐activation analysis in man in vivo: a new technique in medical investigation. Lancet 2: 1201–1205, 1964.
 6. Anderson, K. M., P. W. F. Wilson, R. J. Garrison, and W. P. Castelli. Longitudinal and secular trends in lipoprotein cholesterol measurements in a general population sample: the Framingham Offspring Study. Atherosclerosis 68: 59–66, 1987.
 7. Andres, R. Aging and diabetes. Med. Clin. North Am. 55: 835–846, 1971.
 8. Andres, R., D. C. Muller, and J. D. Sorkin. Long‐term effects of change in body weight on all‐cause mortality. Ann. Intern. Med. 119: 737–743, 1993.
 9. Anonymous, Ideal weights for women. Stat. Bull. 23: 6–8, 1942.
 10. Anonymous, Ideal weights for men. Stat. Bull. 24: 6–8, 1943.
 11. Anonymous, New weight standards for men and women. Stat. Bull. 40: 1–3, 1959.
 12. Anonymous, Metropolitan height and weight tables. Stat. Bull. 64: 2–9, 1983.
 13. Anonymous, Methods for voluntary weight loss and control. Ann. Intern. Med. 119: 764–770, 1993.
 14. Assmann, G., and H. Schulte. Obesity and hyperlipidemia: results from the Proapective Cardiovascular Munster (PRO‐CAM) Study. In: Obesity, edited by P. Bjorntorp and B. N. Brodoff. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1992, p. 502–511.
 15. Belanger, B. A., L. A. Cupples, and R. B. D'Agostino. The Framingham Study: an epidemiological investigation of cardiovascular disease, NIH Publication No. 88–2970, (36th ed) 1988.
 16. Bennett, P. H. Recommendations on the standardization of methods and reporting of tests for diabetes and its microvascular complications in epidemiologic studies. Diabetes Care 2: 98–104, 1979.
 17. Bierman, E. L., Aging and atherosclerosis. In: Principles of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, edited by W. R. Hazzard, R. Andres, E. L. Bierman, and J. P. Blass, New York: McGrawHill, 1990, p. 458–465.
 18. Biltz, R. M., and E. D. Pelligrino. The chemical anatomy of bone. J. Bone Joint Surg. 51A: 456–466, 1969.
 19. Bjorntorp, P. Abdominal obesity and the development of non‐insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Metab. Rev. 4: 615–622, 1988.
 20. Bjorntorp, P., Regional obesity. In: Obesity, edited by P. Bjorntorp and B. N. Brodoff. New York: J. P. Lippincott, 1992, p. 579–586.
 21. Bjorntorp, P., U. Smith, and P. Lonnroth (Eds.) Health implications of obesity. Acta Med. Scand. 223 (suppl. 723): 1, 1988.
 22. Borkan, G. A., S. G. Gerzof, A. H. Robbins, D. E. Hults, C. K. Silbert, and J. E. Silbert. Assessment of abdominal fat content by computed tomography. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 36: 172–177, 1982.
 23. Borkan, G., D. E. Hults, S. G. Gerzof, A. H. Robins, and C. K. Silbert. Age changes in body composition revealed by computed tomography. J. Gerontol. 38: 673–677, 1983.
 24. Borkan, G. A., D. E. Hults, S. G. Gerzof, and A. H. Robbins. Comparison of body composition in middle‐aged and elderly males using computed tomography. Am. J. Anthropol. 66: 289–295, 1985.
 25. Bouchard, C., G. A. Bray, and V. S. Hubbard. Basic and clinical aspects of regional fat distribution. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 52: 946, 1990.
 26. Bray, G. A., (Ed). Obesity in Perspective, Washington, D.C.: DHEW Publication No 75–708, 1975.
 27. Bray, G. A. (Ed). Obesity in America, Washington, D.C.: NIH Publication No. 79–359, 1979.
 28. Brozek, J., F. Grande, J. T. Anderson, and A. Keys. Densitometric analysis of body composition: revision of some quantitative assumptions. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 110: 113–140, 1963.
 29. Build Study, 1979. Chicago: Society of Actuaries and Association of Life Insurance Medical Directors of America, 1980.
 30. Castelli, W. P., P. W. Wilson, D. Levy, and K. Anderson. Cardiovascular risk factors in the elderly. Amer. J. Cardiol. 63: 12h–19h, 1989.
 31. Clarys, J. P., A. D. Martin, and D. T. Drinkwater. Gross tissue weights in the human body cadaver. Hum. Biol. 56: 459–473, 1984.
 32. Cohn, S. H., C. S. Bombrowski, H. R. Pate, and J. S. Robertson. A whole‐body counter with an invariant response to radionuclide distribution and body size. Phys. Med. Biol. 14: 645–658, 1969.
 33. Coon, P. J., E. M. Rogus, D. Drinkwater, D. C. Muller, and A. P. Goldberg. Role of body fat distribution in the decline in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance with age. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 75: 1125–1132, 1992.
 34. Davidson, M. B. The effect of aging on carbohydrate metabolism: a review of the English literature and a practical approach to the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in the elderly. Metabolism 28: 688–705, 1979.
 35. Despres, J., S. Moorjani, P. J. Lupien, A. Tremblay, A. Nadeau, and C. Bouchard. Regional distribution of body fat, plasma lipoproteins, and cardiovascular disease. Arteriosclerosis 10: 497–511, 1990.
 36. Deurenberg, P., K. van der Kooy, P. Evers, and T. Hulshof. Assessment of body composition by bioelectrical impedance in a population aged >60 y. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 51: 3–6, 1990.
 37. Dilmanian, F. A., D. A. Weber, S. Yasumura, Y. Kamen, L. Lidofsky, S. B. Hemysfield, and R. N. Pierson Jr., Performance of the delayed‐ and prompt‐gamma neutron activation systems at Brookhaven National Laboratory. In: In Vivo Body Composition Studies, edited by S. Yasumura, J. E. Harrison, K. G. McNeill, A. D. Woodhead, and F. A. Dilmanian. New York: Plenum Press, 1990, p. 309–316.
 38. Dowling, H. J., and X. Pi‐Sunyer. Race‐dependent health risks of upper body obesity. Diabetes 42: 537–543, 1993.
 39. Dubois, D., and E. F. DuBois. Clinical calorimeter. A formula to estimate the approximate surface if height and weight be known. Arch. Intern. Med. 17: 863–871, 1916.
 40. Ducimetiere, P., L. Eschwege, J. Papoz, J. L. Richard, J. R. Claude, and G. Rosselin. Relationship of plasma insulin levels to the incidence of myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease mortality in a middle‐aged population. Diabetologia 19: 205–210, 1980.
 41. Durnin, J. V. G. A., and J. Womersley. Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements from 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years. Br. J. Nutr. 32: 77–97, 1974.
 42. Elia, M., and G. Livesey. Theory and validity of indirect calorimetry during net lipid synthesis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 47: 591–607, 1988.
 43. Evans, D. J., R. G. Hoffmann, R. K. Kalkhoff, and A. H. Kissebah. Relationship of body fat topography to insulin sensitivity and metabolic profiles in premenopausal women. Metabolism 33: 68–75, 1984.
 44. Fink, R. I., O. G. Kolterman, J. Griffin, and J. M. Olefsky. Mechanisms of insulin resistance in aging. J. Clin. Invest. 71: 1523–1535, 1983.
 45. Fink, R. I., O. G. Kolterman, and J. M. Olefsky. The physiological significance of the glucose intolerance of aging. J. Gerontol. 39: 273–278, 1984.
 46. Folsom, A. R., S. A. Keys, R. J. Prineas, S. D. Potter, S. M. Gapstur, and R. B. Wallace. Increased incidence of carcinoma of the breast associated with abdominal adiposity in postmenopausal women. Am. J. Epidemiol. 131: 794–803, 1990.
 47. Forbes, G. B. Human Body Composition, New York: Springer‐Verlag, 1987, p. 5–100.
 48. Forbes, G. B., and A. M. Lewis. Total sodium, potassium and chloride in adult man. J. Clin. Invest. 35: 596–600, 1956.
 49. Forbes, R. M., A. R. Cooper, and H. H. Mitchel. The composition of the adult human body as determined by chemical analysis. J. Biol. Chem. 203: 359–366, 1953.
 50. Forbes, R. M., H. H. Mitchell, and A. R. Cooper. Further studies on the gross composition and mineral elements of the adult human body. J. Biol. Chem. 223: 969–975, 1956.
 51. Foster, W. R., and B. T. Burton (eds.). Health implications of obesity. Ann. Intern. Med. 103: 977–1077, 1985.
 52. Frisancho, A. R. Anthropometric Standards for the Assessment of Growth and Nutritional Status, Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1990, p. 1–185.
 53. Glueck, C. J., and E. G. Margolin. Lipoprotein metabolism. In: The Merck Manual of Geriatrics, edited by W. B. Abrams and R. Berkow. Rahway: Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories, 1990, p. 844–873.
 54. Gotfredsen, A., C. Christiansen, and R. B. Mazess. Total body bone mineral in vivo by dual photon absorptiometry. I. Measurement procedures. Clin. Physiol. 4: 343–355, 1984.
 55. Gotfredsen, A., J. Jensen, J. Borg, and C. Christiansen. Measurement of lean body mass and total body fat using dual photon absorptiometry. Metabolism 35: 88–93, 1986.
 56. Haarbo, J., A. Gotfredsen, C. Hassager, and C. Christiansen. Validation of body composition by dual energy X‐ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Clin. Physiol. 11: 331–341, 1991.
 57. Harris, M. I. Noninsulin‐dependent diabetes mellitus in black and white Americans. Diabetes Metab. Rev. 6: 71–90, 1990.
 58. Harris, M. I., W. C. Hadden, W. C. Knowler, and P. H. Bennett. Prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance and plasma glucose levels in U.S. population aged 20–74 yr. Diabetes 36: 523–534, 1987.
 59. Hempelmann, L. H., H. Lisco, and J. G. Hoffmann. The acute radiation syndrome: a study of nine cases and a review of the problem. Ann. Intern. Med. 36: 279–510, 1952.
 60. Heymsfield, S. B., J. Wang, S. Lichtman, Y. Kamen, J. Kehayias, and R. N. Pierson. Body composition in elderly subjects: a critical appraisal of clinical methodology. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 50: 1167–1175, 1989.
 61. Heymsfield, S. B., J. Wang, M. Aulet, J. J. Kehayias, S. Lichtman, Y. Kamen, and F. A. Dilmanian. Dual photon absorptiometry: validation of mineral and fat measurements. In: In Vivo Body Composition Studies, edited by S. Yasumura, J. E. Harrison, K. G. McNeill, A. D. Woodhead, and F. A. Dilmanian, New York: Plenum Press, 1990, p. 327–337.
 62. Hodgdon, J. A., and P. I. Fitzgerald. Validity of impedance predictions at various levels of fatness. Hum. Biol. 59: 281, 1987.
 63. Hoffer, E. C., C. K. Meadow, and D. C. Simpson. Correlation of whole body impedance with total body water. J. Appl. Physiol. 27: 531–534, 1969.
 64. Olloszy, J. D., J. Schultz, J. Kushierkiewicz, J. M. Hagbery, and A. A. Ehsani. Effects of exercise on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Acta Med. Scand. 711 (suppl): 55–65, 1986.
 65. Hughes, V. A., and W. J. Evans. Assessment of fat‐free mass in an older population using bioelectrical impedeance [Abstract]. Fed. Proc. 46: 1187A, 1987.
 66. Jarrett, R. J., P. McCartney, and J. Keen. The Bedford Survey: ten year mortality rates in newly diagnosed diabetics, borderline diabetics and normoglycemic controls and risk of indices for coronary heart disease in borderline diabetics. Diabetologia 22: 79–84, 1982.
 67. Jasani, B. M., and C. J. Edmonds. Kinetics of potassium distribution in man using isotope dilution and whole body counting. Metabolism 20: 1099–1106, 1971.
 68. Kaplan, N. M. The deadly quartet: upper body obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension. Arch. Intern. Med. 149: 14–20, 1989.
 69. Kehayias, J. J., K. J. Ellis, S. H. Cohn, S. Yasumura, and J. Weinlein. Use of a pulsed neutron generator for in vivo measurement of body carbon. In: In Vivo Body Composition Studies, edited by K. J. Ellis, S. Yasumura, and W. D. Morgan. London: Institute of Physical Sciences in Medicine, 1987, p. 427–435.
 70. Kehayias, J. J., S. B. Heymsfield, A. F. Lomonte, J. Wang, and R. N. Pierson, Jr.. In vivo determination of body fat by measuring total body carbon. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 53: 1339–1344, 1991.
 71. Kirby, B. Lipoproteins in the elderly. J. Int. Med. Res. 19: 425–432, 1991.
 72. Kissebah, A. H., and A. N. Peiris. Biology of regional fat distribution: relationship to non‐insulin‐dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Metab. Rev. 5: 83–109, 1989.
 73. Kissebah, A. H., N. Vydelingum, R. Murray, D. J. Evans, A. J. Hartz, R. K. Kalkhoff, and P. W. Adams. Relation of body fat distribution to metabolic complications of obesity. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 54: 254–260, 1982.
 74. Kleiber, M. The Fire of Life: An Introduction to Animal Energetics, Huntington, NY: Robert E. Krieger Publishing, 1975.
 75. Knight, G. S., A. H. Beddoe, S. J. Streat, and G. L. Hill. Body composition of two human cadavers by neutron activation and chemical analysis. Am. J. Physiol. 250 (Endocrinol. Metab. 8): E179–E185, 1986.
 76. Kohrt, W. M., J. P. Kirwan, M. A. Staten, R. E. Bourey, D. S. King, and J. O. Holloszy. Insulin resistance in aging is related to abdominal obesity. Diabetes 42: 273–281, 1993.
 77. Kolterman, O. G., J. Insel, M. Saekow, and J. M. Olefsky. Mechanisms of insulin resistance in human obesity. Evidence for receptor and postreceptor defects. J. Clin. Invest. 65: 1272–1284, 1980.
 78. Kreisberg, R. A., and S. Kasim. Cholesterol metabolism and aging. Am. J. Med. 82 (suppl. 1B): 54–60, 1987.
 79. Kushner, R. F., and D. A. Schoeller. Estimation of total body water by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 44: 417–424, 1986.
 80. Kushner, R. F., A. Kunigk, M. Alspaugh, P. T. Andronis, C. A. Leitch, and D. Schoeller. Validation of bioelectrical‐impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 52: 219–223, 1990.
 81. Kushner, R. F., D. Schoeller, C. R. Fjeld, and L. Danford. Is the impedance index (ht2/R) significant in predicting total body water? Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 56: 835–839, 1992.
 82. Kyere, K., B. Oldroyd, C. B. Oxby, L. Burkinshaw, R. E. Ellis, and G. L. Hill. The feasibility of measuring total body carbon by counting neutron inelastic scatter gamma rays. Phys. Med. Biol. 27: 805–817, 1982.
 83. Landin, K., M. Krotkiewski, and U. Smith. Importance of obesity for the metabolic abnormalities associated with abdominal fat distribution. Metabolism 38: 572–576, 1989.
 84. Larsson, B., K. Svardsudd, L. Welin, L. Wilhelmsen, P. Bjorntorp, and G. Tibblin. Abdominal adipose tissue distribution, obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease and death: 13 year follow up of participants in the study of men born in 1913. Br. Med. J. 288: 1401–1404, 1984.
 85. Lesser, G. T., S. Deutsch, and J. Markofsky. Use of independent measurements of body fat to evaluate overweight and underweight. Metabolism 20: 792–804, 1971.
 86. Lew, E. A., and L. Garfinkel. Variations in mortality by weight among 750,000 men and women. J. Chron. Dis. 32: 563–576, 1979.
 87. Lohman, T. G. Applicability of body composition techniques and constants for children and youths. Exerc. Sport. Sci. Rev. 14: 325–357, 1986.
 88. Lohman, T. G., A. F. Roche, and R. Martorell. Anthropometric standardization reference manual. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Books, 1988, p. 1–164.
 89. Lukaski, H. C., and W. W. Bolonchuk. Theory and validation of the tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance method to assess human body composition. In: In Vivo Body Composition Studies, edited by K. J. Ellis, S. Yasumura, and W. D. Morgan. London: Institute of Physical Sciences in Medicine, 1987, p. 410–414.
 90. Lukaski, H. C., P. E. Johnson, W. W. Bolonchuk, and G. L. Lykken. Assessment of fat free mass using bioelectrical impedance measurements of the human body. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 41: 810–817, 1985.
 91. Lukaski, H. C., W. W. Bolonchuk, C. B. Hall, and W. A. Siders. Validation of tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance method to assess human body composition. J. Appl. Physiol. 60: 1327–1332, 1986.
 92. Martin, A. D., D. T. Drinkwater, and J. P. Clarys. Human body surface area: validation of formulae based on a cadaver study. Hum. Biol. 56: 475–488, 1984.
 93. Martin, A. D., L. F. Spenst, D. T. Drinkwater, and J. P. Clarys. Anthropometric estimation of muscle mass in men. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 22: 729–733, 1990.
 94. Mazess, R. B., W. W. Peppler, and M. Gibbons. Total body composition by dual photon (153Gd) absorptiometry. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 40: 834–839, 1984.
 95. Mazess, R., B. Collick, J. Trempe, H. Barden, and J. Hanson. Performance evaluation of a dual‐energy X‐ray bone densitometer. Calcif. Tissue Int. 44: 228–232, 1989.
 96. Mitchell, H. H., T. S. Hamilton, F. R. Steggerda, and H. W. Bean. The chemical composition of the adult human body and its bearing on the biochemistry of growth. J. Biol. Chem. 158: 625–637, 1945.
 97. Modan, M., M. I. Harris, and H. Halkin. Evaluation of WHO and NDDG criteria for impaired glucose tolerance: results from two national samples. Diabetes 38: 1630–1635, 1989.
 98. Moore, F. D., K. H. Olesen, J. D. McMurray, H. V. Parker, M. R. Ball, and C. M. Boyden. The Body Cell Mass and Its Supporting Environment. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1963.
 99. Najjar, M. F., and M. Rowland. Anthropometric reference data and prevalence of overweight, 1976–80. In: Vital and Health Statistics, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987, series 11, no. 238.
 100. National Diabetes Data Group., Classification and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and other categories of glucose intolerance. Diabetes 28: 1037–1057, 1979.
 101. NIH Consensus Conference., Triglyceride, high‐density lipoprotein, and coronary heart disease. JAMA 269: 505–510, 1993.
 102. Nyboer, J. Workable volume and flow concepts of biosegments by electrical impedance plethysmography. J. Life Sci. 2: 1–13, 1972.
 103. Ohlson, L. O., B. Larsson, K. Svardsudd, L. Welin, H. Eriksson, L. Wilhelmsen, P. Bjorntorp, and G. Tibbin. The influence of body fat distribution on the incidence of diabetes mellitus: 13.5 years of follow‐up of the participants in the study of men born in 1913. Diabetes 34: 1055–1058, 1985.
 104. Ostlund, R. E., Jr., M. Staten, W. M. Kohrt, J. Schultz, and M. Malley. The ratio of waist‐to‐hip circumference, plasma insulin level, and glucose intolerance as independent predictors of the HDL2 cholesterol level in older adults. N. Engl. J. Med. 322: 229–234, 1990.
 105. Peiris, B. N., R. A. Mueller, G. A. Smith, M. F. Struve, and A. H. Kissebah. Splanchnic insulin metabolism in obesity: influence of body fat distribution. J. Clin. Invest. 78: 1648–1657, 1986.
 106. Pierson, R. N. Jr., J. Wang, S. B. Heymsfield, F. A. Dilmanian, and D. A. Weber. High precision in‐vivo neutron activation analysis: a new era for compartmental analysis in body composition. In: In Vivo Body Composition Studies, edited by S. Yasumura, J. E. Harrison, K. G. McNeill, A. D. Woodhead, and F. A. Dilmanian. New York: Plenum Press, 1990, p. 317–325.
 107. Quetelet, M. A. A Treatise on Man and the Development of his Faculties, Edinburgh: William and Robert Chambers, 1842.
 108. Rabinowitz, D., and K. L. Zierler. Forearm metabolism in obesity and its response to intraarterial insulin: Characterization of insulin resistance and evidence for adaptive hyperinsulinism. J. Clin. Invest. 41: 2173–2182, 1962.
 109. Rahn, H., W. O. Fenn, and A. B. Otis. Daily variation of vital capacity, residual air, and expiratory reserve including a study of the residual air methods. J. Appl. Physiol. 1: 725–743, 1949.
 110. Schoeller, D. A., Isotope dilution methods. In: Obesity, edited by P. Bjorntorp, and B. N. Brodoff. Philadelphia: Lippincott Co., 1992, p. 80–88.
 111. Schwartz, R. S., W. P. Shuman, V. L. Bradbury, K. C. Cain, G. W. Fellingham, J. C. Beard, and S. Kahn. Body fat distribution in healthy young and older men. J. Gerontol. 45: M181–M185, 1990.
 112. Schwartz, R. S., W. P. Shuman, V. Larson, K. C. Cain, G. W. Fellingham, J. C. Beard, and S. E. Kahn. The effect of intensive endurance training on body fat distribution in young and older men. Metabolism 40: 545–551, 1991.
 113. Segal, K. R., B. Gutin, E. Presta, J. Wang, and T. B. Van Itallie. Estimation of human body composition by electrical impedance methods: a comparitive study. J. Appl. Physiol. 58: 1565–1571, 1985.
 114. Segal, K. R., M. Van Loan, P. I. Fitzgerald, J. A. Hodgdon, and T. B. Van Itallie. Lean body mass estimation by bioelectrical impedance analysis: a four‐site cross‐validation study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 47: 7–14, 1988.
 115. Selby, J. V., G. D. Freidman, and C. P. Quesenberry. Precursors of essential hypertension. Am. J. Epidemiol. 129: 43–53, 1989.
 116. Sheng, H. P., and R. A. Huggins. A review of body composition studies with emphasis on total body water and fat. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32: 630–647, 1979.
 117. Shimokata, H., R. Andres, P. J. Coon, D. Elahi, D. C. Muller, and J. D. Tobin. Studies in the distribution of body fat: II. Longitudinal effects of change in weight. Int. J. Obes. 13: 455–464, 1989.
 118. Shimokata, H., J. D. Tobin, D. C. Muller, D. Elahi, P. J. Coon, and R. Andres. Studies in the distribution of body fat: effect of age, sex and obesity. J. Gerontol. 44: M66–M73, 1989.
 119. Shimokata, H., D. C. Muller, J. L. Fleg, J. Sorkin, A. W. Ziemba, and R. Andres. Age as independent determinant of glucose tolerance. Diabetes 40: 44–51, 1991.
 120. Siri, W. E., The gross composition of the body. In: Advances in Biological and Medical Physics IV, edited by C. A. Tobias and J. H. Lawrence. New York: Academic Press, 1956, p. 239–279.
 121. Sorkin, J. D., R. Andres, D. C. Muller, H. L. Baldwin, and J. L. Fleg. Cholesterol as a risk factor for coronary heart disease in elderly men. The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Ann. Epidemiol. 2: 59–67, 1992.
 122. Sparrow, D., G. A. Borkan, S. G. Gerzof, C. Wisniewski, and C. W. Silbert. Relationship of fat distribution to glucose tolerance. Results of computed tomography in male participants of the Normative Aging Study. Diabetes 35: 411–415, 1986.
 123. Stern, M. P., and S. M. Haffner. Body fat distribution and hyperinsulinemia as risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Arteriosclerosis 6: 123–130, 1986.
 124. Stout, R. W. The role of insulin in atherosclerosis in diabetics and nondiabetics: a review. Diabetes 30 (suppl. 2): 54–57, 1981.
 125. Stout, R. W. Insulin and atheroma. Diabetes Care 13: 631–654, 1990.
 126. Terry, R. B., P. D. Wood, W. L. Haskell, M. L. Stefanick, and R. M. Krauss. Regional adiposity patterns in relation to lipids, lipoprotein cholesterol, and lipoprotein subfraction mass in men. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 68: 191–199, 1989.
 127. Vague, J. La differenciation sexuelle, factuer determinant des formes de l'obesitie. Presse Med. 30: 339, 1947.
 128. Vague, J. The degree of masculine differentiation of obesities: a factor determining predisposition to diabetes, atherosclerosis, gout, and uric calculous disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 4: 20–34, 1956.
 129. Van Loan, M., and P. Mayclin. Bioelectrical impedance analysis: is it a reliable estimator of lean body mass and total body water? Hum. Biol. 59: 299–309, 1993.
 130. Vartsky, D., K. J. Ellis, and S. H. Cohn. In vivo quantification of body nitrogen by neutron capture prompt gamma‐ray analysis. J. Nucl. Med. 20: 1158–1165, 1979.
 131. Vartsky, D., K. J. Ellis, A. N. Vaswani, S. Yasumura, and S. H. Cohn. An improved calibration for the in vivo determination of body nitrogen, hydrogen and fat. Phys. Med. Biol. 29: 209–218, 1984.
 132. West, K. M. Epidemiology of Diabetes and Its Vascular Lesions. New York: Elsevier, 1978, p. 231–248.
 133. Widdowson, E. M., Chemical analysis of the body. In: Human Body Composition: Approaches and Applications, symposia for the Society for the Study of Human Biology, edited by J. Brozek. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1965, p. 31–55.
 134. Widdowson, E. M., R. A. McCance, and C. M. Spray. The chemical composition of the human body. Clin. Sci. 10: 113–125, 1951.
 135. Wilson, P. W. F. High‐density lipoprotein, low‐density lipoprotein and coronary artery disease. Am. J. Cardiol. 66: 7a–10a, 1990.
 136. Winter, J., and W. King. Basic principles of computed tomography. In: Essentials of body Computed Tomography, edited by M. Greenberg and B. M. Greenberg. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1983, p. 1–23.
 137. Womersley, J., K. Boddy, P. C. King, and J. V. G. A. Durnin. A comparison of the fat‐free mass of young adults estimated by anthropometry, body density and total body potassium content. Clin. Sci. 43: 469–475, 1972.
 138. Wong, W. W., W. J. Cochran, L. S. Lee, W. J. Klish, and P. D. Klein. Deuterium and oxygen‐18 isotope dilution spaces in normal adults. In: In Vivo Body Composition Studies, edited by K. J. Ellis, S. Yasumura, and W. D. Morgan. London: Institute of Physical Sciences in Medicine, 1987, p. 144–148.
 139. World Health Organization., Measuring obesity: classification and description of anthropometric data. (Unpublished report on a WHO consultation on the epidemiology of obesity, October 1987). Copenhagen: Nutrition Unit, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 1989, p. 1–21.
 140. Zimetbaum, P., W. H. Frishman, W. L. Ooi, M. P. Derman, M. Aronson, L. I. Gidez, and H. A. Eder. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins and the incidence of cardiovascular disease in the very elderly: the Bronx Aging Study. Arterio. Thromb. 12: 416–423, 1992.

Contact Editor

Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite

Dariush Elahi, Marianne McAloon Dyke, Reubin Andres. Aging, Fat Metabolism, and Adiposity. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 28: Handbook of Physiology, Aging: 147-170. First published in print 1995. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp110108