Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Bone

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Bone Composition
2 Bone Cells
3 Bone Remodeling
4 Bone Loss as A Major Occurrence During Aging
5 Osteoporosis
6 Parathyroid Hormone, 1,25(OH)2 Vitamin D, and Calcitonin
7 Altered Calcium Homeostatic Control Hypotheses
8 Rat Model of Postmenopausal Bone Loss
9 Altered Hematopoiesis and Local Factor Hypothesis
10 Risk Factors for Age‐Related Bone Loss
10.1 Peak Bone Mass
10.2 Exercise
10.3 Nutrition
10.4 Smoking, Alcohol, and Caffeine
11 Estrogen Receptors in Intestinal Cells
Figure 1. Figure 1.

The altered calcium homeostatic control hypotheses for the pathogenesis of postmenopausal bone loss.

Figure 2. Figure 2.

Effect of ovariectomy on the formation of TRAP‐positive multinucleated cells (MNCs) from mononuclear bone marrow cells treated with 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D in culture. Female ICR mice were ovariectomized (OOPH) or sham‐operated (SHAM). Two weeks later bone marrow from the femurs and tibias was harvested and cultured in a medium containing 10−8M 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D. TRAP‐positive MNCs with three or more nuclei were counted. Each bar is mean ± SE. P values denote difference between SHAM and corresponding OOPH, and P ≤ 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Numbers in parentheses denote the number of animals per group.

Reproduced from Kalu with permission


Figure 1.

The altered calcium homeostatic control hypotheses for the pathogenesis of postmenopausal bone loss.



Figure 2.

Effect of ovariectomy on the formation of TRAP‐positive multinucleated cells (MNCs) from mononuclear bone marrow cells treated with 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D in culture. Female ICR mice were ovariectomized (OOPH) or sham‐operated (SHAM). Two weeks later bone marrow from the femurs and tibias was harvested and cultured in a medium containing 10−8M 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D. TRAP‐positive MNCs with three or more nuclei were counted. Each bar is mean ± SE. P values denote difference between SHAM and corresponding OOPH, and P ≤ 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Numbers in parentheses denote the number of animals per group.

Reproduced from Kalu with permission
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Dike N. Kalu. Bone. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 28: Handbook of Physiology, Aging: 395-412. First published in print 1995. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp110116