Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Respiratory System

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Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Pulmonary Mechanics
1.1 Respiratory Muscles and Chest Wall
1.2 Lung Recoil
1.3 Lung Volumes
1.4 Flow Rates
2 Gas Exchange
3 Respiration
3.1 Respiratory Control
3.2 Respiratory Sensation
4 Exercise Capacity
5 Defense Mechanisms
6 Airway Responsiveness
7 Natural History of Disease
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Total lung capacity (TLC), functional residual capacity (FRC), and residual volume (RV) as functions of age from birth to 80 yr for an “average” body build.

Reproduced from Murray with permission
Figure 2. Figure 2.

Measurement of the closing volume. If a vital capacity inspiration of 100% O2 is followed by a full expiration, four phases in the N2 concentration measured at the lips can be recognized. The last is caused by preferential emptying of the apex of the lung after the lower zone airways have closed.

Reproduced from West (83) with permission
Figure 3. Figure 3.

Arterial Po2 as a function of age from birth to 80 yr.

Reproduced from Murray with permission
Figure 4. Figure 4.

Frequency histogram (percent of total number of analyzed disks) of individual disk velocities in young (broken line) and elderly (solid line) nonsmokers.

Reproduced from Goodman et al. with permission
Figure 5. Figure 5.

Development and decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) plotted as percent of theoretical maximum against age. Curve A depicts a hypothetical non‐smoker. Curve B depicts a hypothetical smoker who is not susceptible to the development of chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD). Curve C depicts a hypothetical smoker with accelerated decline of FEV1 suggestive of increased risk of COLD. Curve D depicts a hypothetical susceptible smoker who quit smoking.

Reproduced from Weiss and Sparrow


Figure 1.

Total lung capacity (TLC), functional residual capacity (FRC), and residual volume (RV) as functions of age from birth to 80 yr for an “average” body build.

Reproduced from Murray with permission


Figure 2.

Measurement of the closing volume. If a vital capacity inspiration of 100% O2 is followed by a full expiration, four phases in the N2 concentration measured at the lips can be recognized. The last is caused by preferential emptying of the apex of the lung after the lower zone airways have closed.

Reproduced from West (83) with permission


Figure 3.

Arterial Po2 as a function of age from birth to 80 yr.

Reproduced from Murray with permission


Figure 4.

Frequency histogram (percent of total number of analyzed disks) of individual disk velocities in young (broken line) and elderly (solid line) nonsmokers.

Reproduced from Goodman et al. with permission


Figure 5.

Development and decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) plotted as percent of theoretical maximum against age. Curve A depicts a hypothetical non‐smoker. Curve B depicts a hypothetical smoker who is not susceptible to the development of chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD). Curve C depicts a hypothetical smoker with accelerated decline of FEV1 suggestive of increased risk of COLD. Curve D depicts a hypothetical susceptible smoker who quit smoking.

Reproduced from Weiss and Sparrow
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How to Cite

David Sparrow, Scott T. Weiss. Respiratory System. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 28: Handbook of Physiology, Aging: 475-483. First published in print 1995. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp110118