Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Vertebrate Locomotion

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Techniques in the Study of Locomotion
1.1 History
1.2 Diversity and Natural History
1.3 Kinematic Techniques
1.4 Dynamics
1.5 Muscle Activities
2 The Physics of Movement
2.1 Motions and Performance
2.2 Forces
2.3 Proportions: The Physics of Size
3 Evolutionary Transitions in Locomotor Patterns
3.1 History and Locomotion of Extinct Animals
3.2 Development of Chordate Locomotion
3.3 The Swimming Radiation
3.4 The Terrestrial Invasion
3.5 Tetrapod Elongation, Limb Loss, and Burrowing
3.6 Lateral to Vertical Undulation
3.7 Origins of Flight
4 Exemplary Studies on Locomotion in Life form Groups
4.1 Phylogeny and Modes of Locomotion
4.2 Overviews of Phenotypes
4.3 Fishes
4.4 Amphibians and Reptiles: Ectothermal Tetrapods
4.5 Mammals
4.6 Birds and Bats
5 Conclusion
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Phylogenetic scheme for the vertebrates giving estimated number of species in parentheses.

after ref.
Figure 2. Figure 2.

Movement of the body about the three possible axes. Rolling is rotation about the longitudinal axis of the body, pitching is rotation about the frontal axis, and yawing is rotation about the medial axis.

Figure 3. Figure 3.

Summary of the forces that animals use to generate thrust during locomotion. Drag, lift, and acceleration reaction, together with body inertia, may also contribute to resistance. Drag force (FD) is a function of propulsor surface area (S), speed (u2), and the drag coefficient (CD). Acceleration reaction (FA) of a moving appendage depends on the appendage's acceleration (du/dt) and an added mass of water (Ma) proportional to the span of the appendage (B2). Some fish may also use jet propulsion. Lift force (FL) is a function of appendage surface area, speed, and the lift coefficient (CL), which is typically much larger than CD. Ground reaction (FG) has two components. In the Y‐plane, the component FY accelerates body mass (M) vertically at a rate a. Most energy is dissipated for pedestrians in resulting vertical recoil motions of the body relative to the ground. In the X‐plane, friction, proportional to the friction coefficient μ and weight (W) resists back‐sliding of the appendage.

Figure 4. Figure 4.

Theoretic curve for power required to fly vs. forward speed. Total power required is calculated by summing induced power, which decreases with increasing velocity, with parasite power, which increases with velocity. Curves are for aerial flight, but similar curves, adjusted for greater density and viscosity of the medium, apply to aquatic situations. Phov, power required to hover (usually aerial but applicable wherever an animal's density is greater than that of the supporting medium); Pmc, power usage at a velocity (Vmc) that permits maximal range; Vmin, velocity that requires minimal power (Pmin); Po, profile power. (See also Fig. .)

from ref.
Figure 5. Figure 5.

The three major kinds of frictional coefficient characterizing foot contact in the terrestrial locomotion of vertebrates.

from ref.
Figure 6. Figure 6.

Categorization of the swimming motions and propulsors of fishes, primarily by body and caudal fin (BCF) and median and paired fin (MPF) propulsors in undulatory or oscillatory motions. The major force(s) involved in thrust production varies with the nature of the motions and has been most extensively studied for BCF propulsors. Further explanation of propulsor mechanisms is included in Table . The moving portion of the propulsor is shaded.

Figure 7. Figure 7.

Morphological convergence in swimming mechanisms of teleostean and selachian fishes. In both groups, specialists have appeared for high‐speed sustained swimming using periodical tailbeats (Thunnus, Lamna, and Carcharhinus). Lower speeds are seen in generalist swimmers, specialized for no particular type of activity (Salmo, Scyliorhinus, and Centroscyllium). Teleosts show some well‐developed morphs for transient high‐acceleration swimming (Cottus and Psettodes), and although there are some trends among selachians toward deep bodies and fins to maximize acceleration rates, development in this direction is relatively small (Heterodontus and Ginglymostoma). Maneuvering forms (Chaetodon) occur among teleostean fishes but not selachians. In contrast, benthic forms (Pristis, Rhinobatos, and Squatina), although found among teleosts, are common among selachians and dominant in the second major batoidimorph group of elasmobranchs.

Figure 8. Figure 8.

Summary of major muscle and skeletal elements used by various bony fish propulsors. A: Myotomal FG muscle fiber trajectories; B: Dorsal fin; C: Pectoral fin; D: Caudal fin. Further explanation is given in the text.

from ref.
Figure 9. Figure 9.

Combination of several analytical schemes for analysis of symmetrical gaits. In gait formula analysis (upper left, after refs. ), contact duration of a hindfoot is mapped vs. the lag between its contact and that of the ipsilateral forefoot; both are standardized by stride length. The plot using the two percentages as coordinates characterizes many species and motor patterns by documenting that they fall on a particular site of the graph; however, what is even more important, the plot shows regions for which no locomotor patterns exist. Note that the classical gaits are actually regions of support positions with numerous intermediates. The terms “lateral sequence” and “diagonal sequence” have been transposed to match the more classical terms (right side of figure; after Gans and Zug, unpublished data). In walk pattern analysis (bottom right side of figure; after refs. ), the pattern of each foot is indicated by a bold line along the time axis while the foot is in contact with the ground (and sometimes a thin line while the foot is lifted). Sections at right angles to the lines representing the position of the four feet indicate the sequence of support postures, ranging from quadrupedal to apodal (during rapid jumps). The method has the merit that one can easily quantify the numbers of, and the durations occupied by, particular support positions; this permits their characterization by standard statistical methods.

Figure 10. Figure 10.

Gait formula analysis for asymmetrical gaits . The ordinate represents the percentage of the stride interval that the forefoot midtime follows the midtime of the hindfoot. The abscissa represents the percentage of the stride interval that the body is supported by a single or both hindfeet. The diagrams show major locomotor patterns but also note some cases in which particular species can propel themselves by various distinct locomotor sequences.

Figure 11. Figure 11.

Stages of a pacing dromedary (after ref. ).

Figure 12. Figure 12.

Normal sequence of limb movements of the newt Triturus cristatus; the numerals in circles indicate the sequence of flexion. Right fore 1, right fore 2, left hind 3, left fore 4, right hind. The twenty‐eight phases of single step derive from photographs taken at intervals of 1/12 sec. Four drawings are marked to indicate the foot that is being lifted from the ground.

From original photographs of Gray []
Figure 13. Figure 13.

Series of diagrams showing the position, relative to the ground, assumed by the limbs during locomotion in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster. The positions are copied from cinematic records (after ref. ).

Figure 14. Figure 14.

A: Forces exerted by the undulating animal against a resistance site (peg, point d'appui) placed laterally (see also camfollower analysis in Fig. ). The moving curves exert forces against resistance sites and their reaction propels the animal. The sliding trunk not only induces reaction, but generates frictional components acting in opposition to the propulsive effect. B: Grass snake (Natrix natrix) traveling over a plane surface by lateral undulation, showing the direction and magnitude (in g) of the forces exerted by letting the snake act against a series of pendulums. Whenever there is only a single peg, the animal must propel itself by the concertina effect. In each case, the animal was permitted to select certain pegs and only those deflected are illustrated here (after refs. ).

Figure 15. Figure 15.

Pattern of a cam‐follower deriving from the principle that if tension is exerted on a peg (A, at right angles to its length) by a curved hook, the hook will slide along its internal curve. B: The hook will come to rest at the site at which the imposed force will be at a right angle to the surface. If the internal curve against which force is exerted is irregular, the rest position of the system will be that of least internal radius. C: If the hook can deform, it will then move (internal arrow) along the peg from the side of lesser to that of greater curvature.

Figure 16. Figure 16.

Positions occupied by a completely limbless lizard, the scheltopusik Ophisaurus apodus, undulating simply through a field of pegs, with contact points indicated by circles. Although the animal undulates its entire trunk and tail, it maintains its trunk in regular curves; hence it is not using lateral undulation. The lizard's successive centers of gravity are shown by dots; the centers of gravity of the positions indicated by computer traces are shown by crosses. The top of the illustrated area was occupied by nails spaced 8 cm apart, and the bottom by nails spaced 4 cm apart. Note that despite relatively extensive excursions of the body, the center of gravity travels along a close‐to‐rectilinear path (after ref. ).

Figure 17. Figure 17.

Sketch of snake engaging in concertina locomotion within a tunnel. The shaded areas of the animal indicate zones in static contact .

Figure 18. Figure 18.

Locomotion of completely limbless lizard, the scheltopusik Ophisaurus apodus, engaging in slide‐pushing. The center of gravity in every fifth frame in the sequence is shown by a dot. In this species, the musculature of the tail provides a continuation of that of the trunk. The center line of the animal is shown for four positions in the middle of a sequence; a cross represents the center of gravity in each. The scale bar equals 100 mm and total length of the specimen is 756 mm. A: The tail is thrown away from the center of gravity. B: The tail approaches the center of gravity (after ref. ).

Figure 19. Figure 19.

Another computer‐corrected sequence of locomotion of the completely limbless lizard, the scheltopusik Ophisaurus apodus, engaging in slide‐pushing, with the contact zones in the middle of the body and the animal traveling slightly diagonally from top to bottom of the figure. The dots indicate the center of gravity for all points plotted; the crosses, for the eleven positions shown here. Every fifth line is plotted and the scale bar equals 100 mm; total length of the specimen is 910 mm (after ref. ).

Figure 20. Figure 20.

Aspis cerastes moving by sidewinding from right to left. A: The center of gravity in each outline is indicated by a cross. Intervals between positions equal 1/32 sec. Note the position of the tracks, the intertrack zones, and the generally smooth and constant line of progress for the center of gravity. The line measures 10 cm to scale; average wave velocity is 33 cm/sec. B: Same sequence as A, showing the position of the specimen traced for four sample frames, with the path of the center of gravity (dots) that of the midbody position (point 25 of 50) (after ref. ).

Figure 21. Figure 21.

Sketches of sidewinding locomotion after a film of Crotalus cerastes, showing successive positions and the tracks formed in the sand. The shadows indicate the portion of the body lifted off the ground and the intertrack position at which the orientation of the trunk occupies its greatest angle to the trackline (after ref. ).

Figure 22. Figure 22.

Illustration of muscular activity during propulsion of Python regius by pushing against a single peg. A: Contractions of the LLD, left longissimus dorsi; RLD, right longissimus dorsi; and RSC, right supracostalis lateralis ventralis, are shown. The diagrams are based on electromyograms but neglect the fact that a single EMG may reflect action in three or more adjacent muscular bundles. B: Anatomical correspondence of the site of contraction. The vertebrae connected by the same bundle are marked by symbol and the large arrow indicates the direction in which the snake is moving (after ref. ).

Figure 23. Figure 23.

Reaction force patterns in burrowers in which a variously conical head penetrates a more or less homogeneous soil. The forces are assumed to be distributed uniformly and to act normally to the surface of the shield. The greater the friction along the contact zone, the less the penetration .

Figure 24. Figure 24.

Trogonophids or amphisbaenians use torsional oscillation to scrape sandy soils off the end of the tunnel .

Figure 25. Figure 25.

Spade‐snouted amphisbaenians (1) extend their tunnel by two‐cycle movements. The snout first drives a penetrating divot, which normally starts near the bottom level of the tunnel. Once the snout has penetrated to a maximum (1a–b), the nuchal muscles rotate the skull around the head joint. The dorsal surface of the head then compresses the overburden and widens the tunnel (1b–1c) for the beginning of the next penetrating stroke. In keel‐headed amphisbaenians (2), the head first drives forward (2a–2b) and the snout is then shifted alternately to the right (2c) and then to the left. Bipedid amphisbaenians (3) extend their tunnels by scraping movements analogous to those of moles. The short forearm and clawed hand are extended to the front and swung straight past the tunnel end (3a). During each movement they tunnel. The freed material is then pressed into the sides (3b). .

Figure 26. Figure 26.

General morphology of a tetrapod caudate. Note the general tetrapod pattern with neck, trunk, caudal vertebrae, and two distinct girdle segments to which pectoral and pelvic appendages attach, as well as the heavily muscularized trunk and tail. Note that the body tends to twist in opposite directions at the two foot contact levels (after ref. ).

Figure 27. Figure 27.

A: Track of an adult male urodele Hydromantes platycephalus walking over a surface sloped 30 degrees laterally. Six images were generated by allowing the animal to wallow in black ink before walking across drawing paper. Diagrams 1 through 6 show successive stages of a single tail movement. The tail is used to prop the lower left side of the animal. B: Trackway over five steps. C: Frontal aspect of body and tail in typical walking pose on an inclined surface. D: Lateral (top) and dorsal (below) views of the blunt caudal tip.

Figure 28. Figure 28.

Synchronous dorsal and lateral views of the normal walking of a toad (Bufo vulgaris). The numerals indicate the phases of the stride employed as a relative time scale. Phases 0–6 constitute a complete stride and phases 0, 3, 6, and 9 are corresponding stages of different steps (the drawing for phase 0 is a little early because the right hind foot is not yet off the ground). The symbols represent the relation of the left limbs to the recording platform, indicated in the side views by black bars. The limbs shown in the symbols by a solid line are on the platform; limbs indicated by a broken line are off the platform. Because the side view was obtained using a mirror, the near limbs are those of the left side. The left forefoot first carries the weight about midway between phases 0 and 1; the left hind limb is lifted off the ground between phases 8 and 9. The limbs of the right side do not touch the recording platform, which is on the left of the stage (after refs. ).

Figure 29. Figure 29.

Simple series of a frog's jump. Note the change in orientation of the trunk during flight (after ref. ).

Figure 30. Figure 30.

Locomotion in turtles. Top: Terrestrial walking in Gopherus polyphemus. Lateral view of a single stride of the left hind limb. A–D, retractive or propulsive phase; E–H, protractive or recovery phase; A, footfall; E, beginning of protraction (after ref. ). Bottom left: Swimming in Trionyx spinifer. Lateral view of a single‐stride swimming stride of the left hindlimb. A–D, retractive phase; E–H, protractive phase. Note folding of the foot. Bottom right: Sequence of walking tortoise showing the footfall in very slow and unstable locomotion. LF, left front; LH, left hind; RF, right front; RH, right hind (after ref. ).

Figure 31. Figure 31.

Rapid tetrapod locomotion in the collared lizard Crotaphytus c. collaris. Lateral view of the locomotor cycle is shown in sequence A–G. Details of the position of distal digits are partially obscured by substrate. Note the long, substantially greater leg and stride length of the hindlimb over the forelimb and the consequent bipedal portions of the stride sequence (after ref. ).

Figure 32. Figure 32.

Bipedal locomotion of juvenile Basiliscus basiliscus.

Made from motion picture by projection, with the camera 1 foot above the substrate. Top: Lateral views (A–J). Bottom; Posterior aspects (A–E) (after refs. )
Figure 33. Figure 33.

Tunnel penetration in advanced uropeltids (and in some caecilians) involves a two‐stroke system. Top: First, the snout drives forward (A). Next, concertina expansion of the neck effectively widens the body and hence the tunnel (B). It also provides a fixed site from which the head may be pushed forward, developing a new divot. The straightened column is then brought into a new concertina curvature starting at the back of the skull (C). Bottom: The tunnels formed meander because the animal's path is deflected by various resistance sites, such as roots and pebbles.

Figure 34. Figure 34.

Foot diversity of small mammalian species. Hoofed forms and carnivores have been omitted. A: Giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus); B: Two‐toed sloth (Choloepis hoffmanni); C: mole (Talpa); D, E: tarsier; F: prehensile‐tailed porcupine (Coendou); G: tree squirrel; H: spider monkey (Ateles); I–K: diversity within gibbon (Hylobates agilis); L: Eumetopias; M: potto (Perodicticus potto); N: beaver (Castor); O: koala (Phascolarctos cinereus); P: cuscus (Phalanger s.l., but this has now been broken up into four genera); Q: silky anteater (Cyclopes didactylus); R: platypus (Ornithorbynchus anatinus); S: Lutra maculicollis; T, U: Aonyx capensis; V, W: Amblyonyx cinerus; X, Y: Hydromys chrysogaster.

modified from ref.
Figure 35. Figure 35.

Mammalian diversity. Whereas the basic body plan is tetrapodal, the diagram documents structural and clearly locomotor diversity (after ref. ).

Figure 36. Figure 36.

Support of membranous wings. A: Force diagram of a cross‐section of a bat‐type wing. Many force vectors cancel. A‐1: Forces acting on the digits of a bat's wing. B: Force diagram of a cross‐section of a pterosaur‐type wing. B‐1: Forces acting on supporting digit of a pterosaur wing. No vectors cancel, and the single digit must withstand bending forces transmitted from the entire wing membrane. Arrows in B‐1 indicate assumed tensile vectors in pterosaur wing; lines indicate directions of elastic fibers, which may also occur along trailing edge.

from ref.
Figure 37. Figure 37.

Birds engaged in nonsteady flight. A: Tracings from photographs taken at intervals of 0.01 s of a pigeon in slow flight. Top series are of downstrike (primarily lift), bottom series of upstroke (primarily propulsion) (after ref. ). B: Vortex patterns generated by a hummingbird engaged in symmetrical hovering. C: A small passerine in asymmetrical hovering (C) (after ref. ).

Figure 38. Figure 38.

Power curves. A: Theoretical total mass‐specific power vs. speed for a 333 g pigeon, according to the models of Pennycuick (P) and Rayner (R), and for a 9 g bat, according to Norberg (N). B: Measured mass‐specific power vs. speed from experiments with animals in wind tunnels.

modified from refs. . modified from ref.
Figure 39. Figure 39.

A: Positive dihedral of wings promotes stability in roll. A roll to the left (left wing down) increases lift (L) on the left wing and decreases lift on the right wing. B: Partial retraction of left wing decreases left wing area and lift, adjusting for roll. Wing position is middle of downstroke. L and L′, lift forces; Lv and Lv′, vertical lift forces on the two wings.

modified from ref.
Figure 40. Figure 40.

Skeletal elements of forelimb in five species of modern bird plus Archaeopteryx (A) scaled so that the carpometacarpi (hand or propeller elements) are of equal length. Birds capable of hovering and/or steep ascent [hummingbird (B), dove (C), and grouse (D)] using nonsteady flight (variants of slow, forward flight) possess robust skeletal elements, with the ulna and radius bowed away from each other, indicating significant muscle mass associated with the antibrachium. Gliders, such as the albatross (F), have little forelimb musculature. Most passerines, such as the starling (E), show intermediate conditions.

modified from ref.
Figure 41. Figure 41.

Comparison of regions in principal components space of flight morphology for birds and bats. A: First (body mass) and second (wing‐loading) components. B: Second and third (aspect) components. Components are normalized to zero mean and unit standard deviation so distribution appears circular; ticks on axes = 1 SD. Zones occupied by hummingbirds are stippled; zone of Microchroptera hatched ///; zone of Megachiroptera hatched WW. Positions of a few other key species of bird are indicated for reference.

modified from ref.


Figure 1.

Phylogenetic scheme for the vertebrates giving estimated number of species in parentheses.

after ref.


Figure 2.

Movement of the body about the three possible axes. Rolling is rotation about the longitudinal axis of the body, pitching is rotation about the frontal axis, and yawing is rotation about the medial axis.



Figure 3.

Summary of the forces that animals use to generate thrust during locomotion. Drag, lift, and acceleration reaction, together with body inertia, may also contribute to resistance. Drag force (FD) is a function of propulsor surface area (S), speed (u2), and the drag coefficient (CD). Acceleration reaction (FA) of a moving appendage depends on the appendage's acceleration (du/dt) and an added mass of water (Ma) proportional to the span of the appendage (B2). Some fish may also use jet propulsion. Lift force (FL) is a function of appendage surface area, speed, and the lift coefficient (CL), which is typically much larger than CD. Ground reaction (FG) has two components. In the Y‐plane, the component FY accelerates body mass (M) vertically at a rate a. Most energy is dissipated for pedestrians in resulting vertical recoil motions of the body relative to the ground. In the X‐plane, friction, proportional to the friction coefficient μ and weight (W) resists back‐sliding of the appendage.



Figure 4.

Theoretic curve for power required to fly vs. forward speed. Total power required is calculated by summing induced power, which decreases with increasing velocity, with parasite power, which increases with velocity. Curves are for aerial flight, but similar curves, adjusted for greater density and viscosity of the medium, apply to aquatic situations. Phov, power required to hover (usually aerial but applicable wherever an animal's density is greater than that of the supporting medium); Pmc, power usage at a velocity (Vmc) that permits maximal range; Vmin, velocity that requires minimal power (Pmin); Po, profile power. (See also Fig. .)

from ref.


Figure 5.

The three major kinds of frictional coefficient characterizing foot contact in the terrestrial locomotion of vertebrates.

from ref.


Figure 6.

Categorization of the swimming motions and propulsors of fishes, primarily by body and caudal fin (BCF) and median and paired fin (MPF) propulsors in undulatory or oscillatory motions. The major force(s) involved in thrust production varies with the nature of the motions and has been most extensively studied for BCF propulsors. Further explanation of propulsor mechanisms is included in Table . The moving portion of the propulsor is shaded.



Figure 7.

Morphological convergence in swimming mechanisms of teleostean and selachian fishes. In both groups, specialists have appeared for high‐speed sustained swimming using periodical tailbeats (Thunnus, Lamna, and Carcharhinus). Lower speeds are seen in generalist swimmers, specialized for no particular type of activity (Salmo, Scyliorhinus, and Centroscyllium). Teleosts show some well‐developed morphs for transient high‐acceleration swimming (Cottus and Psettodes), and although there are some trends among selachians toward deep bodies and fins to maximize acceleration rates, development in this direction is relatively small (Heterodontus and Ginglymostoma). Maneuvering forms (Chaetodon) occur among teleostean fishes but not selachians. In contrast, benthic forms (Pristis, Rhinobatos, and Squatina), although found among teleosts, are common among selachians and dominant in the second major batoidimorph group of elasmobranchs.



Figure 8.

Summary of major muscle and skeletal elements used by various bony fish propulsors. A: Myotomal FG muscle fiber trajectories; B: Dorsal fin; C: Pectoral fin; D: Caudal fin. Further explanation is given in the text.

from ref.


Figure 9.

Combination of several analytical schemes for analysis of symmetrical gaits. In gait formula analysis (upper left, after refs. ), contact duration of a hindfoot is mapped vs. the lag between its contact and that of the ipsilateral forefoot; both are standardized by stride length. The plot using the two percentages as coordinates characterizes many species and motor patterns by documenting that they fall on a particular site of the graph; however, what is even more important, the plot shows regions for which no locomotor patterns exist. Note that the classical gaits are actually regions of support positions with numerous intermediates. The terms “lateral sequence” and “diagonal sequence” have been transposed to match the more classical terms (right side of figure; after Gans and Zug, unpublished data). In walk pattern analysis (bottom right side of figure; after refs. ), the pattern of each foot is indicated by a bold line along the time axis while the foot is in contact with the ground (and sometimes a thin line while the foot is lifted). Sections at right angles to the lines representing the position of the four feet indicate the sequence of support postures, ranging from quadrupedal to apodal (during rapid jumps). The method has the merit that one can easily quantify the numbers of, and the durations occupied by, particular support positions; this permits their characterization by standard statistical methods.



Figure 10.

Gait formula analysis for asymmetrical gaits . The ordinate represents the percentage of the stride interval that the forefoot midtime follows the midtime of the hindfoot. The abscissa represents the percentage of the stride interval that the body is supported by a single or both hindfeet. The diagrams show major locomotor patterns but also note some cases in which particular species can propel themselves by various distinct locomotor sequences.



Figure 11.

Stages of a pacing dromedary (after ref. ).



Figure 12.

Normal sequence of limb movements of the newt Triturus cristatus; the numerals in circles indicate the sequence of flexion. Right fore 1, right fore 2, left hind 3, left fore 4, right hind. The twenty‐eight phases of single step derive from photographs taken at intervals of 1/12 sec. Four drawings are marked to indicate the foot that is being lifted from the ground.

From original photographs of Gray []


Figure 13.

Series of diagrams showing the position, relative to the ground, assumed by the limbs during locomotion in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster. The positions are copied from cinematic records (after ref. ).



Figure 14.

A: Forces exerted by the undulating animal against a resistance site (peg, point d'appui) placed laterally (see also camfollower analysis in Fig. ). The moving curves exert forces against resistance sites and their reaction propels the animal. The sliding trunk not only induces reaction, but generates frictional components acting in opposition to the propulsive effect. B: Grass snake (Natrix natrix) traveling over a plane surface by lateral undulation, showing the direction and magnitude (in g) of the forces exerted by letting the snake act against a series of pendulums. Whenever there is only a single peg, the animal must propel itself by the concertina effect. In each case, the animal was permitted to select certain pegs and only those deflected are illustrated here (after refs. ).



Figure 15.

Pattern of a cam‐follower deriving from the principle that if tension is exerted on a peg (A, at right angles to its length) by a curved hook, the hook will slide along its internal curve. B: The hook will come to rest at the site at which the imposed force will be at a right angle to the surface. If the internal curve against which force is exerted is irregular, the rest position of the system will be that of least internal radius. C: If the hook can deform, it will then move (internal arrow) along the peg from the side of lesser to that of greater curvature.



Figure 16.

Positions occupied by a completely limbless lizard, the scheltopusik Ophisaurus apodus, undulating simply through a field of pegs, with contact points indicated by circles. Although the animal undulates its entire trunk and tail, it maintains its trunk in regular curves; hence it is not using lateral undulation. The lizard's successive centers of gravity are shown by dots; the centers of gravity of the positions indicated by computer traces are shown by crosses. The top of the illustrated area was occupied by nails spaced 8 cm apart, and the bottom by nails spaced 4 cm apart. Note that despite relatively extensive excursions of the body, the center of gravity travels along a close‐to‐rectilinear path (after ref. ).



Figure 17.

Sketch of snake engaging in concertina locomotion within a tunnel. The shaded areas of the animal indicate zones in static contact .



Figure 18.

Locomotion of completely limbless lizard, the scheltopusik Ophisaurus apodus, engaging in slide‐pushing. The center of gravity in every fifth frame in the sequence is shown by a dot. In this species, the musculature of the tail provides a continuation of that of the trunk. The center line of the animal is shown for four positions in the middle of a sequence; a cross represents the center of gravity in each. The scale bar equals 100 mm and total length of the specimen is 756 mm. A: The tail is thrown away from the center of gravity. B: The tail approaches the center of gravity (after ref. ).



Figure 19.

Another computer‐corrected sequence of locomotion of the completely limbless lizard, the scheltopusik Ophisaurus apodus, engaging in slide‐pushing, with the contact zones in the middle of the body and the animal traveling slightly diagonally from top to bottom of the figure. The dots indicate the center of gravity for all points plotted; the crosses, for the eleven positions shown here. Every fifth line is plotted and the scale bar equals 100 mm; total length of the specimen is 910 mm (after ref. ).



Figure 20.

Aspis cerastes moving by sidewinding from right to left. A: The center of gravity in each outline is indicated by a cross. Intervals between positions equal 1/32 sec. Note the position of the tracks, the intertrack zones, and the generally smooth and constant line of progress for the center of gravity. The line measures 10 cm to scale; average wave velocity is 33 cm/sec. B: Same sequence as A, showing the position of the specimen traced for four sample frames, with the path of the center of gravity (dots) that of the midbody position (point 25 of 50) (after ref. ).



Figure 21.

Sketches of sidewinding locomotion after a film of Crotalus cerastes, showing successive positions and the tracks formed in the sand. The shadows indicate the portion of the body lifted off the ground and the intertrack position at which the orientation of the trunk occupies its greatest angle to the trackline (after ref. ).



Figure 22.

Illustration of muscular activity during propulsion of Python regius by pushing against a single peg. A: Contractions of the LLD, left longissimus dorsi; RLD, right longissimus dorsi; and RSC, right supracostalis lateralis ventralis, are shown. The diagrams are based on electromyograms but neglect the fact that a single EMG may reflect action in three or more adjacent muscular bundles. B: Anatomical correspondence of the site of contraction. The vertebrae connected by the same bundle are marked by symbol and the large arrow indicates the direction in which the snake is moving (after ref. ).



Figure 23.

Reaction force patterns in burrowers in which a variously conical head penetrates a more or less homogeneous soil. The forces are assumed to be distributed uniformly and to act normally to the surface of the shield. The greater the friction along the contact zone, the less the penetration .



Figure 24.

Trogonophids or amphisbaenians use torsional oscillation to scrape sandy soils off the end of the tunnel .



Figure 25.

Spade‐snouted amphisbaenians (1) extend their tunnel by two‐cycle movements. The snout first drives a penetrating divot, which normally starts near the bottom level of the tunnel. Once the snout has penetrated to a maximum (1a–b), the nuchal muscles rotate the skull around the head joint. The dorsal surface of the head then compresses the overburden and widens the tunnel (1b–1c) for the beginning of the next penetrating stroke. In keel‐headed amphisbaenians (2), the head first drives forward (2a–2b) and the snout is then shifted alternately to the right (2c) and then to the left. Bipedid amphisbaenians (3) extend their tunnels by scraping movements analogous to those of moles. The short forearm and clawed hand are extended to the front and swung straight past the tunnel end (3a). During each movement they tunnel. The freed material is then pressed into the sides (3b). .



Figure 26.

General morphology of a tetrapod caudate. Note the general tetrapod pattern with neck, trunk, caudal vertebrae, and two distinct girdle segments to which pectoral and pelvic appendages attach, as well as the heavily muscularized trunk and tail. Note that the body tends to twist in opposite directions at the two foot contact levels (after ref. ).



Figure 27.

A: Track of an adult male urodele Hydromantes platycephalus walking over a surface sloped 30 degrees laterally. Six images were generated by allowing the animal to wallow in black ink before walking across drawing paper. Diagrams 1 through 6 show successive stages of a single tail movement. The tail is used to prop the lower left side of the animal. B: Trackway over five steps. C: Frontal aspect of body and tail in typical walking pose on an inclined surface. D: Lateral (top) and dorsal (below) views of the blunt caudal tip.



Figure 28.

Synchronous dorsal and lateral views of the normal walking of a toad (Bufo vulgaris). The numerals indicate the phases of the stride employed as a relative time scale. Phases 0–6 constitute a complete stride and phases 0, 3, 6, and 9 are corresponding stages of different steps (the drawing for phase 0 is a little early because the right hind foot is not yet off the ground). The symbols represent the relation of the left limbs to the recording platform, indicated in the side views by black bars. The limbs shown in the symbols by a solid line are on the platform; limbs indicated by a broken line are off the platform. Because the side view was obtained using a mirror, the near limbs are those of the left side. The left forefoot first carries the weight about midway between phases 0 and 1; the left hind limb is lifted off the ground between phases 8 and 9. The limbs of the right side do not touch the recording platform, which is on the left of the stage (after refs. ).



Figure 29.

Simple series of a frog's jump. Note the change in orientation of the trunk during flight (after ref. ).



Figure 30.

Locomotion in turtles. Top: Terrestrial walking in Gopherus polyphemus. Lateral view of a single stride of the left hind limb. A–D, retractive or propulsive phase; E–H, protractive or recovery phase; A, footfall; E, beginning of protraction (after ref. ). Bottom left: Swimming in Trionyx spinifer. Lateral view of a single‐stride swimming stride of the left hindlimb. A–D, retractive phase; E–H, protractive phase. Note folding of the foot. Bottom right: Sequence of walking tortoise showing the footfall in very slow and unstable locomotion. LF, left front; LH, left hind; RF, right front; RH, right hind (after ref. ).



Figure 31.

Rapid tetrapod locomotion in the collared lizard Crotaphytus c. collaris. Lateral view of the locomotor cycle is shown in sequence A–G. Details of the position of distal digits are partially obscured by substrate. Note the long, substantially greater leg and stride length of the hindlimb over the forelimb and the consequent bipedal portions of the stride sequence (after ref. ).



Figure 32.

Bipedal locomotion of juvenile Basiliscus basiliscus.

Made from motion picture by projection, with the camera 1 foot above the substrate. Top: Lateral views (A–J). Bottom; Posterior aspects (A–E) (after refs. )


Figure 33.

Tunnel penetration in advanced uropeltids (and in some caecilians) involves a two‐stroke system. Top: First, the snout drives forward (A). Next, concertina expansion of the neck effectively widens the body and hence the tunnel (B). It also provides a fixed site from which the head may be pushed forward, developing a new divot. The straightened column is then brought into a new concertina curvature starting at the back of the skull (C). Bottom: The tunnels formed meander because the animal's path is deflected by various resistance sites, such as roots and pebbles.



Figure 34.

Foot diversity of small mammalian species. Hoofed forms and carnivores have been omitted. A: Giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus); B: Two‐toed sloth (Choloepis hoffmanni); C: mole (Talpa); D, E: tarsier; F: prehensile‐tailed porcupine (Coendou); G: tree squirrel; H: spider monkey (Ateles); I–K: diversity within gibbon (Hylobates agilis); L: Eumetopias; M: potto (Perodicticus potto); N: beaver (Castor); O: koala (Phascolarctos cinereus); P: cuscus (Phalanger s.l., but this has now been broken up into four genera); Q: silky anteater (Cyclopes didactylus); R: platypus (Ornithorbynchus anatinus); S: Lutra maculicollis; T, U: Aonyx capensis; V, W: Amblyonyx cinerus; X, Y: Hydromys chrysogaster.

modified from ref.


Figure 35.

Mammalian diversity. Whereas the basic body plan is tetrapodal, the diagram documents structural and clearly locomotor diversity (after ref. ).



Figure 36.

Support of membranous wings. A: Force diagram of a cross‐section of a bat‐type wing. Many force vectors cancel. A‐1: Forces acting on the digits of a bat's wing. B: Force diagram of a cross‐section of a pterosaur‐type wing. B‐1: Forces acting on supporting digit of a pterosaur wing. No vectors cancel, and the single digit must withstand bending forces transmitted from the entire wing membrane. Arrows in B‐1 indicate assumed tensile vectors in pterosaur wing; lines indicate directions of elastic fibers, which may also occur along trailing edge.

from ref.


Figure 37.

Birds engaged in nonsteady flight. A: Tracings from photographs taken at intervals of 0.01 s of a pigeon in slow flight. Top series are of downstrike (primarily lift), bottom series of upstroke (primarily propulsion) (after ref. ). B: Vortex patterns generated by a hummingbird engaged in symmetrical hovering. C: A small passerine in asymmetrical hovering (C) (after ref. ).



Figure 38.

Power curves. A: Theoretical total mass‐specific power vs. speed for a 333 g pigeon, according to the models of Pennycuick (P) and Rayner (R), and for a 9 g bat, according to Norberg (N). B: Measured mass‐specific power vs. speed from experiments with animals in wind tunnels.

modified from refs. . modified from ref.


Figure 39.

A: Positive dihedral of wings promotes stability in roll. A roll to the left (left wing down) increases lift (L) on the left wing and decreases lift on the right wing. B: Partial retraction of left wing decreases left wing area and lift, adjusting for roll. Wing position is middle of downstroke. L and L′, lift forces; Lv and Lv′, vertical lift forces on the two wings.

modified from ref.


Figure 40.

Skeletal elements of forelimb in five species of modern bird plus Archaeopteryx (A) scaled so that the carpometacarpi (hand or propeller elements) are of equal length. Birds capable of hovering and/or steep ascent [hummingbird (B), dove (C), and grouse (D)] using nonsteady flight (variants of slow, forward flight) possess robust skeletal elements, with the ulna and radius bowed away from each other, indicating significant muscle mass associated with the antibrachium. Gliders, such as the albatross (F), have little forelimb musculature. Most passerines, such as the starling (E), show intermediate conditions.

modified from ref.


Figure 41.

Comparison of regions in principal components space of flight morphology for birds and bats. A: First (body mass) and second (wing‐loading) components. B: Second and third (aspect) components. Components are normalized to zero mean and unit standard deviation so distribution appears circular; ticks on axes = 1 SD. Zones occupied by hummingbirds are stippled; zone of Microchroptera hatched ///; zone of Megachiroptera hatched WW. Positions of a few other key species of bird are indicated for reference.

modified from ref.
References
 1. Abe, Y., H. Tanaka, S. Mishima, and T. Ono. Studies on the habu (Trimeresurus flavoviridis) and the habu‐bite in Amami Oshima (Tr. 3). Analytical studies on the locomotion of the habu with a special reference to the influences of illumination. Jpn. J. Sanit. Zool. 16: 177–183, 1965.
 2. Abourachid, A. Comparative gait analysis of two strains of turkey, Meleagris gallopavo. Br. Poult. Sci. 32: 271–277, 1991.
 3. Abourachid, A. Myologie du membre pelvien du dindon domestique Meleagris gallopavo. Artat. Histol. Embryol. 20: 75–94, 1991.
 4. Abu‐Ghalyun, Y. Histochemical and ultrastructural features of the biceps brachii of the African chameleon (Chamaeleo senegalensis). Acta Zool. 71: 189–192, 1990.
 5. Abu‐Ghalyun, Y. Structure and some contractile properties of musculus iliofibularis of Agama stellio stellio. Acta Zool. 72: 247–250, 1991.
 6. Abu‐Ghalyun, Y., L. Greenwald, T. E. Hetherington, and A. S. Gaunt. The physiological basis of slow locomotion in chamaeleons. J. Exp. Zool. 245: 225–231, 1988.
 7. Adams, D., and B. Mackay. The distribution of motor end‐plates in mammalian muscles. Bibl. Anat. 2: 153–154, 1961.
 8. Adrian, E. D. The spread of activity in the tenuissimus muscle of the cat and in other complex muscles. J. Physiol. 60: 301–315, 1925.
 9. Adrian, M. J., W. E. Roy, and V. Karpovich. Normal gait of the dog: an electrogoniometric study. Am. J. Vet. Res. 27: 90–95, 1966.
 10. Affleck, R. J. Some points in the function, development, and evolution of the tail in fishes. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 120: 349–368, 1950.
 11. Agarkov, G. B., A. A. Vronskiy, and L. A. Nikolaichuk. Functional morphology of tendonous systems in/of lateral musculature in bony fishes. F. E. Schmalhausen Inst. Zool. Ukrainian SSR Kiev 7–9, 1988.
 12. Ahlborn, B., D. G. Harper, R. W. Blake, D. Alborn, and M. C. Engin. Fish without footprints. J. Theor. Biol. 148: 521–533, 1991.
 13. Akster, H. A. Ultrastructure of muscle fibres in head and axial muscles of the perch (Perca fluviatilis L.). Cell Tissue Res. 219: 111–113, 1981.
 14. Al‐Amood, W. S., and R. Pope. A comparison of the structural features of muscle fibers from a fast‐ and a slow‐twitch muscle of the pelvic limb of the cat. J. Anat. 113: 49–60, 1972.
 15. Alberch, P. Convergence and parallelism in foot morphology in the neotropical salamander genus Bolitoglossa. Evolution 35: 84–100, 1981.
 16. Alberch, P., and E. A. Gale. A developmental analysis of an evolutionary trend: digital reduction in amphibians. Evolution 39: 8–23, 1985.
 17. Alberch, P., S. J. Gould, G. F. Oster, and D. B. Wake. Size and shape in ontogeny and phylogeny. Paleobiology 5: 296–317, 1979.
 18. Alborn, F. Zur Mechanik des Vogelfluges, Hamburg: Abh. Naturforsch. Mus., p. 1–134 1895.
 19. Aldridge, H.D.J.N. Kinematics and aerodynamics of the greater horseshoe bat, Rbinolophus ferrumequinum, in horizontal flight at various speeds. J. Exp. Biol. 126: 479–497, 1986.
 20. Aldridge, H.D.J.N. Turning flight of bats. J. Exp. Biol. 128: 419–425, 1987.
 21. Aldridge, H.D.J.N. Body accelerations during the wingbeat in six bat species: the function of the upstroke in thrust generation. J. Exp. Biol. 130: 275–293, 1987.
 22. Aldridge, H.D.J.N. Flight kinematics and energetics in the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), with reference to the influence of ground effect. J. Zool. 216: 507–517, 1988.
 23. Aldridge, H.D.J.M. Vertical flight in the greater horseshoe bat Rbinolophus ferrumequinum. J. Exp. Biol. 157: 183–204, 1991.
 24. Alerstam, T., G. A. Gudmundsson, and B. Larson. Flight tracks and speeds of Antarctic and Atlantic seabirds: radar and optical measurements. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. [B] 340: 55–67, 1993.
 25. Alexander, M.J.L., and J. Colbourne. A method of determination of the angular velocity vector of a limb segment. J. Biomech. 13: 1089–1093, 1980.
 26. Alexander, R. McN. The densities of Cyprinidae. J. Exp. Biol. 36: 333–340, 1959.
 27. Alexander, R. McN. The lift produced by the heterocercal tails of Selachii. J. Exp. Biol. 43: 131–138, 1965.
 28. Alexander, R. McN. Functional Design in Fishes. London: Hutchinson, 1967.
 29. Alexander, R. McN. Animal Mechanics. London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1968.
 30. Alexander, R. McN. Orientation of muscle fibres in the myomeres of fishes. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K. 49: 263–290, 1969.
 31. Alexander, R. McN. The energetics of vertical migration of fishes. Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 26: 273–294, 1972.
 32. Alexander, R. McN. The Chordates. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1973.
 33. Alexander, R. McN. The mechanics of jumping by a dog (Canis familiaris). J. Zool. 173: 549–573, 1974.
 34. Alexander, R. McN. Mechanics of bipedal locomotion. In: Perspectives in Experimental Biology, edited by P. S. Davies. Oxford: Pergamon, 1976, p. 493–504.
 35. Alexander, R. McN. Mechanics and scaling of terrestrial locomotion. In: Scale Effects in Animal Locomotion, edited by T. J. Pedley. London: Academic, 1977, p. 93–110.
 36. Alexander, R. McN. Hopping and running on two legs or four. Nature 287: 187, 1980.
 37. Alexander, R. McN. Optimum walking techniques for quadrupeds and bipeds. J. Zool. 192: 97–117, 1980.
 38. Alexander, R. McN. Factors of safety in the structure of animals. Sci. Prog. 67: 109–130, 1981.
 39. Alexander, R. McN. The gaits of tetrapods: adaptations for stability and economy. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 48: 269–287, 1981.
 40. Alexander, R. McN. Locomotion of Animals. Glasgow: Blackie, 1982.
 41. Alexander, R. McN. Optima for Animals. London: Arnold, 1982.
 42. Alexander, R. McN. Size, shape, and structure for running and flight. In: A Companion to Animal Physiology, edited by C. R. Taylor, K. Johansen, and L. Bolis, Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1982, p. 309–324.
 43. Alexander, R. McN. Animal Mechanics. Oxford: Blackwell, 1983.
 44. Alexander, R. McN. The history of fish biomechanics. In: Fish Biomechanics, edited by P. W. Webb and D. Weihs. New York: Praeger, 1983, p. 1–35.
 45. Alexander, R. McN. Elastic energy stores in running vertebrates. Am. Zool. 24: 85–94, 1984.
 46. Alexander, R. McN. Human walking and running. J. Biol. Ed. 18: 135–140, 1984.
 47. Alexander, R. McN. Optimum strengths for bones liable to fatigue and accidental fracture. Am. Zool. 24: 621–636, 1984.
 48. Alexander, R. McN. Stride length and speed for adults, children, and fossil hominids. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 63: 23–27, 1984.
 49. Alexander, R. McN. Stride lengths and stride frequencies of primates. J. Zool. 202: 577–582, 1984.
 50. Alexander, R. McN. The gaits of bipedal and quadrupedal animals. Int. Robotics Res. 3: 49–59, 1984.
 51. Alexander, R. McN. Walking and running. Am. Sci. 72: 348–354, 1984.
 52. Alexander, R. McN. Body support, scaling, and allometry. In: Functional Vertebrate Morphology, edited by M. Hildebrand, D. M. Bramble, K. F. Liem, and D. B. Wake. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1985, p. 26–37.
 53. Alexander, R. McN. Optimum strengths for bones liable to fatigue and accidental fracture. J. Theor. Biol. 109: 621–636, 1985.
 54. Alexander, R. McN. Elastic mechanisms in animal movement. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1988.
 55. Alexander, R. McN. Why mammals gallop? Am. Zool. 28: 237–245, 1988.
 56. Alexander, R. McN. Biomechanics: gibbons swing stress away. Nature 342: 229, 1989.
 57. Alexander, R. McN. Dynamics of Dinosaurs and Ot??? Extinct Giants. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1989.
 58. Alexander, R. McN. On the synchronization of breathing with running in wallabies (Macropus spp.) and horses (Equus caballus). J. Zool. 218: 69–85, 1989.
 59. Alexander, R. McN. Optimization and gaits in the locomotion of vertebrates. Physiol. Rev. 69: 1199–1227.
 60. Alexander, R. McN. Sequential joint extension ??? jumping. Hum Mov. Sci. 8: 339–345, 1989.
 61. Alexander, R. McN. Size, speed and buoyancy adaptations in aquatic animals. Am. Zool. 30: 189–196, 1990.
 62. Alexander, R. McN. Energy‐saving mechanisms in walking and running. J. Exp. Biol. 160: 55–69, 1991.
 63. Alexander, R. McN. How dinosaurs ran. Sci. Am. 264: 136, 1991.
 64. Alexander, R. McN. Mechanics of Animal Locomotion. New York: Springer‐Verlag, 1992.
 65. Alexander, R. McN. Optimization of the structure and movement of the legs of animals. J. Biomech. 26 (Suppl. 1): 1–6, 1993.
 66. Alexander, R. McN., A. Brandwood, J. D. Currey, and A. S. Jayes. Symmetry and precision of control of strength in limb bones of birds. J. Zool. 203: 135–143, 1984.
 67. Alexander, R. McN., and A. S. Jayes. Vertical movements in walking and running. J. Zool. 185: 27–40, 1978.
 68. Alexander, R. McN., and A. S. Jayes. Optimum walking techniques for idealized animals. J. Zool. 186: 61–81, 1978.
 69. Alexander, R. McN., and A. S. Jayes. Fourier analysis of forces exerted in walking and running. J. Biomech. 13: 383–390, 1980.
 70. Alexander, R. McN., and A. S. Jayes. Estimates of the bending movements exerted by the lumbar and abdominal muscles of some mammals. J. Zool. 194: 291–303, 1981.
 71. Alexander, R. McN., and A. S. Jayes. A dynamic similarity hypothesis for the gaits of quadrupedal mammals. J. Zool. 201: 135–152, 1983.
 72. Alexander, R. McN., A. S. Jayes, and R. F. Ker. Estimates of energy cost for quadrupedal running gaits. J. Zool. 190: 155–192, 1980.
 73. Alexander, R. McN., A. S. Jayes, G.M.O. Maloiy, and E. M. Wathuta. Allometry of the limb bones of mammals from shrews (Sorex) to elephant (Loxodonta). J. Zool. 189: 305–314, 1979a.
 74. Alexander, R. McN., A. S. Jayes, G.M.O. Maloiy, and E. M. Wathuta. Allometry of the leg muscles of mammals. J. Zool. 194: 539–552, 1981.
 75. Alexander, R. McN., F. Ker, and M. B. Bennett. Optimum stiffness for leg bones. J. Zool. 222: 471–478, 1990.
 76. Alexander, R. McN., and G.M.O. Maloiy. Stride lengths and stride frequencies of primates. J. Zool. 202: 577–582, 1984.
 77. Alexander, R. McN., G.M.O. Maloiy, R. Njau, and A. S. Jayes. Mechanics of running of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). J. Zool. 187: 169–178, 1979.
 78. Alexander, R. McN., G.M.O. Maloiy, B. Hunter, A. S. Jayes, and J. Nturibi. Mechanical stresses in fast locomotion of buffalo (Syncercus caffer) and elephant (Loxodonta africana). J. Zool. 189: 135–144, 1979.
 79. Alexander, R. McN., G.M.O. Maloiy, R. F. Ker, A. S. Jayes, and C. N. Warui. The role of tendon elasticity in the locomotion of the camel (Camelus dromedarius). J. Zool. 198: 293–313, 1982.
 80. Alexander, R. McN., and C. M. Pond. Locomotion and bone strength of the white rhinoceros, Ceratortherium simutn. J. Zool. 227: 63–69, 1992.
 81. Alexander, R. McN., and A. Vernon. The mechanics of hopping by kangaroos (Macropodidiae). J. Zool. 177: 265–303, 1975.
 82. Aleyev, Y. G. Function and Gross Morphology in Fish. Moscow: Acad. Nauk USSR, 1963.
 83. Aleyev, Y. G. Function and Gross Morphology in Fish. Springfield, VA: U.S. Dept. Commerce, 1969.
 84. Aleyev, Y. G. Nekton. The Hague: Junk, 1977.
 85. Aleyev, Y. C., and O. P. Ovcharov. The role of vortex formation on locomotion of fish, and the influence of the boundary layer between two media on the flow pattern. Zool. Zh. 50: 228–234, 1971.
 86. Altenbach, J. S. Locomotor morphology of the vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus. Spec. Publ. Ant. Soc. Mamm. 6: 1–137, 1979.
 87. Altenbach, J. S., and J. W. Hermanson. Bat flight muscle function and the scapulohumeral lock. In: Recent Advances in the Study of Bats, edited by M. B. Fenton, P. A. Racey, and J. M. V. Rayner. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1987, p. 100–118.
 88. Altmann, S. A. The impact of locomotor energetics on mammalian foraging. J. Zool. 211: 215–225, 1987.
 89. Amirouche, F., M.L. S. K. Ider, and J. Trimble. Analytical method for the analysis and simulation of human locomotion. J. Biomech. Eng. 112: 379–386, 1990.
 90. Amtmann, E., and B. Kummer. Die Beanspruchung des menschlichen Hüftgelenks. II. Grosse und Richtung der Hüftgelenksresultierenden in der Frontalebene. Z. Anat. Entwick. 127: 277–285, 1968.
 91. Andersen, D. C. Below ground herbivory: the adaptive geometry of geomyid burrows. Am. Nat. 119: 18–28, 1982.
 92. Andersen, D. C. Tunnel‐construction methods and foraging path of a fossorial herbivore, Geomys bursarius. J. Mammal. 69: 565–582, 1988.
 93. Anderson, B. D., M. E. Feder, and R. J. Full. Consequences of a gait change during locomotion in toads (Bufo woodhousei fowleri). J. Exp. Biol. 158: 133–148, 1991.
 94. Anderson, B. D., and M. Walton. The aerobic cost of saltatory locomotion in the Fowler's toad (Bufo woodhousei fowleri). J. Exp. Biol. 136: 273–288, 1988.
 95. Anderson, F. C., D. G. Hull, and M. G. Pandy. A parameter optimization approach for the optimal control of large‐scale musculoskeletal systems. J. Biomech. Eng. 114: 450–460, 1992.
 96. Andersson, M., and R. A. Norberg. Evolution of reversed sexual size dimorphism and role partitioning among predatory birds, with a size scaling of flight performance. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 15: 105–130, 1981.
 97. Andersson, O., H. Forssberg, S. Grillner, and P. Wallen. Peripheral feedback mechanisms acting on the central pattern generators for locomotion in fish and cat. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 59: 713–726, 1981.
 98. Andrews, J. G. A general method for determining the functional role of a muscle. J. Biomech. 107: 348–353, 1985.
 99. Andriacchi, T. Dynamics of pathological motion: applied to the anterior cruciate deficient knee. J. Biomech. 23: 57–105, 1990.
 100. Anthony, R., and H. Vallois. Sur la signification des elements ventraux de la ceinture scapulaire chez les batraciens. Bibl. Anat. 24: 218–276, 1914.
 101. Appleton, A. B. The muscles and nerves of the post‐axial region of the tetrapod thigh. Part I. J. Anat. Physiol. 62: 364–400, 1928.
 102. Appleton, A. B. The muscles and nerves of the post‐axial region of the tetrapod thigh. Part II. J. Anat. Physiol. 62: 401–438, 1928.
 103. Archer, M. A review of the origins and radiations of Australian mammals. In: Ecological Biogeography of Australia, edited by A. Keast. The Hague: Junk, 1981, p. 1435–1488.
 104. Ariano, M. A., R. B. Armstrong, and V. R. Edgerton. Hindlimb muscle fiber populations of five mammals. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 21: 51–55, 1973.
 105. Arlton, A. V. An ecological study of the mole. J. Mammal. 17: 349–371, 1936.
 106. Armstrong, R. B. Recruitment of muscles and fibres within muscles in running animals. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 48: 289–304, 1981.
 107. Armstrong, R. B., C. D. Ianuzzo, and T. H. Kunz. Histochemical and biochemical properties of flight muscle fibers in the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus. J. Comp. Physiol. 119: 141–154, 1977.
 108. Armstrong, R. B., and C. R. Taylor. Relationship between muscle force and muscle area showing glycogen loss during locomotion. J. Exp. Biol. 97: 411–420, 1982.
 109. Arnold, E. N. Caudal autotomy as a defense. In: Biology of the Reptilia. Defense and Life History, edited by C. Gans and R. B. Huey. New York: Liss, 1988, vol. 16, p. 235–274.
 110. Arnold, E. N. Investigating the evolutionary effects of one feature on another: does muscle spread suppress caudal autotomy in lizards? J. Zool. 232: 505–523, 1994.
 111. Arnold, E. N. Identifying the effects of history on adaptation: origins of different sand‐diving techniques in lizards. J. Zool. 235: 351–388, 1995.
 112. Arnold, G. P. The reactions of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) to water currents. J. Exp. Biol. 51: 681–697, 1969.
 113. Arnold, G. P. Rheotropism in fishes. Biol. Rev. 49: 515–576, 1974.
 114. Arnold, G. P., P. W. Webb, and B. H. Holford. The role of the pectoral fins in station‐holding of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). J. Exp. Biol. 156: 625–629, 1991.
 115. Arnold, G. P., and D. Weihs. The hydrodynamics of rheotaxis in the plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). J. Exp. Biol. 75: 147–169, 1978.
 116. Arnold, S. J., and A. F. Bennett. Behavioural variation in natural populations. III: Antipredator displays in the garter snake Thamnophis radix. Anim. Behav. 32: 1108–1118, 1984.
 117. Arnold, S. J., and A. F. Bennett. Behavioural variation in natural populations. V: Morphological correlates of locomotion in the garter snake Thamnophis radix. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 43: 175–190, 1988.
 118. Arshavsky, Y. I., S. Grillner, G. N. Orlovsky, and Y. V. Panchin. Central generators and the spatio‐temporal pattern of movements. In: The Development of Timing Control and Temporal Organization of Coordinated Action, edited by J. Fagard and P. H. Wolff. New York: Elsevier, 1991, p. 93–115.
 119. Arshavsky, Y. I., G. N. Orlovsky, Y. V. Panchin, A. Roberts, and S. R. Soffe. Neuronal control of swimming locomotion: analysis of the pteropod mollusc Clione and embryos of the amphibian Xenopus. Trends Nat. Sci. 16: 227–233, 1993.
 120. Ashe, V. M. The righting reflex in turtles: a description and comparison. Psychonomic. Sci. 20: 150–152, 1970.
 121. Ashley, M. A., S. M. Reilly, and G. V. Lauder. Ontogenetic scaling of hindlimb muscles across metamorphosis in the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum. Copeia 1991: 767–776, 1991.
 122. Ashley‐Ross, M. A. Hindlimb kinematics during terrestrial locomotion in a salamander (Dicamptodon tenebrosus). J. Exp. Biol. 193: 255–283, 1994.
 123. Ashley‐Ross, M. A. Metamorphic and speed effects on hind‐limb kinematics during terrestrial locomotion in the salamander Dicamptodon tenebrosus. J. Exp. Biol. 193: 285–305, 1994.
 124. Ashton, E. H., R. M. Flinn, C. E. Oxnard, and T. F. Spence. The adaptive and classificatory significance of certain quantitative feature of the forelimb in primates. J. Zool. 179: 515–556, 1976.
 125. Ashton, E. H., and C. E. Oxnard. The musculature of the primate shoulder. Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. 29: 553–650, 1963.
 126. Ashton, E. H., and C. E. Oxnard. Functional adaptations in the primate shoulder girdle. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 142: 49–66, 1964.
 127. Ashton, E. H., and C. Oxnard. Locomotor patterns in primates. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 142: 1–28, 1964.
 128. Atteveldt, H. V., and A. Crowe. Active tension changes total muscle during and after mechanical extension. J. Biomech. 13: 323–331, 1980.
 129. Au, D., and D. Weihs. At high speeds dolphins save energy by leaping. Nature 284: 348–350, 1980.
 130. Auffenberg, W. The epaxial musculature of Siren, Amphiuma, and Necturus (Amphibia). Bull. FL St. Mus. 4: 253–265, 1959.
 131. Auffenberg, W. A review of the trunk musculature in the limbless land vertebrates. Am. Zool. 2: 183–190, 1962.
 132. Auffenberg, W. The carpus of land tortoises (Testudininae). Bull. FL St. Mus. 10: 152–192, 1966.
 133. Auffenberg, W. The Behavioral Ecology of the Komodo Monitor. Gainesvile: Univ. Press of Florida, 1981.
 134. Auffenberg, W. Gray's Monitor Lizard. Gainesville: Univ. Press of Florida, 1988.
 135. Aulie, A. Electrical activity from the pectoral muscle of a flying bird, the budgerigar. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 36: 297–300, 1970.
 136. Aulie, A., and P. S. Enger. The flight muscle in a bird with high wing‐stroke frequency, the zebra finch. Physiol. Zool. 42: 303–310, 1969.
 137. Autumn, K., and C. Farley. Yet another nocturnal lizard with a low cost of transport—is this a general pattern? Am. Zool. 32: 32A, 1992
 138. Autumn, K., R. B. Weinstein, and R. J. Full. Low cost of locomotion increases performance at low temperature in a nocturnal lizard. Physiol. Zool. 67: 238–262, 1994.
 139. Avery, D. F., and W. W. Tanner. Evolution of the iguanine lizards (Sauria, Iguanidae) as determined by osteological and myological characters. Brigham Young Univ. Sci. Bull. 12: 1–79, 1971.
 140. Avery, R. Experimenta analysis of lizard pause‐travel movement: pauses increase probability of prey capture. Amphibia‐Reptilia 14: 423–427, 1993.
 141. Avery, R. A., C. F. Mueller, S. M. Jones, J. A. Jones, and D. J. Bond. Speeds and movement patterns of European lacertid lizards: a comparative study. J. Herpetol. 21: 324–329, 1987.
 142. Avery, R. A., C. F. Mueller, J. A. Smith, and D. J. Bond. The movement patterns of lacertid lizards: speed, gait and pauses in Lacerta vivipara. J. Zool. 211: 47–63, 1987.
 143. Azevedo‐Ramos, C., M. Van Sluys, J.‐M. Hero, and W. E. Magnusson. Influence of tadpole movement on predation by odonate naiads. J. Herpetol. 26: 335–338, 1992.
 144. Babcock, S. K. Muscle architecture in mammalian limbs: design concepts based on hindlimb muscle morphology in galagos. Am. Zool. 32: 138A, 1992.
 145. Backhouse, K. M. Locomotion of seals with particular reference to the forelimb. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 40: 59–75, 1961.
 146. Badgerow, J. P. An analysis of the function of formation flight of Canada geese. Auk 105: 749–755, 1988.
 147. Badgerow, J. P., and F. R. Hainesworth. Energy savings through formation flight? A re‐examination of the vee formation. J. Theor. Biol. 93: 41–52, 1981.
 148. Badoux, D. M. Friction between feet and ground. Nature 202: 266–267, 1964.
 149. Badoux, D. M. Some notes on the functional anatomy of Macropus giganteus Zimm. with general remarks on the mechanics of bipedal leaping. Acta Anat. 62: 418–433, 1965.
 150. Badoux, D. M. Some notes on the curvature of the vertebral column in vertebrates with special reference to mammals. Acta Morphol. Neerl. Scand. 7: 29–40, 1968.
 151. Baehr, M. Beobachtungen zur bipeden Fortbewegung bei der australischen Agame Physignathus longirostris (Boulenger). Stutt. Beitr. Naturk. A 291: 1–7, 1976.
 152. Baier, R. E., E. G. Shafrin, and W. A. Zisman. Adhesion: mechanisms that assist or impede it. Science 162: 1360–1368, 1968.
 153. Bainbridge, R. The speed of swimming of fish related to size and to the frequency and amplitude of the tail beat. J. Exp. Biol. 35: 109–133, 1958.
 154. Bainbridge, R. Problems of fish locomotion. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 40: 23–56, 1961.
 155. Bainbridge, R. Training, speed and stamina in trout. J. Exp. Biol. 39: 537–555, 1962.
 156. Bainbridge, R. Caudal fin and body movements in the propulsion of some fish. J. Exp. Biol. 40: 23–56, 1963.
 157. Bakker, R. T. Dinosaur physiology and the origin of mammals. Evolution 25: 636–658, 1971.
 158. Bakker, R. T. Locomotor energetics of lizard and mammals compared. Physiologist 15: 76, 1972.
 159. Balda, R. P., G. Caple, and W. R. Willis. Comparison of the gliding to flapping sequence with the flapping to gliding sequence. In: The Beginnings of Birds, edited by M. K. Hecht, J. H. Ostrom, G. Viohl, and P. Wellnhofer. Willibaldsburg: Freunde Jura‐Museums, Eichstatt, 1985, p. 267–277.
 160. Ballinger, R. E. Experimental evidence of the tail as a balancing organ in the lizard, Anolis carolinensis. Herpetologica 29: 65–66, 1973.
 161. Ballinger, R. E., J. W. Nietfeldt, and J. J. Krupa. An experimental analysis of the role of the tail in attaining high running speed in Cnemidophorus sexlineatus (Reptilia: Squamata: Lacertilia). Herpetologica 35: 114–116, 1979.
 162. Ballinger, R. E., and D. W. Tinkle. On the cost of tail regeneration to body growth in lizards. J. Herpetol. 13: 374–375, 1979.
 163. Balmford, A., A. L. R. Thomas, and I. L. Jones. Aerodynamics and the evolution of long tails in birds. Nature 361: 628–631, 1993.
 164. Balon, E. K. Saltatory processes and altricial to precocial forms in the ontogeny of fishes. Am. Zool. 21: 573–596, 1984.
 165. Banks, E. The relation of weight to wing area in the flight of animals. J. Malayan Branch R. Asiatic Soc. G. Br. Ire. Sing. 8: 334–360, 1930.
 166. Barclay, O. R. The mechanics of amphibian locomotion. J. Exp. Biol. 23: 177–203, 1946.
 167. Barnett, C. H. Locking of the knee joint. J. Anat. 87: 91–95, 1953.
 168. Barnett, C. H. A comparison of the human knee and avian ankle. J. Anat. 88: 59–70, 1954.
 169. Barnett, C. H., D. C. Davies, and M. A. MacConaill. Synovial Joints. Their Structure and Mechanics. London: Longmans, Green, 1961.
 170. Barnett, C. H., and O. J. Lewis. The evolution of some traction epiphyses in birds and mammals. J. Anat. 92: 593–601, 1958.
 171. Barnett, C. H., and J. R. Napier. The form and mobility of the fibula in metatherian mammals. J. Anat. 87: 207–213, 1953.
 172. Barrett, B. The length and mode of termination of individual muscle fibres in the human sartorius and posterior femoral muscles. Acta Anat. 48: 242–257, 1962.
 173. Barrington, E.J.W., and R.P.S. Jefferies. Protochordates. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 36, 1975.
 174. Bartel, D. L., H. F. Schryver, J. E. Lowe, and R. A. Parker. Locomotion in the horse: a procedure for computing the internal forces in the digit. Am. J. Vet. Res. 39: 1721–1727, 1978.
 175. Bartholomew, G. A. Jr. Interspecific comparison as a tool for ecological physiologists. In: New Directions in Ecological Physiology, edited by M. E. Feder, A. F. Bennett, W. W. Burggren, and R. B. Huey. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1987, p. 11–37.
 176. Bartholomew, G. A. Jr., A. F. Bennett, and W. R. Dawson. Swimming, diving and lactate production of the marine iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus. Copeia 1976: 709–720, 1976.
 177. Bartholomew, G. A. Jr., and G. R. Cary. Locomotion in pocket mice. J. Mammal. 35: 386–392, 1954.
 178. Bartholomew, G. A. Jr., and H. H. Caswell Jr. Locomotion in kangaroo rats and its adaptive significance. J. Mammal. 32: 155–169, 1951.
 179. Basmajian, J. V., and C. J. deLuca. Muscles Alive—Their Function Revealed by Electromyography (5th ed.). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1985.
 180. Bateman, G. All the World's Animals. Oxford: Equinox Torstar, 1987.
 181. Batty, R. S. Development of swimming movements and musculature of larval herring (Clupea harengus). J. Exp. Biol. 110: 217–229, 1984.
 182. Baudinette, R. A. The energetics and cardiorespiratory correlates of mammalian terrestrial locomotion. J. Exp. Biol. 160: 209–231, 1991.
 183. Bauer, A. M., and A. P. Russell. Alternative digital scansor design in the New Caledonian gekkonid genera, Bavayia and Eurydactylodes. Mem. Queens. Mus. 29: 299–310, 1990.
 184. Bauer, A. M., and A. P. Russell. Pedal specializations in dune‐dwelling geckos. J. Arid Environ. 20: 43–62, 1991.
 185. Baumgartner, J. V. Spatial variation of morphology in a freshwater population of three‐spine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Can. J. Zool. 70: 1140–1148, 1992.
 186. Baumgartner, J. V., M. A. Bell, and P. H. Weinberg. Body form differences between the Enos Lake species pair of threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) complex. Can. J. Zool. 66: 467–474, 1986.
 187. Bauwens, D., T. Garland, Jr., A. M. Castilla, and R. Van Damme. Evolution of sprint speed in lacertid lizards: Morphological, physiological, and behavioral covariation. Evolution 49: 827–835, 1995.
 188. Beacham, T. D. Meristic and morphometric variation in pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in southern British Columbia and Puget Sound. Can. J. Zool. 63: 366–372, 1985.
 189. Beaupré, G. S., and D. R. Carter. Finite element analysis in biomechanics. In: Biomechanics—Structures and Systems. A Practical Approach, edited by A. A. Biewener. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1992, pp. 149–174.
 190. Beddard, F. E. The Structure and Classification of Birds. London: Longmans, Green, 1898.
 191. Beddow, T. A., J. L. Van Leeuwen, and I. A. Johnston. Swimming kinematics of fast starts are altered by temperature acclimation in the marine fish Myoxocephalus scorpius. J. Exp. Biol. 198: 203–208, 1995.
 192. Bekker, M. G. A Theory of Land Locomotion. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press, 1956.
 193. Belinky, C. R., and G. K. Belinky. Climbing, falling and depth perception in the wood turtle, Part II. Bull. N. Y. Herpetol. Soc. 11:32–43, 1975.
 194. Belkin, D. A. The running speeds of the lizards Dipsosaurus dorsalis and Callisaurus draconoides. Copeia 1961: 223–224, 1961.
 195. Bellairs, A. d'A. Observations on the cranial anatomy of Anniella, and a comparison with that of other burrowing lizards. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1919: 887–904, 1949.
 196. Bellairs, A. d'A. The Life of Reptiles. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1969, vols. 1, 2.
 197. Bellairs, A. d'A. Comments on the evolution and affinities of snakes. In: Studies in Vertebrate Evolution, edited by K. A. Joysey and T. S. Kemp. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 1972, p. 157–172.
 198. Bellairs, A. d'A., and C. R. Jenkin. The skeleton of birds. In: Biology and Comparative Physiology of Birds, edited by A. J. Marshall. New York: Academic, 1960, vol. 1, p. 241–300.
 199. Bels, V., and V. Goosse. Evolutionary perspectives in the pushup repertoire of the Anolis lizards of the carolinensis group. In: Proc. 4th Ordinary Gen. Mtg. Soc. Eur. Herpetol., Nijmegen, 17–21 August 1987, edited by J. J. van Gelder, H. Strijbosch, and P. J. M. Bergers. Nijmegen: Faculty of Sciences, 1987, p. 71–74.
 200. Bels, V. L., J.‐P. Theys, M. R. Bennett, and L. Legrand. Biomechanical analysis of jumping in Anolis carolinensis (Reptilia: Iguanidae). Copeia 1992: 492–504, 1992.
 201. Bemmelen, J. F. van, Sr. Lichaamsverlenging slang en hagedis. Kgl. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amsterdam C 55: 225–237, 1952.
 202. Bennet, S., T. McConnell, and S. L. Trubatch. Quantitative analysis of the speed of snakes as a function of peg spacing. J. Exp. Biol. 60: 161–165, 1974.
 203. Bennett, A. F. Metabolic expenditure and foraging cost in the lizard Cnemidophorus murinus. Am. Zool. 19: 941, 1979.
 204. Bennett, A. F. The thermal dependence of lizard behavior. Anim. Behav. 28: 752–762, 1980.
 205. Bennett, A. F. The evolution of activity capacity. J. Exp. Biol. 160: 1–23, 1991.
 206. Bennett, A. F., T. Garland, and P. L. Else. Individual correlation of morphology, muscle mechanics, and locomotion in a salamander. Am. J. Physiol. 256 (Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol. 27): R1200–R1208, 1989.
 207. Bennett, A. F., and T. T. Gleeson. Metabolic expenditure and the cost of foraging in the lizard Cnemidophorus murinus. Copeia 1979: 573–577, 1979.
 208. Bennett, A. F., T. T. Gleeson, and G. C. Gorman. Anaerobic metabolism in a lizard (Anolis bonairensis) under natural conditions. Physiol. Zool. 54: 237–241, 1981.
 209. Bennett, A. F., and G. C. Gorman. Population density and energetics of lizards on a tropical island. Oecologia 42: 339–358, 1979.
 210. Bennett, A. F., R. B. Huey, and H. John‐Alder. Physiological correlates of natural activity and locomotor capacity in two species of lacertid lizards. J. Comp. Physiol. [B] 154: 113–118, 1983.
 211. Bennett, A. F., and H. B. John‐Alder. The effect of body temperature on the locomotory energetics of lizards. J. Comp. Physiol. [B]. 155: 21–27, 1984.
 212. Bennett, D. H., J. W. Gibbons, and J. C. Franson. Terrestrial activity in aquatic turtles. Ecology 51: 738–740, 1970.
 213. Bennett, M. B. Empirical studies of walking and running. In: Mechanics of Animal Locomotion, edited by R. McN. Alexander. Berlin: Springer‐Verlag, 1992, p. 141–166.
 214. Bennett, M. B. Structural modifications involved in the fore‐ and hind limb grip of some flying foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae). J. Zool. 229: 237–248, 1993.
 215. Bennett, M. B. Interrelationships of crural muscles and tendons in a range of birds. J. Zool. 235: 33–42, 1995.
 216. Bennett, M. B., R. F. Ker, and R. McN. Alexander. Elastic properties of structures in the tails of cetaceans (Phoceana and Lagenorhynchus) and their effect on energy cost of swimming. J. Zool. 211: 177–192, 1987.
 217. Bennett, M. B., and G. C. Taylor. Scaling of elastic strain energy in kangaroos and the benefits of being big. Nature 378: 56–59, 1995.
 218. Benton, M. J. Evolution of behaviour: burrowing by vertebrates. Nature 331: 17–18, 1988.
 219. Bentz, G. D., and R. L. Zusi. The humeroulnar pulley and its evolution in hummingbirds. Wilson Bull. 94: 71–73, 1982.
 220. Berg, R. Angewandte und topographische Anatomie der Haustiere. Jena: Veb. Gustav Fischer‐Verlag, 1973.
 221. Berge, C. Size‐ and locomotion‐related aspects of hominid and anthropoid pelves: an osteometrical multivariate analysis. In: Gravity, Posture and Locomotion in Primates, edited by F. K. Jouffroy, M. H. Stack, and C. Niemitz. Firenze: Editrice 11 Sedicesim, 1990, p. 97–108.
 222. Berger, A. J. The comparative functional morphology of the pelvic appendage in three genera of Cuculidae. Am. Midl. Nat. 47: 513–605, 1952.
 223. Berger, A. J. On the locomotor anatomy of the blue Coua, Coua caerulae. Auk 70: 49–93, 1953.
 224. Berger, A. J. The myology of the pectoral appendage of three genera of American cuckoos. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. 85: 5–35, 1954.
 225. Berger, A. J. The appendicular myology of the pygmy falcon (Polihierax semitorquatus). Am. Midl. Nat. 55: 326–333, 1956.
 226. Berger, A. J. The appendicular myology of the sandhill crane, with comparative remarks on the whooping crane. Wilson Bull. 68: 282–304, 1956.
 227. Berger, A. J. The expansor secundiorum muscle, with special reference to passerine birds. J. Morphol. 99: 137–166, 1956.
 228. Berger, A. J. The musculature. In: Biology and Comparative Physiology of Birds, edited by A. J. Marschall. New York: Academic, 1960, vol. 1, p. 301–344.
 229. Berger‐Dell'Mour, H. Transition from normal to serpentiform appearance in a South African genus of lizards (Tetradactylus Merrem, Gerrhosauridae). Zool. Jb. (Anat). 110: 1–152, 1983.
 230. Berger‐Dell'Mour, H. The lizard genus Tetradactylus: a model case of an evolutionary process. In: Proc. Int. Symp. African Vertebrates. Systematics, Phytogeny and Evolutionary Ecology, edited by K. L. Schuchmann. Bonn: Zool. Forsch. Mus. Alexander Koenig, 1985, p. 495–510.
 231. Bergman, R. A. M. The anatomy of Homalopsis buccata. Proc. Kon. Nederl. Akad. Wetens., Amsterdam C 54: 511–524, 1951.
 232. Beritoff, J. S. Ueber die Hauptelemente der Lokomotionsbewegung: Den statischen Tonus und die rhythmischen Reflexe der Extremitäten und die Wechselbeziehungen zwischen diesen Elementen. Pflügers Arch. Ges. Physiol. 199: 248–277, 1922.
 233. Berkinblit, M. B., A. G. Feldman, and O. I. Fukson. Adaptability of innate motor patterns and motor control mechanisms. Behav. Brain Sci. 4: 585–638, 1986.
 234. Berman, S. L., and R. J. Raikow. The hindlimb musculature of the mousebirds (Coliiformes). Auk 99: 41–57, 1982.
 235. Bernstein, N. The Co‐ordination and Regulation of Movements. Oxford: Pergamon, 1967.
 236. Berthoz, A., W. Graf, and P. P. Vidal. The Head–Neck Sensory Motor System. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1992.
 237. Betts, B., J. L. Smith, V. R. Edgerton, and T. C. Collates. Telemetered EMG of fast and slow muscles in cats. Brain Res. 117: 529–533, 1976.
 238. Bhati, D. P. S. The pectoral musculature of Rana tigrina Daud. and Rana andersonii Boul. Ann. Zool. (Agra) 1: 23–78, 1955.
 239. Biewener, A. A. Safety factors in the skeletal design of large and small animals: are they uniform? Am. Zool. 21: 937, 1981.
 240. Biewener, A. A. Locomotory stresses in the limb bones of two small mammals: the ground squirrel and chipmunk. J. Exp. Biol. 103: 131–154, 1983.
 241. Biewener, A. A. Allometry of quadrupedal locomotion: the scaling of duty factor, bone curvature and limb orientation to body size. J. Exp. Biol. 105: 147–171, 1983.
 242. Biewener, A. A. Scaling body support in mammals: limb posture and muscle mechanics. Science 245: 45–48, 1989.
 243. Biewener, A. A. Biomechanics of mammalian terrestrial locomotion. Science 250: 1097–1103, 1990.
 244. Biewener, A. A. Mammalian terrestrial locomotion and size; mechanical design principles define limits. BioScience 39: 776–783, 1990.
 245. Biewener, A. A. Biomechanics—Structures and Systems. A Practical Approach. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1992.
 246. Biewener, A. A. In vivo measurement of bone strain and tendon force. In: Biomechanics—Structures and Systems. A Practical Approach. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1992, p. 123–147.
 247. Biewener, A. A., and J.E.A. Bertram. Skeletal strain patterns in relation to exercise training during growth. J. Exp. Biol. 185: 51–89, 1993.
 248. Biewener, A. A., and K. P. Dial. In vivo strain in the humerus of pigeons (C. livia) during flight. J. Morphol. 225: 61–75, 1981.
 249. Biewener, A. A., K. P. Dial, and G. E. Goslow Jr,. Pectoralis muscle force and power output during flight in the starling. J. Exp. Biol. 164: 1–18, 1992.
 250. Biewener, A. A., and C. R. Taylor. Bone strain: a determinant of gait and speed? J. Exp. Biol. 123: 383–400, 1986.
 251. Biewener, A. A., J. Thomason, and L. E. Lanyon. Mechanics of locomotion and jumping in the forelimb of the horse (Equus): in vivo stress developed in the radius and metacarpus. J. Zool. 201: 67–82, 1983.
 252. Bigalke, R. Zur Myologie der Erdkröte (Bufo vulgaris, Laurenti). Z. Anat. Entwick. 82: 286–353, 1926.
 253. Bilo, D. Flugbiophysic von Kleinvögeln. I. Kinematik und Aerodynamic des Flügelabschlages beim Haussperling (Passer domesticus L.). Z. Vergl. Physiol. 71: 382–454, 1971.
 254. Bilo, D. Integration opto‐ und mechanosensorischer Afferenzen bei der Flugsteuerung der Haustaube (Columba livia var. domestica). Zool. Jb. Alq. Zool. 95: 323–330, 1991.
 255. Binder, M. H., and R. W. Henderson. Tail waving as a diversionary tactic in Anolis carolinensis. Herpetol. Rev. 13: 10, 1982.
 256. Bininda‐Edmonds, O. R. P., and A. P. Russell. Flight style in bats as predicted from wing morphometry: the effects of specimen preservation. J. Zool. 234: 275–287, 1994.
 257. Blake, R. W. On balistiform locomotion. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 58: 73–80, 1978.
 258. Blake, R. W. The energetics of hovering in the mandarin fish (Synchropus picturatus). J. Exp. Biol. 82: 25–33, 1979.
 259. Blake, R. W. The mechanics of labriform locomotion I. Labriform locomotion in the angelfish (Pterophyllum eimeki): an analysis of the power stroke. J. Exp. Biol. 82: 255–271, 1979.
 260. Blake, R. W. The mechanics of labriform locomotion II. An analysis of the recovery stroke and the overall fin‐beat cycle propulsive efficiency in the angelfish. J. Exp. Biol. 85: 337–342, 1979.
 261. Blake, R. W. Undulatory median fin propulsion of two teleosts with different modes of life. Can. J. Zool. 58: 2116–2119, 1980.
 262. Blake, R. W. Influence of pectoral fin shape on thrust and drag in labriform locomotion. J. Zool. 194: 53–66, 1981.
 263. Blake, R. W. Mechanics of drag‐based mechanisms of propulsion in aquatic vertebrates. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 48: 29–52, 1981.
 264. Blake, R. W. Mechanics of ostraciiform locomotion. Can. J. Zool. 59: 1067–1071, 1981.
 265. Blake, R. W. Energetics of leaping in dolphins and other aquatic animals. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 63: 61–70, 1983.
 266. Blake, R. W. Fish Locomotion. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1983.
 267. Blake, R. W. Swimming in the electric eels and knifefishes. Can. J. Zool. 61: 1432–1441, 1983.
 268. Blake, R. W. A model of foraging efficiency and daily energy budget in the black skimmer (Rynchops nigra). Can. J. Zool. 63: 42–48, 1985.
 269. Bledsoe, A. H., R. J. Raikow, and A. G. Glasgow. Evolution and functional significance of tendon ossification in woodcreepers (Aves: Passeriformes: Dendrocolaptinae). J. Morphol. 215: 289–300, 1993.
 270. Blickhan, R., and A. A. Biewener. Kangaroo rat locomotion: design for elastic energy storage or acceleration? J. Exp. Biol. 140: 243–255, 1988.
 271. Blickhan, R., A. K. Perry, and A. A. Biewener. Muscle forces during locomotion in kangaroo rats: force platform and tendon buckle measurements compared. J. Exp. Biol. 137: 191–205, 1988.
 272. Blight, A. R. Undulatory swimming with and without waves of contraction. Nature 264: 352–354, 1976.
 273. Blight, A. R. The muscular control of vertebrate swimming movements. Biol. Rev. 52: 181–218, 1977.
 274. Block, B. A., J. R. Finnerty, A.F.R. Stewart, and J. Kidd. Evolution of endothermy in fish: mapping physiological traits on a molecular phylogeny. Science 260: 210–214, 1993.
 275. Boardman, W. On the anatomy and functional adaptation of the thorax and pectoral girdle in the Wallaroo (Macropus robustus). Proc. Linn. Soc. NSW 66: 349–387, 1941.
 276. Bock, W. J. The avian skeletomuscular system. In: Avian Biology, edited by D. S. Farner and J. R. King. New York: Academic, 1974, p. 117–257.
 277. Bock, W. J. The arboreal theory for the origin of birds. In: The Beginnings of Birds, edited by M. K. Hecht, J. H. Ostrom, G. Viohl, and P. Wellnhofer. Eichstatt: Freunde Jura‐Museums, p. 199–207, 1985.
 278. Bock, W. J. The arboreal origin of avian flight. Mem. CA Acad. Sci. 8: 37–72, 1986.
 279. Bock, W. J., and J. Farrand Jr,. Transport of water by adult sandgrouse to their young. Condor 69: 323–343, 1980.
 280. Bock, W. J., and W. D. Miller. The scansorial foot of the woodpeckers, with comments on the evolution of perching and climbing feet in birds. Am. Mus. Novitates ??? 1–45, 1959.
 281. Bock, W. J., and G. von Wahlert. Adaptation and the form‐function complex. Evolution 19: 269–299, 1965.
 282. Bock, W. J., and H. Winkler. Mechanical analysis of the external forces on climbing mammals. Zoomorphologie 91: 49–61, 1978.
 283. Bogert, C. M. Rectilinear locomotion in snakes. Copeia 1947: 253–254, 1947.
 284. Boggs, D. F., and K. P. Dial. Neuromuscular organization and regional EMG activity of the pectoralis in the pigeon. J. Morphol. 218: 43–58, 1993.
 285. Bojanus, L. H. Anatome Testudinis Europaeae. (Reprint of 1819 volume privately published in Vilna.) Athens, OH: Soc. Stud. Amphib. Rept., 1970, vol. 26.
 286. Böker, H. Einführung in die vergleichende biologische Anatomie der Wirbeltiere. Erster Band. Jena: Gustav Fischer, 1935.
 287. Bolk, L., E. Göppert, E. Kallius, and W. Lubosch. Handbuch der vergleichenden Anatomie der Wirbeltiere. Vienna: Urban und Schwarzenberg, 1931.
 288. Bone, Q. On the function of the two types of muscle fibre in elasmobranch fish. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 46: 321–349, 1966.
 289. Bone, Q. Buoyancy and hydrodynamic functions of the integument in the castor‐oil fish, Ruvettus pretiosus (Pisces: Gemypelidae). Copeia 1972: 78–87, 1972. ???
 290. Bone, Q. Muscular and energetic aspects of fish swimming. In: Swimming and Flying in Nature, edited by Y. T. Wu, C. J. Brokaw, and C. Brennen. New York: Plenum, 1975, p. 493–528.
 291. Bone, Q. Locomotor muscle. In: Fish Physiology, edited by W. S. Hoar and D. J. Randall. New York: Academic, 1978, vol. 7, p. 1–424.
 292. Bone, Q. Evolutionary patterns of axial muscle systems in some invertebrates and fish. Am. Zool. 29: 5–18, 1989.
 293. Bone, Q., and N. B. Marshall. Biology of Fishes. London: Blackie, 1982.
 294. Bone, Q., R. M. A. P. Ridge, and K. P. Ryan. Stretch receptors in urodele limb muscles. Cell Tissue Res. 165: 249–266, 1976.
 295. Bone, Q., and B. L. Roberts. The density of elasmobranchs. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 49: 913–937, 1969.
 296. Bookstein, F., B. Chernoff, R. Elder, J. Humphries, G. Smith, and R. Strauss. Morphometrics in Evolutionary Biology. Philadelphia: Acad. Nat. Sci., 1985.
 297. Boothby, K. M., and A. Roberts. The stopping response of Xenopus laevis embryos: pharmacology and intracellular physiology of rhythmic spinal neurones and hindbrain neurones. J. Exp. Biol. 169: 65–86, 1992.
 298. Boothby, K. M., and A. Roberts. Effects of site of tactile stimulation on the escape swimming responses of hatchling Xenopus laevis embryos. J. Zool. 235: 113–125, 1995.
 299. Bourdelle, E., and C. Bressou. Le porc. Part III. In: Anatomie Regionale des Animaux Domestiques, edited by L. Montane, E. Bourdelle, and C. Bressou. Paris: Bailliere 1964, p. 1–398.
 300. Boutilier, R. G., M. G. Emilio, and G. Shelton. Aerobic and anaerobic correlates of mechanical work by gastrocnemius muscles of the aquatic amphibian Xenopus laevis. J. Exp. Biol. 122: 223–235, 1986.
 301. Boutilier, R. G., and G. Shelton. The effects of forced and voluntary diving on ventilation, blood gases and pH in the aquatic amphibian, Xenopus laevis. J. Exp. Biol. 122: 209–222, 1986.
 302. Bradley, D. E. Ecophysiology of Desert Reptiles. New York: Academic, 1986.
 303. Bradley, M. Functional anatomy of horse foot. MI Cooper Extens. Serv. Ext. Bull. E‐9: 1, 1977.
 304. Brain, C. K. Sidewinding locomotion of the south west African adder Bitis peringueyi. S. Afr. Mus. Assoc. Bull. 7: 58–61, 1959.
 305. Brain, C. K. Observations on the locomotion of the south west African adder Bitis peringueyi (Boulenger), with speculations on the origin of sidewinding. Ann. Transvaal Mus. 24: 19–24, 1960.
 306. Bramble, D. M. Axial–appendicular dynamics and the integration of breathing and gait in mammals. Am. Zool. 29: 171–186, 1989.
 307. Bramble, D. M., and D. R. Carrier. Running and breathing in mammals. Science 219: 251–256, 1983.
 308. Bramble, D. M., and F. A. Jenkins Jr,. Structural and functional integration across the reptile‐mammal boundary: the locomotor system. In: Complex Organismal Functions: Integration and Evolution in Vertebrates. New York: Wiley, 1989, p. 133–146.
 309. Bramble, D. M., and F. A. Jenkins Jr,. Locomotor‐ventilatory dynamics in the trotting dog. Am. Zool. 32: 33A, 1992.
 310. Bramble, D. M., and F. A. Jenkins Jr,. Mammalian locomotor‐respiratory integration: implications for diaphragmatic and pulmonary design. Science. 262: 235–240, 1993.
 311. Bramwell, C. D., and G. R. Whitfield. Biomechanics of Pteranodon. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. [B] 267: 503–581, 1974.
 312. Brandell, B. R. Functional roles of the calf and vastus muscles in locomotion. Am. J. Phys. Med. 56: 59–74, 1977.
 313. Braun, J., and W. E. Reif. A new terminology of aquatic propulsion in vertebrates. N. Jb. Geol. Palaontol. 164: 162–167, 1982.
 314. Braun, J., and W. Reif. A survey of aquatic locomotion in fishes and tetrapods. N. Jb. Geol. Palaontol. 169: 307–332, 1985.
 315. Braun, M. Zur Bedeutung der Cutikularborsten auf den Haftlappen der Geckotiden. Arb. Zool. Zootom. Inst. Würzburg 4: 231, 1877–78.
 316. Braun, M. Ueber die Haftorgane an der Unterseite der Zehen bei Anolius. Arb. Zool. Zootom. Inst. Würzburg 5: 31–36, 1882.
 317. Braun, M. Picturing Time. The Work of Etienne‐Jules Marey (1830–1904). Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, 1993.
 318. Breder, C. M. Jr,. The locomotion of fishes. Zoologica 4: 159–297, 1926.
 319. Breder, C. M. On the structural specialization of flying fishes from the standpoint of aerodynamics. Copeia 1930: 114–121, 1930.
 320. Brehm, P., E. Yeh, J. Patrick, and Y. Kidokoro. Metabolism of acetylcholine receptors on embryonic amphibian muscle. J. Neurosci. 3: 101–107, 1983.
 321. Brett, J. R. The relation of size to the rate of oxygen consumption and sustained swimming speeds of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 22: 1491–1501, 1965.
 322. Brett, J. R., and T.D.D. Groves. Physiological energetics. In: Fish Physiology, Bioenergetics and Growth, edited by W. S. Hoar, D. J. Randall, and J. R. Brett. New York: Academic, 1979, p. 279–352.
 323. Brinkman, D. Structural correlates of tarsal and metatarsal functioning in Iguana (Lacertilia; Iguanidae) and other lizards. Can. J. Zool. 58: 277–289, 1980.
 324. Brinkman, D. The hind limb step cycle of Caiman sclerops and the mechanics of the crocodile tarsus and metatarsus. Can. J. Zool. 58: 2187–2200, 1980.
 325. Brinkman, D. The hind limb step cycle of Iguana and primitive reptiles. J. Zool. 181: 91–103, 1981.
 326. Brode, W. E. Prehensility of the tails of two turtles (family Chelydridae). Copeia 1958: 48, 1958.
 327. Brooks, A. The underwater actions of diving ducks. Auk 62: 517–523, 1945.
 328. Brooks, D. R., and D. A. McLennan. Phytogeny, Ecology, and Behavior. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, 1991.
 329. Brooks, W. S. Comparative adaptations of the Alaskan redpolls to the arctic environment. Wilson Bull. 80: 253–280, 1968.
 330. Brown, J. H. The desert pupfish. Sci. Am. 225: 110, 1971.
 331. Brown, L. S. The right way to walk four legged. Nat. Hist. 77: 32–39, 84–85, 1968.
 332. Brown, M. C., J.K.S. Jansen, and D. VanEssen. Polyneuronal innervation of skeletal muscle in new‐born rats and its elimination during maturation. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 261: 387–422, 1976.
 333. Brown, R. E., J. J. Baumel, and R. D. Klemm. Anatomy of the propatagium: the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus). J. Morphol. 219: 205–224, 1994.
 334. Brown, R. E., J. J. Baumel, and R. D. Klemm. Mechanics of the avian propatagium: flexion‐extension mechanism of the avian wing. J. Morphol 225: 91–105, 1995.
 335. Brown, R.H.J. The flight of birds. J. Exp. Biol. 25: 322–333, 1948.
 336. Brown, R.H.J. Flapping flight. J. Exp. Biol. 93: 334–359, 1951.
 337. Brown, R.H.J. The flight of birds. II: Wing function in relation to flight speed. J. Exp. Biol. 30: 90–103, 1953.
 338. Brown, R.H.J. The power requirements of birds in flight. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 5: 95–99, 1961.
 339. Brown, R.H.J. The flight of birds. Biol. Rev. 38: 460–489, 1963.
 340. Brown, R. M., D. H. Taylor, and D. H. Gist. Effect of caudal autotomy on locomotor performance of wall lizards (Podarcis muralis). J. Herpetol. 29: 98–105, 1995.
 341. Bruce, V., and P. J. Turek. Muscle fibre variation in the gluteus madius of the horse. Equine Vet. J. 17: 317–321, 1985.
 342. Buchanan, J. T., and A. H. Cohen. Activities of identified interneurons, motoneurons, and muscle fibers during fictive swimming in the lamprey and effects of reticulospinal and dorsal cell stimulation. J. Neurophysiol. 47: 948–960, 1982.
 343. Buffa, P. Richerche sulla muscolatura cutanea dei serpenti e considerazioni sulla locomozione di questi animali. Atti Accad. Sci. V.‐T. 1st. (Padova) N. S. 1: 145–228, 1904.
 344. Buffa, P. Lo sviluppo della muscolatura cutanea del Tropidonotus natrix L. Atti Accad. Sci. V.‐T. 1st. (Padova) N. S. 2: 173–206, 1905.
 345. Buffrenil, V. de, A. Collet, and M. Pascal. Ontogenetic development of skeletal weight in a small delphinid, Delphinus delphis (Cetacea, Ondontoceti). Zoomorphology 105: 336–344, 1985.
 346. Buller, A. J., J. C. Eccles, and R. M. Eccles. Differentiation of fast and slow muscles in the cat hind limb. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 150: 399–416, 1960.
 347. Bunker, S. J., and K. E. Machin. The hydrodynamics of cephalaspids. In: Biomechanics in Evolution. Soc. Exp. Biol. Semin. Ser. 36: 113–129, 1991.
 348. Burger, A. E., and D. W. Powell. Diving depths and diet of Cassin's auklet at Reef Island, British Columbia. Can. J. Zool. 68: 1572–1577, 1990.
 349. Buri, R. O. Zur Anatomie des Flügels von Micropus melba und einigen anderen Coracornithes, zugleich Beitrag zur Kenntnis der systematischen Stellung der Cypselidae. Jena. Z. Naturwiss. 23: 361–610, 1900.
 350. Burke, R. E. Motor units: anatomy, physiology and functional organization. In: Handbook of Physiology. The Nervous System. Motor Control, edited by V. B. Brooks. Washington, DC: Am. Physiol. Soc., 1960, vol. II, pt. 1, p. 345–422.
 351. Burrell, H. The Platypus. Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1927.
 352. Bustard, H. R. Sea Turtles. Glasgow: William Collins, 1972.
 353. Bustard, H. R. A note on nesting behaviour in the Indian gharial Gavialis gangeticus (Gmelin) (Reptilia, Crocodilia). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 76: 519–521, 1979.
 354. Bustard, H. R., and B. C. Choudhury. Long distance movement by a saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus). Br. J. Herpetol. 6: 87, 1980.
 355. Bustard, H. R., and L. A. K. Singh. Locomotory behavior and spoor formation in the gharial (Gavialis gangeticus). Br. J. Herpetol. 5: 673–676, 1977.
 356. Bustard, H. R., and L. A. K. Singh. Studies on the Indian gharial Gavialis gangeticus (Gmelin) (Reptilia, Crocodilia). I: Estimation of body length from scute length. Indian Forester 103: 140–149, 1977.
 357. Bustard, H. R., and L. A. K. Singh. Studies on the Indian gharial Gavialis gangeticus (Gmelin) (Reptilia, Crocodilia). Change in terrestrial locomotory pattern with age. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 74: 534–535, 1978.
 358. Bustard, H. R., and L. A. K. Singh. Movement of wild gharial, Gavialis gangeticus (Gmelin) in the river Mahanadi, Orissa (India). Br. J. Herpetol. 6: 292–294, 1983.
 359. Byrnes, E. F. Experimental studies on the development of limb‐muscles in Amphibia. J. Morpbol. 14: 105–110, 1898.
 360. Cade, T. J., and G. L. Maclean. Transport of water by adult sandgrouse to their young. Condor 69: 323–343, 1967.
 361. Calder, W. A. III Size, Function and Life History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1984.
 362. Callister, R. J., R. Callister, and E. H. Peterson. Histochemical classification of neck and limb muscle fibers in a turtle, Pseudemys scripta: a study using microphotometry and cluster analysis techniques. J. Morpbol. 199: 269–286, 1989.
 363. Calow, L. J., and R. McN. Alexander. A mechanical analysis of a hind leg of a frog (Rana temporaria). J. Zool. 171: 293–321, 1973.
 364. Candy, T. I. Elongation and Visceral Redistribution in Snakes. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan, 1993. Thesis.
 365. Caple, G., R. P. Balda, and W. R. Willis. The physics of leaping animals and the evolution of preflight. Am. Nat. 121: 455–476, 1983.
 366. Carey, F. G., J. W. Kanwisher, O. Brazier, G. Gabrielson, J. G. Casey, and H. L. Pratt. Temperature and activities of a white shark, Carcharodon carcharias. Copeia 1982: 254–260, 1982.
 367. Carey, F. G., J. M. Teal, J. W. Kanwisher, K. D. Lawson, and J. S. Beckett. Warm‐bodied fish. Am. Zool. 11: 137–145, 1971.
 368. Carlson, H. J., and M. Zomlefer. Control of the trunk during walking in the cat. Acta Physiol. Scand. 105: 251–253, 1979.
 369. Carlsöö, S. How Man Moves. London: Heinemann, 1972.
 370. Caro, T. Why do tommies stott? This gazelle jumps not for joy but to communicate. Nat. Hist. 97: 26, 1988.
 371. Caro, T. M. The functions of stotting: a review of the hypotheses. Anim. Behav. 34: 649–662, 1986.
 372. Caro, T. M. The functions of stotting in Thomson's gazelles: some tests of the predictions. Anim. Behav. 34: 663–684, 1986.
 373. Carothers, J. H. An experimental confirmation of morphological adaptation: toe fringes in the sand‐dwelling lizard Uma scoparia. Evolution 40: 871–874, 1986.
 374. Carpenter, C. C. Comparative ecology of the common garter snake (Thamnophis s. sirtalis), the ribbon snake (Thamnophis s. sauritus), and Butler's garter snake (Thamnophis butleri) in mixed populations. Ecol. Monogr. 22: 235–258, 1952.
 375. Carpenter, C. C. The bullsnake as an excavator. J. Herpetol. 16: 394–401, 1982.
 376. Carpenter, C. C., and G. W. Ferguson. Variation and evolution of sterotyped behavior in reptiles. In: Biology of the Reptilia, edited by C. Gans and D. W. Tinkle. London: Academic, 1978, vol. 7, p. 335–403.
 377. Carpenter, R. E. Flight physiology of flying foxes, Pteropus poliocephalus. J. Exp. Biol. 114: 619–645, 1985.
 378. Carrier, D. R. Postnatal ontogeny of the musculo‐skeletal system in the black‐tailed jackrabbit (Lepus californicus). J. Zool. 201: 27–55, 1983.
 379. Carrier, D. R. The energetic paradox of human running and hominid evolution. Curr. Anthropol. 25: 483–495, 1984.
 380. Carrier, D. R. Lung ventilation during walking and running in four species of lizards. Exp. Biol. 47: 33–42, 1987.
 381. Carrier, D. R. The evolution of locomotor stamina in tetrapods: circumventing a mechanical constraint. Paleobiology 13: 326–341, 1987.
 382. Carrier, D. R. Ventilatory action of the hypaxial muscles of the lizard Iguana iguana: a function of slow muscle. J. Exp. Biol. 143: 435–457, 1989.
 383. Carrier, D. R. Activity of the hypaxial muscles during walking in the lizard Iguana iguana. J. Exp. Biol. 152: 453–470, 1990.
 384. Carrier, D. R. Conflict in the hypaxial musculo‐skeletal system: documenting an evolutionary contraint. Am. Zool. 31: 644–654, 1991.
 385. Carrier, D. R. Action of the hypaxial muscles during walking and swimming in the salamander, Dicamptodon ensatus. J. Exp. Biol. 180: 75–83, 1993.
 386. Carrier, D. R., N. C. Heglund, and K. D. Earls. Variable gearing during locomotion in the human musculoskeletal system. Science 265: 651–653, 1994.
 387. Carroll, R. L. Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. New York: Freeman, 1988.
 388. Carrier, O. Studien uber den feineren Bau der Haut bei den Reptilien. I. Abt. Epidermis der Geckotiden. Verb. Phys.‐Med. Ges. Wurzburg 1: 281, 1872.
 389. Cartmill, M. Pads and claws in arboreal locomotion. In: Primate Locomotion, edited by F. A. Jenkins. New York: Academic, 1974, p. 45–83.
 390. Cartmill, M. Four legs good, two legs bad. Nat. Hist. 92: 64–79, 1983.
 391. Cartmill, M. Climbing. In: Functional Vertebrate Morphology, edited by M. Hildebrand, D. M. Bramble, K. F. Liem, and D. B. Wake. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1985, p. 73–88.
 392. Casinos, A., F. L. S. Quintana, and C. Viladiu. Allometry and adaptation in the long bones of a digging group of rodents (Ctenomyinae). Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 107: 107–115, 1993.
 393. Castellini, M. A., G. L. Kooyman, and P. J. Ponganis. Metabolic rates of freely diving weddell seals: correlations with oxygen stores, swim velocity and diving duration. J. Exp. Biol. 165: 181–194, 1992.
 394. Castiella, M. J., and A. Casinos. Allometry of leg muscles in insectivores and rodents. Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. Biol. Anim. 11: 165–178, 1990.
 395. Cavagna, G. A. Elastic bounce of the body. J. Appl. Physiol. 29: 279–282, 1970.
 396. Cavagna, G. A., and G. Citterio. Effect of stretching on the elastic characteristics and the contractile component of frog striated muscle. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 239: 1–14, 1974.
 397. Cavagna, G. A., G. Citterio, and P. Jacini. The additional mechanical energy delivered by the contractile component of the previously stretched muscle. Proc. Physiol. Soc. 266: 65–66, 1975.
 398. Cavanagh, P. R., C. T. Davies, and D. W. Grieve. Electromyographic, kinesiological and metabolic examination of running on a treadmill. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 233: 7, 1973.
 399. Cavagna, G. A., B. Dusman, and R. Margaria. Positive work' done by a previously stretched muscle. J. Appl. Physiol. 24: 21–32, 1968.
 400. Cavagna, G. A., N. C. Heglund, and C. R. Taylor. Walking running and galloping; mechanical similarities between different animals. In: Scale effects in animal locomotion, edited by T. G. Pedley. New York: Academic, 1977, p. 111–125.
 401. Cavagna, G. A., N. C. Heglund, and C. R. Taylor. Mechanical work in terrestrial locomotion, two basic mechanisms for minimizing energy expenditure. Am. J. Physiol. 233 (Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol. 4): R243–R261, 1977.
 402. Cavagna, G. A., L. Koramek, and S. Mazzolini. The mechanics of sprint running. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 217: 709–721, 1971.
 403. Cavagna, G. A., and R. Margaria. Mechanics of walking. J. Appl. Physiol. 21: 271–278, 1966.
 404. Cavagna, G. A., F. P. Saibene, and R. Margaria. Mechanical work in running. J. Appl. Physiol. 19: 249–256, 1964.
 405. Cavanagh, P. R., M. L. Pollock, and J. Landa. Biomechanical comparison of elite and good distance runners. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 301: 328–345, 1977.
 406. Chan, A. K., V. R. Edgerton, G. E. Goslow, Jr., H. Kurata, S. A. Rasmussen, and S. A. Spector. Histochemical and physiological properties of cat motor units after self‐ and cross‐reinnervation. J. Physiol. 332: 343–361, 1982.
 407. Chanaud, C. N., and J. M. Macpherson. Functionally complex muscles of the cat hindlimb. III. Differential activation within biceps femoris during postural pertubation. Exp. Brain Res. 85: 271–280, 1991.
 408. Chanaud, C. N., C. A. Pratt, and G. E. Loeb. Functionally complex muscles of the cat hindlimb. II. Mechanical and architectural heterogeneity within the biceps femoris. Exp. Brain Res. 85: 257–270, 1991.
 409. Chanaud, C. N., C. A. Pratt, and G. E. Loeb. Functionally complex muscles of the cat hindlimb. V. The roles of histochemical fiber type regionalization and mechanical heterogeneity in differential muscle activation. Exp. Brain Res. 85: 300–313, 1991.
 410. Chandler, C. R., and R. S. Mulvihill. Wing‐shape variation and differential timing of migration in dark‐eyed juncos. Condor 92: 34–61, 1990.
 411. Chapin, J. K., G. E. Loeb, and D. J. Woodward. A simple technique for determination of footfall patterns of animals during treadmill locomotion. J. Neurosci. Meth. 2: 97–102, 1980.
 412. Chapman, R. N. A study of the correlation of the pelvic structure and the habits of certain burrowing mammals. Am. J. Anat. 25: 185–192, 1919.
 413. Charan, D. The pelvic musculature of Rana tigrina. Ann. Zool. (Agra) 7: 81–92, 1971.
 414. Cheng, H. K., and L. E. Murillo. Lunate‐tail swimming propulsion as a problem of curved lifting line in unsteady flow. 1. Asymptotic theory. USC Aerospace Eng. Rep. 139, 1982.
 415. Cherry, L. M., S. M. Case, and A. C. Wilson. Frog perspective on the morphological difference between humans and chimpanzees. Science 200: 209–211, 1978.
 416. Chibber, S. R., and I. Single. Asymmetry in muscle weight and one‐sided dominance in the human limbs. J. Anat. 106: 553, 1970.
 417. Childress, S. Mechanics of Swimming and Flying. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1981.
 418. Chiszar, D., J. Perelman, H. M. Smith, and D. Duvall. “Shouldering” in prairie rattlesnakes: a new hypothesis. Bull. Maryland Herpetol. Soc. 28: 69–75, 1992.
 419. Chodrow, R. E., and C. R. Taylor. Energetic cost of limbless locomotion in snakes. Federation Proc. 32: 422, 1973.
 420. Chopra, M. G., and T. Kambe. Hydromechanics of lunate‐tail swimming propulsion, part 2. J. Fluid. Mech. 79: 249–60, 1977.
 421. Choquenot, D., and A. E. Greer. Intrapopulational and interspecific variation in digital limb bones and presacral vertebrae of the genus Hemiergis (Lacertilia, Scincidae). Anim. Behav. 39: 274–281, 1989.
 422. Christensen, D. Topography of terminal motor innervations in striated muscles of stillborn infants. Am. J. Phys. Med. 38: 65–78, 1959.
 423. Christian, A., H. G. Horn, and H. Preuschoft. Bipedie bei rezenten Reptilien. Nat. Mus. 124: 45–57, 1994.
 424. Christian, A., H.‐G. Horn, and H. Preuschoft. Biomechanical reasons for bipedalism in reptiles. Amphibia‐Reptilia 15: 275–284, 1994.
 425. Ciofi, C., and G. Chelazzi. Analysis of homing pattern in the colubrid snake Coluber viridiflavus. J. Herpetol. 28: 477–484, 1994.
 426. Clark, B. D. Analysis of aerial locomotion of Ptychozoon lionatum with a reconsideration of gliding and parachuting in vertebrates. Herpetol. Rev. 7: 77, 1976.
 427. Clark, B. D., and W. Bemis. Kinematics of swimming of penguins at the Detroit Zoo. J. Zool. 188: 411–428, 1979.
 428. Clark, J., and R. McN. Alexander. Mechanics of running by quail (Coturnix). J. Zool. 176: 87–113, 1975.
 429. Clark, R. B. Dynamics in Metazoan Evolution. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1964.
 430. Coates, M. I. Hox genes, fin folds and symmetry. Nature 364: 195–196, 1993.
 431. Coates, M. I., and J. A. Clack. Polydactyly in the earliest known tetrapod limbs. Nature 347: 66–69, 1990.
 432. Cöers, C., and A. L. Woolf. The Innervation of Muscle. Oxford: Blackwell, 1959.
 433. Coghill, G. E. Anatomy and the Problem of Behaviour. London: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1929.
 434. Cohen, A. H., and C. Gans. Muscle activity in rat locomotion: movement analysis and electromyography of the flexors and extensors of the elbow. J. Morphol. 146: 177–196, 1975.
 435. Cohen, A. H., P. J. Holmes, and R. H. Rand. The nature of the coupling between segmental oscillators of the lamprey spinal generator for locomotion: a mathematical mode. J. Math. Biol. 13: 345–369, 1982.
 436. Cohen, A. H., and P. Wallen. The neuronal correlate of locomotion in fish. Exp. Brain Res. 41: 11–18, 1980.
 437. Colbert, E. H. Adaptations for gliding in the lizard Draco. Am. Mus. Novitates 2283: 1–20, 1967.
 438. Colbert, E. H., R. B. Cowles, and C. M. Bogert. Temperature tolerances in the American alligator and their bearing on the habits, evolution and extinction of the dinosaurs. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 86: 327–374, 1946.
 439. Collette, B. B. Arboreality, lamellae, and body size in two species of Cuban geckos. Copeia 1962: 644–645, 1962.
 440. Collins, C. T. A reinterpretation of pamprodactyly in swifts: a convergent grasping mechanism in vertebrates. Auk 100: 735–737, 1983.
 441. Collins, J. J. The redundant nature of locomotor optimization laws. J. Biomech. 28: 251–267, 1995.
 442. Collopy, M. W., and T. C. Edwards, Jr. Territory size, activity budget, and role of undulating flight in nesting golden eagles. J. Field Ornithol. 60: 43–51, 1989.
 443. Colton, H. S. How bipedal habit effects the bones of the hind legs of the albino rat. J. Exp. Zool. 53: 1–11, 1929.
 444. Compagno, L.J.V. Phyletic relationships of living sharks and rays. Am. Zool. 17: 303–322, 1977.
 445. Compagno, L.J.V. Sharks of the order Carcharhiniformes. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1988.
 446. Cone, C. D. Thermal soaring of birds. Am. Sci. 50: 180–209, 1962.
 447. Cone, C. D. A mathematical analysis of dynamic soaring flight of the albatross with ecological interpretations. VA Inst. Mar. Sci. Spec. Sci. Rep. 50: 1–104, 1964.
 448. Constanzo, J. P., and D. L. Claussen. Natural freeze tolerance in the terrestrial turtle, Terrapene Carolina. J. Exp. Zool. 254: 228–232, 1990.
 449. Cooper, G., and A. L. Schiller. Anatomy of the Guinea Pig. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1975.
 450. Cords, E. Zur vergleichenden Anatomie der pravertebralen Muskulatur bei den Amphibien. Jena. Z. Naturwiss. 59: 527–574, 1923.
 451. Corner, E.D.S., E. J. Denton, and G. R. Forster. On the buoyancy of some deep‐sea sharks. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. [B] 171: 415–429, 1969.
 452. Cott, H. B. Scientific results of an inquiry into the ecology and economic status of the Nile crocodile (Crocodilus niloticus) in Uganda and northern Rhodesia. Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. 29: 211–356, 1961.
 453. Covell, J. W., M. Smith, D. G. Harper, and R. W. Blake. Skeletal muscle deformation in the lateral muscle of the intact rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss during fast start maneuvers. J. Exp. Biol. 156: 453–466, 1991.
 454. Cowles, R. B. Swimming ability of the alligator lizard. Copeia 1946: 105, 1946.
 455. Cowles, R. B. Sidewinding locomotion in snakes. Copeia 1956: 211–214, 1956.
 456. Cracraft, J. The functional morphology of the hindlimb of the domestic pigeon, Columba livia. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 144: 171–268, 1971.
 457. Craik, J.C.A. The lipids of six species of shark. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 52: 913–921, 1978.
 458. Cranbrook, Earl of. Notes on the relationship between the burrowing capacity, size and shoulder anatomy of some eastern Asiatic moles. J. Zool. 149: 65–67, 1966.
 459. Crapon de Caprona, D., and W. Himstedt. Das aquatische Verhalten der Blindwühle Ichthyophis kohtaoensis Taylor, 1960 (Gymnophiona: Ichthyophidae). Salamandra 21: 192–196, 1985.
 460. Croll, D. A., A. J. Gaston, and D. G. Noble. Adaptive loss of mass in thick‐billed murres. Condor 93: 496–502, 1991.
 461. Cross, J. K., and M. S. Rand. Climbing activity in wild‐ranging gila monsters, Heloderma suspectum (Helodermatidae). Southwest. Nat. 24: 683–714, 1979.
 462. Crouch, J. E. Text‐Atlas of Cat Anatomy. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1969.
 463. Crowe, A., and T. Valk. Reflex movements in the hind limbs of Chelonia after spinal transection. Proc. J. Physiol. (Lond.), 27: 27–28, 1977.
 464. Crowe, A., H. Van Atteveldt, and H. Groothedde. Simulation studies of contracting skeletal muscles during mechanical stretch. J. Biomech. 13: 333–340, 1980.
 465. Crowley, S. R. Insensitivity to desiccation of sprint running performance in the lizard, Sceloporus undulatus. J. Herpetol. 19: 171–174, 1985.
 466. Crownins, R. D., J. G. Andrews, R. A. Brand, and R. C. Johnston. Biomedical investigation of human hip. J. Biomech. 11: 75, 1978.
 467. Cubo, J., and A. Casinos. Scaling of skeletal element mass in birds. Belg. J. Zool. 124: 127–137, 1994.
 468. Culik, B. M., R. P. Wilson, and R. Bannasch. Underwater swimming at low energetic cost by pygoscelid penguins. J. Exp. Biol. 197: 65–78, 1994.
 469. Cundall, D., and F. J. Irish. Aspects of locomotory and feeding behaviour in the round island boa Casarea dussumieri. J. Jersey Wildl. Pres. Trust. 23: 108–111, 1986.
 470. Currey, J. D. Problem of scaling in the skeleton. In: Scale Effects in Animal Locomotion, edited by T. J. Pedley. New York: Academic, 1977, p. 153–167.
 471. Currey, J. D. The Mechanical Adaptations of Bones. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1984.
 472. Curtin, N. A., and R. C. Woledge. Efficiency of energy conversion during sinusoidal movement of red muscle fibres from the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula. J. Exp. Biol. 185: 195–206, 1993.
 473. Cutts, A. Sarcomere length changes in the wing muscles during the wing beat cycle of two bird species. J. Zool. 209A: 183–185, 1986.
 474. Daan, S., and T. Belterman. Lateral bending in locomotion of some lower tetrapods. I. and II. Proc. Kon. Nederl. Akad. Wetens. Amsterdam 71: 245–266, 1968.
 475. Dabelow, A. Die Schwimmanpassung der Vögel. Ein Beitrag zur biologischen Anatomie der Fortbewegung. Morphol. Jb. 54: 288–321, 1924.
 476. Dagg, A. I. Running, Walking and Jumping. The Science of Locomotion. London: Wykeham, 1977.
 477. Dagg, A. I., and A. D. Vos. The walking gaits of some species of Pecora. J. Zool. 155: 103–110, 1968.
 478. Dagg, A. I., and A. D. Vos. Fast gaits of pecoran species. J. Zool. 155: 499–506, 1968.
 479. Dahm, L. M., and L. T. Landmesser. The regulation of intramuscular nerve branching during normal development and following activity blockade. Dev. Biol. 130: 621–644, 1988.
 480. Dalquest, W. W., and D. R. Orcutt. The biology of the least shrew‐mole, Neurotrichus gibbsii minor. Am. Midl. Nat. 27: 387–401, 1942.
 481. Dalton, S. A. The swimming frenzy in hatchling green turtles. Am. Zool. 19: 952, 1979.
 482. Daniel, T., C. Jordan, and D. Grunbaum. Hydromechanics of swimming. Adv. Comp. Environ. Physiol. 11: 17–49, 1992.
 483. Daniel, T. L. Unsteady aspects of aquatic locomotion. Am. Zool. 24: 121–134, 1984.
 484. Daniel, T. L. Forward flapping flight from flexible fins. Can. J. Zool. 66: 630–638, 1988.
 485. Daniel, T. L., and E. Meyhöfer. Size limits in escape locomotion of Carribean shrimp. J. Exp. Biol. 143: 245–265, 1989.
 486. Daniel, T. L., and P. W. Webb. Physics, design and locomotor performance. In: Comparative Physiology: Life in Water and on Land, edited by P. Dejours, L. Bolis, C. R. Taylor, and E. R. Weibel. New York: Liviana, 1987, p. 343–369.
 487. Darwin, C. The Origin of Species. London: Murray, 1859.
 488. Davenport, J. Locomotion in hatchling leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea. J. Zool. 212: 85–101, 1987.
 489. Davenport, J., and W. Clough. Swimming and diving in young loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta L.). Copeia 1986: 53–57, 1986.
 490. Davenport, J., and A. K. M. A. Matin. Terrestrial locomotion in the climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch) (Anabantidea, Pisces). J. Fish Biol. 37: 175–184, 1990.
 491. Davenport, J., S. A. Munks, and P. J. Oxford. A comparison of the swimming of marine and freshwater turtles. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 220: 447–475, 1984.
 492. Davenport, J., and G. A. Pearson. Observations on the swimming of the Pacific Ridley, Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz [sic], 1829): comparisons with other sea turtles. Herpetol. J. 4: 60–63, 1994.
 493. David, C., A. Van Der Stelt, J. H. Smit‐Vis, and F. P. Lisowski. Relative changes in weight of the muscles of the hindleg in biped rats. Acta Morphol. Neerland‐Scand. 5: 197, 1962.
 494. Davide, D., and A. Taung. Archaeopteryx, its behavior, feathers, and the origin of flight: a new hypothesis. Auklet 16: 1–8, 1979.
 495. Davies, M.N.O., and P. R. Green. Head‐bobbing during walking, swimming and flying: relative motion perception in the pigeon. J. Exp. Biol. 138: 71–91, 1988.
 496. Davies, M.N.O., and P. R. Green. The adaptability of visuomotor control in the pigeon during landing flight. Zool. Jb. (Algem. Zool.) 95: 331–338, 1991.
 497. Davis, D. D. Observations of the burrowing behavior of the hog‐nosed snake. Copeia 1946: 75–78, 1946.
 498. Davis, W. J., and J. J. Ayers, Jr. Locomotion: control by positive‐feedback optokinetic responses. Science 177: 183–185, 1972.
 499. Dawson, T. J. Energetic cost of locomotion in Australian hopping mice. Nature 259: 305–307, 1976.
 500. Dawson, T. J., and C. R. Taylor. Energetic cost of locomotion in kangaroos. Nature 246: 313–314, 1973.
 501. Dean, B. Fishes, Living and Fossil. New York: MacMillan, 1895.
 502. Debrunner, H. U. Biomechanik des Fusses. Stuttgart: Enke, 1985.
 503. de Jongh, H. J., and H. J. Grootehboer. Biomechanics of jumping in the frog. Ann. Soc. R. Zool. Belg. 119: 63, 1989.
 504. Dellit, W. D. Zur Anatomie und Physiologie der Geckozehe. Jena Zeits. Naturwiss. 68: 613–656, 1943.
 505. Dellit, W. D. Zum Haftproblem der Geckoniden. Dtsch. Aquar. Terr. Z. 2: 56–58, 1949.
 506. Delong, M. Central control of movement. II. Central patterning of movement. Neurosci. Res. Prog. Bull. 9: 10–30, 1971.
 507. Demes, B., and M. M. Guenther. Biomechanics and allometric scaling in primate locomotion and morphology. Folia Primatol. 53: 125–141, 1989.
 508. Dempster, W. T. The anthropometry of body action. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 63: 559–585, 1955.
 509. Denny, M. Biology and the Mechanics of the Wave‐Swept Environment. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1988.
 510. Denny, M. W. Air and Water. The Biology and Physics of Life's Media. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1993.
 511. Denton, E. J., and N. B. Marshall. The buoyancy of bathypelagic fishes without a gas‐filled swimbladder. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. 37: 753–767, 1958.
 512. De Troyer, A., and V. Niname. Respiratory function of the intercostal muscles in supine dog: an electromyographic study. J. Appl. Physiol.: Respir. Environ. Exerc. Physiol. 60: 1692–1699, 1986.
 513. Detwiler, S. Experiments on the transplantation of limbs in Atnbystoma: the formation of nerve plexuses and the function of limbs. J. Exp. Zool. 31: 117–169, 1920.
 514. Detwiler, S. R. Experiments on the origin of the ventrolateral trunk musculature in the urodele Ambystoma. J. Exp. Zool. 129: 45–75, 1955.
 515. Deuchar, E. M. Xenopus: The South African Clawed Frog. London: Wiley, 1975.
 516. De Villiers, C. G. S. The comparative anatomy of the breast‐shoulder apparatus of the three aglossal anuran genera: Xenopus, Pipa and Hymenochirus. Ann. Transvaal Mus. 13: 37–69, 1929.
 517. De Vis, C.W. Myology of Chlamydosaurus kingii. Proc. Linn. Soc. NSW 8: 300–320, 1883.
 518. De Vree, F., and C. Gans. Food handling in tetrapods. In: Adv. Comp. Environ. Physiol. Vertebrate Feeding Mechanics, edited by V. Bels, M. Chardon, and R. Vandevalle. Berlin: Springer‐Verlag, 1994, vol. 18. p. 93–118.
 519. Devries, A. L. Freezing resistance in fishes. In: Fish Physiology, edited by W. S. Hoar and D. J. Randall. New York: Academic, 1976, vol. VI, p. 157–190.
 520. Dewer, H., J. B. Graham, and R. W. Brill. Studies of tropical tuna swimming performance in a large water tunnel. II. Thermoregulation. J. Exp. Biol. 192: 33–44, 1994.
 521. Dial, B. E. Energetics and performance during nest emergence and the hatchling frenzy in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). Herpetologica 43: 307–315, 1987.
 522. Dial, B. E., and L. C. Fitzpatrick. The energetic costs of tail autotomy to reproduction in the lizard Coleonyx brevis. Oecologia 51: 310–317, 1981.
 523. Dial, B. E., and L. C. Fitzpatrick. Predator escape success in tailed versus tailless Scincella lateralis (Sauria: Scincidae). Anim. Behav. 32: 301–302, 1984.
 524. Dial, K. P. Activity patterns of the wing muscle of the pigeon (Columba livid) during different modes of flight. J. Exp. Zool. 262: 357–373, 1992.
 525. Dial, K. P. Avian forelimb muscles and nonsteady flight: can birds fly without using the muscles in their wings? Auk 109: 874–885, 1992.
 526. Dial, K. P., and A. A. Biewener. Pectoralis muscle force and power output during different modes of flight in pigeons (Columba livia). J. Exp. Biol. 176: 31–54, 1993.
 527. Dial, K. P., G. E. Goslow, Jr., and F. A. Jenkins, Jr. The functional anatomy of the shoulder in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). J. Morphol. 207: 1–18, 1991.
 528. Dial, K. P., S. R. Kaplan, G. E. Goslow, Jr., and F. A. Jenkins, Jr. Structure and neural control of the pectoralis in pigeons: implications for flight mechanics. Anat. Rec. 218: 284–287, 1987.
 529. Dial, K. P., S. R. Kaplan, G. E. Goslow, Jr., and F. A. Jenkins, Jr. A functional analysis of the primary upstroke and down‐stroke muscles in the domestic pigeon (Columba livia). during flight. J. Exp. Biol. 134: 1–16, 1988.
 530. Diamond, J., and T. J. Case. Community Ecology. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1986.
 531. DiMarco, A. F., J. R. Romaniuk, and G. S. Supinski. Action of the intercostal muscles on the rib cage. Respir. Physiol. 82: 295–306, 1990.
 532. Dimery, N. J., and R. McN. Alexander. Elastic properties of the hind foot of the donkey, Equus asinus. J. Zool. 207: 9–20, 1985.
 533. Dimery, N. J., R. McN. Alexander, and K. A. Deyst. Mechanics of the ligamentum nuchae of some artiodactyls. J. Zool. 206: 341–351, 1985.
 534. Dimery, N. J., R. McN. Alexander, and R. F. Ker. Elastic extension of leg tendons in the locomotion of horses (Equus caballus). J. Zool. 210: 415–425, 1986.
 535. Dimery, N. J., R. R. Ker, and R. McN. Alexander. Elastic properties of the feet of deer (Cervidae). J. Zool. 208: 161–169, 1986.
 536. Dimnet, J. The improvement in the results of kinematics of in vivo joints. J. Biomech. 13: 653–661, 1980.
 537. Distel, H. Die Auslösbarkeit von Verhaltensreaktionen durch elektrische Hirnreizung bei Iguana iguana L., Reptilia. München: Ludwig‐Maximilians Univ., 1973. Dissertation.
 538. Ditmars, R. L. Reptiles of the World. New York: MacMillan, 1928.
 539. Ditmars, R. L. Snakes of the World. New York: MacMillan, 1931.
 540. Djawdan, M., and T. Garland, Jr. Maximal running speeds of bipedal and quadripedal rodents. J. Mammal. 69: 765–772, 1988.
 541. Dmi'el, R., and D. Rappeport. Effect of temperature on metabolism during running in the lizard Uromastix aegyptius. Physiol. Zool. 49: 77–84, 1976.
 542. Dobrowolska, H. Body‐part proportions in relation to the mode of locomotion in anurans. Zool. Pol. 23: 59–108, 1973.
 543. Dodson, P. Functional and ecological significance of relative growth in Alligator. J. Zool. 175: 315–355, 1975.
 544. Domenici, P., and R. W. Blake. The kinematics and performance of the escape in the angelfish (Pterophyllum eimekei). J. Exp. Biol. 156: 187–205, 1991.
 545. Donovan, C. M., and G. A. Brooks. Muscular efficiency during steady‐rate exercise. II. Effects of walking speed and work rate. J. Appl. Physiol.: Respir. Environ. Exerc. Physiol. 43: 431–439, 1977.
 546. Doran, D. M. Comparison of instantaneous and locomotor bout sampling methods: a case study of adult male chimpanzee locomotor behavior and substrate use. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 89: 85–99, 1992.
 547. Doran, D. M. Comparative locomotor behavior of chimpanzees and bobobos: the influence of morphology on locomotion. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 91: 83–98, 1993.
 548. Doran, D. M. Sex differences in adult chimpanzee positional behavior: the influence of body size on locomotion and posture. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 91: 99–115, 1993.
 549. Dorst, J. The Life of Birds. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1974, vol. 1.
 550. Drummond, H. Aquatic foraging in garter snakes: a comparison of specialists and generalists. Behaviour 86: 1–30, 1983.
 551. DuBois, A. B., G. A. Cavagna, and R. S. Fox. Locomotion of blue fish. J. Exp. Zool. 195: 223–236, 1976.
 552. DuBois, A. B., and C. S. Ogilvy. Forces on the tail surface of swimming fish: thrust, drag and acceleration in blue fish (Pomotomus saltatrix). J. Exp. Biol. 77: 225–241, 1978.
 553. Du Bois‐Reymond, R. Physiologie der Bewegung. In: Handbuch der vergleichenden Physiologie. 1914, vol. 5.
 554. DuBrul, E. L. Posture, locomotion and the skull in Lagomorpha. Am. J. Anat. 87: 277–313, 1950.
 555. DuBrul, E. L. The general phenomenon of bipedalism. Am. Zool. 2: 205–208, 1962.
 556. Ducey, P. K., D. R. Formanowicz, Jr., L. Boyet, J. Mailloux, and R. A. Nussbaum. Experimental examination of burrowing behavior in caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona): effects of soil compaction on burrowing ability of four species. Herpetologica 49: 450–457, 1993.
 557. Dudek, B. C., N. Adams, and R. Boice. Genetic influences on digging behaviors in mice (Mus musculus) in laboratory and seminatural settings. J. Comp. Psychol. 97: 249–259, 1983.
 558. Dudley, R., V. A. King, and R. J. Wassersug. The implications of shape and metamorphosis for drag forces on a generalized pond tadpole (Rana catesbeiana). Copeia 1991: 252–257, 1991.
 559. Duellman, W. E., and L. Trueb. Biology of Amphibians. New York: McGraw‐Hill, 1986.
 560. Duerden, J. E., and R. Essex. Degeneration in the limbs of South African serpentiform lizards (Chamaesaura). S. Afr. J. Sci. 19: 269–275, 1922.
 561. Dunbar, D. C. Aerial maneuvers of leaping lemurs: the physics of whole‐body rotations while airborne. Am. J. Primatol. 16: 291–303, 1988.
 562. Dunham, A. E., and D. B. Miles. Patterns of covariation in life history traits of squamate reptiles: the effects of size and phylogeny reconsidered. Am. Nat. 126: 231–257, 1985.
 563. Dunlap, D. G. The comparative myology of the pelvic appendage in the Salientia. J. Morphol. 106: 1–76, 1960.
 564. Duysens, J., and G. E. Loeb. Modulation of ipsi‐ and contralateral reflex responses in unrestrained walking cats. J. Neurophysiol. 44: 1024–1037, 1980.
 565. Duysens, J., G. E. Loeb, and B. J. Weston. Crossed flexor reflex responses and their reversal in freely walking cats. Brain Res. 197: 538–542, 1980.
 566. Eastman, J. J., and A. L. DeVries. Buoyancy adaptations in a swimbladder‐less Antarctic fish. J. Morphol. 167: 91–102, 1981.
 567. Easton, T. A. On the normal use of reflexes. Am. Sci. 60: 591–599, 1972.
 568. Eaton, R. C., R. A. Bombardieri, and D. L. Meyer. The Mauthner‐initiated startle response in teleost fish. J. Exp. Biol. 66: 65–81, 1977.
 569. Eaton, R. C., and R. DiDomenico. Role of the teleost escape response during development. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 115: 128–142, 1986.
 570. Eaton, R. C., R. DiDomenico, and J. Nissanov. Flexible body dynamics of the goldfish C‐start: implications for reticulospinal command mechanisms. J. Neurosci. 8: 2758–2768, 1988.
 571. Eaton, R. C., and J. T. Hackett. The role of the Mauthner cell in fast‐starts involving escape responses in teleost fishes. In: Neural Mechanisms of Startle Behavior, edited by R. C. Eaton. New York: Plenum, 1984, p. 213–266.
 572. Eaton, T. H., Jr. Modification of the shoulder girdle related to reach and stride in mammals. J. Morphol. 75: 167–171, 1944.
 573. Eaton, T. H., Jr. Motor areas and superficial muscle action in salamanders. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 73: 1–10, 1957.
 574. Eaton, T. H., Jr. Adaptive features of the fore limb in primitive tetrapods and mammals. Am. Zool. 2: 157–160, 1962.
 575. Ecker, A., and R. Wiedersheim. Anatomie des Frosches. Braunschweig: Vieweg, 1896–1904.
 576. Edwards, J. L. A Comparative Study of Locomotion in Terrestrial Salamanders. Berkeley: Univ. California. 1976. Dissertation.
 577. Edwards, J. L. The evolution of terrestrial locomotion. In: Major Patterns in Vertebrate Evolution, edited by M. K. Hecht, P. C. Goody, and B. M. Hecht. New York: Plenum, 1977, p. 553–577.
 578. Eggeling, H. von. Der Aufbau der Skeletteile in der freien Gliedmassen der Wirbeltiere. Untersuchungen an urodelen Amphibien. Jena: Gustav Fischer, 1911.
 579. Eglis, A. Flat and fast‐ the pancake tortoise. Anim. King. 67: 107–110, 1964.
 580. Ehlinger, T. J. Learning, Sampling and the Role of Individual Variability in the Foraging Behavior of Bluegill Sunfish. East Lansing: Michigan State Univ., 1986. Dissertation.
 581. Eilam, D., and G. Shefer. Reversal of interleg coupling in backward locomotion implies a prime role of the direction of locomotion. J. Exp. Biol. 173: 155–163, 1992.
 582. Eisenberg, J. F. The Mammalian Radiations. An Analysis of Trends in Evolution, Adaptation, and Behavior. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, 1981.
 583. Ekman, J., and K. Lilliendahl. Using priority to food access: fattening strategies in dominance‐structured willow tits (Parus montanus). Behav. Ecol. 4: 232–238, 1993.
 584. Elftman, H. A cinematic study of the distribution of pressure in the human foot. Anat. Rec. 59: 481–491, 1934.
 585. Elftman, H. The function of muscles in locomotion. Am. J. Physiol. 125: 357–366, 1939.
 586. Elftman, H. The rotation of the body in walking. Arbeitsphysiologie 10: 477–484, 1939.
 587. Elftman, H. The work done by muscles in running. Am. J. Physiol. 129: 672–684, 1940.
 588. Elftman, H. The bipedal walking of the chimpanzee. J. Mammal. 25: 67–71, 1944.
 589. Elftman, H. Body dynamics and dynamic anthropometry. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 63: 553–558, 1955.
 590. Elftman, H., and J. T. Manter. The axis of the human foot. Science 80: 484, 1934.
 591. Elftman, H., and J. T. Manter. Chimpanzee and human feet in bipedal walking. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 20: 69–79, 1935.
 592. Elftman, H., and J. T. Manter. The evolution of the human foot, with especial reference to the joints. J. Anat. 70: 56–67, 1935.
 593. Elftman, H. L. Biomechanics of muscles with particular application to studies of gait. J. Bone Jt. Surg. Am. 48: 363–376, 1966.
 594. Elftman, H. O. Functional adaptations of the pelvis in marsupials. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 58: 189–232, 1929.
 595. Ellerman, J. R. The subterranean mammals of the world. Trans. R. Soc. S. Afr. 35: 11–20, 1956.
 596. Ellington, C. P. The aerodynamics of normal hovering flight: three approaches. In: Comparative Physiology—Water, Ions, and Fluid Mechanics, edited by K. Schmidt‐Nielsen, L. Bolis, and S. H. P. Mandrell. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1978, p. 327–345.
 597. Ellington, C. P. Vortices in hovering flight. In: Instationare Effekte an schwingenden Tierflügeln, edited by W. Nachtigall. Wiesbaden: Steiner, 1980, p. 64–101.
 598. Ellington, C. P. The aerodynamics of flapping animal flight. Am. Zool. 24: 95–105, 1984.
 599. Ellington, C. P. The aerodynamics of hovering insect flight. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 305: 145–181, 1984.
 600. Ellington, C. P. Limitations on animal flight performance. J. Exp. Biol. 160: 71–91, 1991.
 601. Ellsworth, A. F. Reassessment of Muscle Homologies and Nomenclature in Conservative Amniotes, the Echidna, Tachyglossus, the Opossum, Didelphis, and the Tuatara, Sphenodon. Part I: Pelvic Musculature [with] Drawings, Plates and Appendix. Huntingdon: Krieger, 1974.
 602. Else, P. L., and A. F. Bennett. The thermal dependence of locomotor performance and muscle contractile function in the salamander Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum. J. Exp. Biol. 128: 219–233, 1987.
 603. Emerson, S. B. Burrowing in frogs. J. Morphol. 149: 437–458, 1976.
 604. Emerson, S. B. Allometry and jumping in frogs: helping the twain to meet. Evolution 32: 551–564, 1978.
 605. Emerson, S. B. The ilio‐sacral articulation in frogs: a functional complex. Copeia 1982: 603–613, 1982.
 606. Emerson, S. B. Functional analysis of frog pectoral girdles. The epicoracoid cartilages. J. Zool. 201: 293–308, 1983.
 607. Emerson, S. B. Morphological variation in frog pectoral girdles: testing alternatives to a traditional adaptive explanation. Evolution 38: 376–388, 1984.
 608. Emerson, S. B. Jumping and leaping. In: Functional Vertebrate Morphology, edited by M. Hildebrand, D. M. Bramble, K. F. Liem, and D. B. Wake. Cambridge MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1985, p. 58–72.
 609. Emerson, S. B. Convergence and morphological constraint in frogs. Variation in postcranial morphology. Fieldiana 43: 1–19, 1988.
 610. Emerson, S. B., and H. J. De Jongh. Muscle activity in the iliosacral joint in frogs. J. Morphol. 166: 129–144, 1980.
 611. Emerson, S. B., and D. Diehl. Toe pad morphology and adhesive mechanisms in frogs. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 13: 199–216, 1980.
 612. Emerson, S. B., and M. A. R. Koehl. The interaction of behavioral and morphological change in the evolution of a novel locomotor type: flying frogs. Evolution 44: 1931–1946, 1990.
 613. Emerson, S., J. Travis, and M. A. R. Koehl. Functional complexes and additivity in performance: a test case with flying frogs. Evolution 44: 2153–2157, 1990.
 614. Engberg, I., and A. Lundberg. An electromyographic analysis of muscular activity in the hindlimb of the cat during unrestrained locomotion. Acta Physiol. Scand. 75: 614–630, 1969.
 615. Engels, W. L. Cursorial adaptations in birds, limb proportions in the skeleton of Geococcyx. J. Morphol. 63: 207–217, 1938.
 616. Engels, W. L. Wing skeleton and flight of hawks. Auk 58: 61–69, 1941.
 617. English, A. W. Structural correlates of forelimb function in fur seals and sea‐lions. J. Morphol. 15: 325–352, 1977.
 618. English, A. W. The functions of the lumbar spine during stepping in the cat. J. Morphol. 165: 55–66, 1980.
 619. English, A. W. An electromyographic analysis of compartments in cat lateral gastrocnemius muscle during unrestrained locomotion. J. Neurophysiol. 52: 114–125, 1984.
 620. English, A. W. Limbs vs. jaws: can they be compared? Am. Zool. 25: 351–363, 1985.
 621. English, A. W. Basic fibroblast growth factor promotes the retention of multiple innervation of developing skeletal muscle fibers. Anat. Rec. 232: 30A–31A, 1992.
 622. English, A. W., and W. D. Ledbetter. A histochemical analysis of identified compartments of cat lateral gastrocnemius muscle. Anat. Rec. 204: 123–130, 1982.
 623. English, A. W., and P. R. Lennard. Interlimb coordination during stepping in the cat: in‐phase stepping and gait transitions. Brain Res. 245: 353–364, 1982.
 624. English, A. W., and O. I. Weeks. Compartmentalization of single muscle units in cat lateral gastrocnemius. Exp. Brain Res. 56: 361–368, 1984.
 625. Ennos, A. R., J. R. E. Hickson, and A. Roberts. Functional morphology of the vanes of the flight feathers of the pigeon Columba livia. J. Exp. Biol. 198: 1219–1228, 1995.
 626. Epting, R. J. Fuctional dependency of the power for hovering on wing disc loading in hummingbirds. Physiol. Zool. 53: 347–357, 1980.
 627. Ernst, V., and R. Ruibal. The structure and development of the digital lamellae of lizards. J. Morphol. 120: 233–265, 1966.
 628. Essex, R. Studies in reptilian degeneration. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 879–945, 1927.
 629. Estes, R., and G. Pregill (Eds). Phylogenetic Relationships of the Lizard Families. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1988.
 630. Etheridge, R. Lizard caudal vertebrae. Copeia 1967: 699–721, 1967.
 631. Evans, F. G. The morphology and functional evolution of the atlas‐axis complex from fish to mammals. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 39: 29–104, 1939.
 632. Evans, F. G. Studies in human biomechanics. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 63: 586–615, 1955.
 633. Evans, H. E. Miller's Anatomy of the Dog. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1993.
 634. Evans, T. R., and L. C. Drickamer. Flight speeds of birds determined using Doppler radar. Wilson Bull. 106: 154–156, 1994.
 635. Evarts, E. V. Central control of movement. Neurosci. Res. Prog. Bull. 9: 1–170, 1971.
 636. Fabrezi, M. El carpo de los anuros. Alytes 10: 1–29, 1992.
 637. Farley, C. T., J. Glasheen, and T. A. McMahon. Running springs: speed and animal size. J. Exp. Biol. 185: 71–86, 1993.
 638. Farley, C. T., and C. R. Taylor. A mechanical trigger for the trot‐gallop transition in horses. Science 253: 306–308, 1991.
 639. Fedak, M. A., N. C. Heglund, and C. R. Taylor. Energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. II. Kinetic energy changes of the limbs and body as a function of speed and body size in birds and mammals. J. Exp. Biol. 79: 23–40, 1982.
 640. Fedak, M. A., B. Pinshow, and K. Schmidt‐Nielsen. Energy cost of bipedal running. Federation Proc. 32: 422, 1973.
 641. Fedak, M. A., B. Pinshow, and K. Schmidt‐Nielsen. Energy cost of bipedal running. Am. J. Physiol. 227: 1038–1044, 1974.
 642. Feder, M. E. Effect of thermal acclimation on locomotor energetics and locomotor performance in a lungless salamander, Desmognathus ochrophaeus. J. Exp. Biol. 121: 271–283, 1986.
 643. Feder, M. E., and S. J. Arnold. Anaerobic metabolism and behavior during predatory encounters between snakes (Thamnophis elegans) and salamanders (Plethodon jordani). Oecologia 53: 93–97, 1982.
 644. Feder, M. E., and W. W. Burggren. Environmental Physiology of the Amphibians. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1992.
 645. Feduccia, A. Aves osteology. In: Sisson and Grossman's Anatomy of Domestic Animals, edited by R. Getty. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1975, vol. 2, p. 1790–1801.
 646. Feduccia, A. Aerodynamic model of early evolution of feathers provided by Propithecus (Primates, Lemuridae). J. Theor. Biol. 160: 159–164, 1993.
 647. Feduccia, A. The aerodynamic model for the evolution of feathers and feather misinterpretation. Courier Forsch. Senckenberg 181: 65–77, 1995.
 648. Feduccia, A., and H. B. Tordoff. Feathers of Archaeopteryx: asymmetric vanes indicate aerodynamic function. Science 203: 1021–1022, 1979.
 649. Feindel, W., J. R. Hinshaw, and G. Weddell. The pattern of motor innervation in mammalian striated muscle. J. Anat. 86: 35–47, 1952.
 650. Felsenstein, J. Phylogenies and the comparative method. Am. Nat. 125: 1–15, 1985.
 651. Fetcho, J. R. A review of the organization and evolution of motoneurons innervating the axial musculature in vertebrates. Brain Res. Rev. 12: 243–280, 1987.
 652. Fetcho, J. R. The spinal motor system in early vertebrates and some of its evolutionary changes. Brain Behav. Evol. 40: 82–97, 1992.
 653. Fick, R. Handbuch der Anatomie und Mechanik der Gelenke unter Berücksichtigung der bewegenden Muskeln. Erster Teil: Anatomie der Gelenke. Jena: Fischer, 1904.
 654. Fierstine, H. L., and V. Walters. Studies of locomotion and anatomy of scombroid fishes. Mem. S. CA Acad. Sci. 6: 1–31, 1968.
 655. Finnerty, J. R., and B. A. Block. Response to Johnson and Balwin (1994). Science 265: 1250–1251, 1994.
 656. Fischer, F. J., and S. J. Houtz. Evaluation of the function of the gluteus maximus muscle. Am. J. Phys. Med. 47: 182–191, 1968.
 657. Fischer, O. Kinematik organischer Gelenke. Braunschweig: Vieweg, 1907.
 658. Fish, F. E. Kinematics and power output of jet propulsion by the frogfish genus Antennarius (Lophoformes: Antennariidae). Copeia 1987: 1046–1048, 1987.
 659. Fish, F. E. Wing design and scaling of flying fish with regard to flight performance. J. Zool. 221: 391–403, 1990.
 660. Fish, F. E. Comparison of swimming kinematics between terrestrial and semiaquatic opossums. J. Mammal. 74: 275–284, 1993.
 661. Fish, F. E., and J. M. Battle. Hydrodynamic design of the humpback whale flipper. J. Morphol. 225: 51–60, 1995.
 662. Fish, F. E., S. Innes, and K. Ronald. Kinematics and estimated thrust production of swimming harp and ringed seals. J. Exp. Biol. 137: 157–173, 1988.
 663. Fisher, H. I. Adaptations and comparative anatomy of the locomotor apparatus of new world vultures. Am. Midl. Nat. 35: 545–727, 1946.
 664. Fisher, H. I. The landing forces of domestic pigeons. Auk 73: 85–105, 1956.
 665. Fisher, H. I. Bony mechanism of automatic flexion and extension in pigeon's wing. Science 126: 446, 1957.
 666. Fisher, H. I. Footedness in domestic pigeons. Wilson Bull. 69: 170–177, 1957.
 667. Fisher, H. I. Some functions of the rectrices and their coverts in the landing of pigeons. Wilson Bull. 71: 267–273, 1959.
 668. Fisher, H. I., and D. C. Goodman. The myology of the whooping crane. IL Biol. Monog. 24: 1–127, 1955.
 669. Fisk, R. M. Comparative functional morphology of the trunk and tail in a series of sandswimming lizards of the family Scincidae. Diss. Abstr. Int. 41, 1980.
 670. Fleagle, J. G. Locomotor behavior and muscular anatomy of sympatric Malaysian leaf‐monkeys (Presbytis obscura and Presbytis melalophos). Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 46: 297–308, 1977.
 671. Fleagle, J. G. Primate positional behavior and anatomy: naturalistic and experimental approaches. In: Environment, Behavior, and Morphology: Dynamic Interactions in Primates, edited by M. E. Morbeck, H. Preuschoft, and N. Gomberg. New York: Fischer, 1979, p. 313–325.
 672. Fleagle, J. G., and D. J. Meldrum. Locomotor behavior and skeletal morphology of two sympatric pitheciine monkeys, Pithecia pithecia and Chiropotes satanas. Am. J. Primatol. 16: 227–249, 1988.
 673. Fokker, A. D. De voortbeweging der slangen. Physica 7: 65–71, 1927.
 674. Ford, N. B., and G. A. Shuttlesworth. Effect of variation in food intake on locomotory performance of juvenile garter snakes. Copeia 1986: 999–1001, 1986.
 675. Foreman, M. B. The Kinematics and Neuroethology of the Mauthner‐Initiated Escape Response. Boulder: Univ. of Colorado, 1991. Dissertation.
 676. Foreman, M. B., and R. C. Eaton. EMG and kinematic analysis of the stages of the Mauthner‐initiated escape response. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 16: 1328, 1990.
 677. Foreman, M. B., and R. C. Eaton. The direction change concept for reticulospinal control of goldfish escape. J. Neurosci. 13: 4101–4113, 1993.
 678. Formanowicz, D. R., Jr., E. D. Brodie, Jr., and P. J. Bradley. Behavioural compensation for tail loss in the ground skink, Scincella lateralis. Anim. Behav. 40: 782–784, 1990.
 679. Forshaw, J. M. Parrots of the World. Neptune, New Jersey: T. F. H., 1977.
 680. Fourie, S. Notes on a new tritylodontid from the cave sandstone of South Africa. Res. Natl. Mus. Bloemfontain 2: 7–19, 1962.
 681. Fox, S. F., and M. A. Rostker. Social cost of tail loss in Uta stansburiana. Science 218: 692–693, 1982.
 682. Francis, E.T.B. The Anatomy of the Salamander. Oxford: Clarendon, 1934.
 683. Frazier, J. G. Behavioral and Ecological Observations on Giant Tortoises on Aldabra Atoll. Oxford: Oxford Univ., 1971. Dissertation.
 684. Freadman, M. A. Swimming energetics of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix): hydrodynamic correlates of locomotion and gill ventilation. J. Exp. Biol. 90: 253–265, 1981.
 685. Freed, L. A. Loss of mass in breeding wrens: stress or adaptation? Ecology 62: 1179–1186, 1981.
 686. Freeman, M.A.R., and B. Wyke. Articular reflexes at the ankle joint: an electromyographic study of normal and abnormal influences of ankle‐joint mechanoreceptors upon reflex activity in the leg muscles. Br. J. Surg. 54: 990–1001, 1967.
 687. Frey, E. Ecology, locomotion and tail muscle anatomy of crocodiles. Neues Jahrb. Geol. Palaontol. 164: 194–199, 1982.
 688. Frey, E. Anatomie des Körperstammes von Alligator mississip‐piensis Daudin. Stuttg. Beitr. Naturk. A 424: 1–106, 1988.
 689. Frey, E. Dar Tragsystem der Krokodile—eine biomechanische und phylogenetische Analyse. Stuttg. Beitr. Naturk. A 424: 1–106, 1988.
 690. Fricke, H., and K. Hissman. Locomotion, fin coordination and body form of the living coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae. Environ. Biol. Fish. 34: 329–356, 1992.
 691. Fricke, H., O. Reinicke, and H. Hofer. Locomotion of the coelacanth Latitneria chalumnae in its natural environment. Nature 329: 331–333, 1987.
 692. Frith, H. R., and R. W. Blake. Mechanics of the startle response in the northern pike, Esox lucius. Can. J. Zool. 69: 3831–2839, 1992.
 693. Frolich, L. M. Axial support in the terrestrial environment. Am. Zool. 32: 142A, 1992.
 694. Frolich, L. M., and A. A. Biewener. Kinematic and electromyographic analysis of the functional role of the body axis during terrestrial and aquatic locomotion in the salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. J. Exp. Biol. 162: 107–130, 1992.
 695. Frolich, L. M., M. LaBarbera, and W. P. Stevens. Poisson's ratio of a crossed fibre sheath: the skin of aquatic salamanders. J. Zool. 232: 231–252, 1994.
 696. Froriep, E. Zur biologischen Anatomie des Faltengecko (Ptychozoon kuhli). Anat. Anz. 80: 378–386, 1935.
 697. Fry, F.E.J. Effects of the environment on animal activity. Univ. Toronto Stud. Biol. Ser. 55: 1–62, 1947.
 698. Fuiman, L. A., and P. W. Webb. Ontogeny of routine swimming activity and performance in zebra danios (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Anim. Behav. 36: 250–261, 1987.
 699. Full, R. J., D. A. Zuccarelo, and A. Tullis. Effect of variation in form on the cost of terrestrial locomotion. J. Exp. Biol. 150: 233–246, 1990.
 700. Fullard, J. H., C. Koehler, A. Surlykke, and N. L. McKenzie. Echolocation ecology and flight morphology of insectivorous bats (Chiroptera) in south‐western Australia. Aust. J. Zool. 39: 427–438, 1991.
 701. Fürbringer, M. Zur vergleichenden Anatomie der Schulter‐muskeln. I Theil. Jena. Z. Naturwiss. 1873: 237–320, 1873.
 702. Fürbringer, M. Zur vergleichenden Anatomie der Schulter‐muskeln. II Theil. Jena. Z. Naturwiss. 8: 175–280, 1874.
 703. Fürbringer, M. Zur vergleichenden Anatomie der Schulter‐muskeln. Morphol. Jahrb. 1: 636–816, 1876.
 704. Fürbringer, M. Untersuchungen zur Morphologie und Systematik der Vögel, zugleich ein Beitrag zur Anatomie des Stütz‐ und Bewegungsorgane. Amsterdam: Van Holkema, 1888.
 705. Fürbringer, M. Zur vergleichenden Anatomie des Brustschult‐erapparates und der Schultermuskeln. Jena. Z. Naturwiss. 36: 290–736, 1902.
 706. Van Holkema Fuss, F. K. Tibiofibular junction of the South African ostrich (Struthrio camelus australis). J. Morphol. 227: 213–226, 1996.
 707. Gadd, G. E. Some hydrodynamical aspects of the swimming of snakes and eels. Phil. Mag. 43: 663–670, 1952.
 708. Gadow, H. Beitrage zur Myologie der hinteren Extremität der Reptilien. Morphol. Jahrb. Anat. 7: 329–466, 1882.
 709. Gadow, H., and H. Nügel. Anatomischer Theil. In: Dr. H. G. Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier‐reichs, edited by H. Gadow and E. Selenka. Leipzig: Winter, 1891, vol. 6, pt. 4, p. 1–1008.
 710. Gal, J. M., and R. W. Blake. Hydrodynamic drag of two frog species: Hymenochirus boettgeri and Rana pipiens. Can. J. Zool. 65: 1085–1090, 1987.
 711. Gallistel, C. R. From muscles to motivation. Am. Sci. 68: 398–409, 1980.
 712. Gambaryan, P. P. Origin of diverse paces in mammals. Proisk‐hozhdenie mnogoobraziia alliurov u mlekopitaiushchikh. Zh. Obshch. Biol. 28: 289–305, 1967.
 713. Gambaryan, P. P. Anatomical Adaptations. How Mammals Run, translated from Russian by H. Hardin. New York: Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 1974.
 714. Gambaryan, P. P., G. N. Orlovskii, T. Y. Protopopova, F. V. Swirin, and M. L. Shick. The activity of muscles during different gaits and adaptive changes of moving organs in family Filidae. Trudy Zool. Inst. Akad. Nouk. USSR 48: 220–239, 1971.
 715. Gandevia, S. C., and C. K. Mahutte. Joint mechanics as a determinant of motor unit organization in man. Med. Hypotheses 6: 527–533, 1980.
 716. Ganguly, D. N., and S. M. Chatterjee. On the functional morphology of body, girdle and fin‐musculature of some bilaterally compressed snapping teleosts. Anat. Anz. 112: 317–337, 1963.
 717. Ganguly, D. N., and N. Majumdar. On the functional morphology of the myomeric musculature of some littoral benthonic teleostean fishes. Anat. Anz. 112: 289–316, 1963.
 718. Gannon, B. J., W. B. Runciman, and R. V. Baudinette. Do cardiorespiratory frequencies show entrainment with hopping in the tammar wallaby? J. Exp. Biol. 129: 251–263, 1987.
 719. Gans, C. Studies on amphisbaenids (Amphisbaenia: Reptilia). 1. A taxonomic revision of the Trogonophinae and a functional interpretation of the amphisbaenid adaptive pattern. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 119: 129–204, 1960.
 720. Gans, C. Notes on a herpetological collecting trip through the south‐eastern lowlands of Bolivia. Ann. Carnegie Mus. 35: 283–314, 1960.
 721. Gans, C. A bullfrog and its prey. A look at the biomechanics of jumping. Nat. Hist. 70: 26–37, 1961.
 722. Gans, C. Terrestrial locomotion without limbs. Am. Zool. 2: 167–182, 1962.
 723. Gans, C. Locomotion without limbs. Diverse mechanisms propel snakes on land. Nat. Hist. 75: 10–17, 1966.
 724. Gans, C. Locomotion without limbs. Smooth surfaces pose problems. Nat. Hist. 75: 36–41, 1966.
 725. Gans, C. Relative success of divergent pathways in amphisbaenian specialization. Am. Nat. 102: 345–362, 1968.
 726. Gans, C. Amphisbaenians—reptiles specialized for a burrowing existence. Endeavour 28: 146–151, 1969.
 727. Gans, C. How snakes move. Sci. Am. 222: 82–96 (see also Letter to editor, 223: 10–12), 1970.
 728. Gans, C. Strategy and sequence in the evolution of the external gas exchangers of ectothermal vertebrates. Form. Funct. 3: 66–104, 1971.
 729. Gans, C. Locomotion and burrowing in limbless vertebrates. Nature 42: 414–415, 1973.
 730. Gans, C. Uropeltid snakes—survivors in a changing world. Endeavour 32: 60–65, 1973.
 731. Gans, C. Biomechanics: An Approach to Vertebrate Biology. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1974.
 732. Gans, C. Tetrapod limblessness: evolution and functional corollaries. Am. Zool. 15: 455–467, 1975.
 733. Gans, C. Aspects of the biology of uropeltid snakes. In: The Morphology and Biology of Reptiles. ???:Linn. Soc. Lond. Symp, 3: 191–204, 1976.
 734. Gans, C. The process of skittering in frogs. Ann. Zool. (Agra) 12: 37–40, 1976.
 735. Gans, C. All animals are interesting! Presidential address. Am. Zool. 18: 3–9, 1978.
 736. Gans, C. Locomotor responses of Calotes to water (Agamidae: Sauria). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 72: 361–363, 1978.
 737. Gans, C. Momentarily excessive construction as the basis for protoadaptation. Evolution 33: 227–233, 1979.
 738. Gans, C. Slide‐pushing—a transitional locomotor method of elongate squamates. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 52: 13–26, 1984.
 739. Gans, C. Limbless locomotion—a current overview. Fortschr. Zool. 30: 13–22, 1985.
 740. Gans, C. Motor coordination factors in the transition from tetrapody to limblessness in lower vertebrates. Soc. Exp. Biol. Semin. Ser. 24: 183–200, 1985.
 741. Gans, C. Locomotion of limbless vertebrates: pattern and evolution. Herpetologica 42: 31–46, 1986.
 742. Gans, C. Concluding remarks: morphology, today and tomorrow. Fortschr. Zool. 35: 631–637, 1989.
 743. Gans, C. Ecological steps in the origin of vertebrates: analysis by means of scenarios. Biol. Rev. 64: 221–268, 1989.
 744. Gans, C. Electromyography. In: Biomechanics: A Practical Approach, edited by A. Biewener. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1992, p. 175–204.
 745. Gans, C. Approaches to the evolution of limbless locomotion. Quad. Herpetol. 8: 12–17, 1993.
 746. Gans, C., and D. Baic. Regional specialization of reptilian scale surfaces: relation of texture and biological role. Science 195: 1348–1350, 1977.
 747. Gans, C., and B. Clark. Studies on ventilation of Caiman crocodilus (Crocodilia: Reptilia). Respir. Physiol. 26: 285–301, 1976.
 748. Gans, C., A. d'A Bellairs, W. R. Dawson, P. Maderson, R. G. Northcutt, T. S. Parsons, D. R. Tinkle, and P. Ulinsky. Biology of the Reptilia. London: Academic, 1968.
 749. Gans, C., I. S. Darevsky, and L. P. Tatarinov. Is Sharovipteryx a hang glider? Am. Zool. 26: 133A, 1986.
 750. Gans, C., I. Darevsky, and L. Tatarinov. Sharovipteryx, a reptilian hang glider? Paleobiology 13: 415–426, 1987.
 751. Gans, C., and, G. de Gueldre. Striated muscle: physiology and biomechanics. In: Physiological Ecology of the Amphibia, edited by M. Feder and W. Burggren. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, 1992, p. 277–313.
 752. Gans, C., H. C. Dessauer, and D. Baic. Axial differences in the musculature of the uropeltid snakes: the freight train approach to burrowing. Science 199: 189–192, 1978.
 753. Gans, C., and F. de Vree. Functional bases of fiber length and angulation in muscle. J. Morphol. 192: 63–85, 1987.
 754. Gans, C., and J.‐P. Gasc. Tests on the locomotion of the elongate and limbless reptile Ophisaurus apodus (Sauria: Anguidae). J. Zool. 220: 517–536, 1990.
 755. Gans, C., and J.‐P. Gasc. Functional morphology: requirements and uses. Ann. Soc. Nat. Zool. Biol. Anim. 13: 83–76, 1992.
 756. Gans, C., and A. S. Gaunt. Muscle architecture in relation to function. J. Biomech. 24: 53–66, 1991.
 757. Gans, C., and A. S. Gaunt. Muscle architecture and control demands. Brain Behav. Evol. 40: 70–81, 1992.
 758. Gans, C., and S. Kim. Kinematic description of the sidewinding locomotion of four vipers, Isr. J. Zool. 38: 9–23, 1992.
 759. Gans, C., G. E. Loeb, and F. de Vree. Architecture and physiological properties of the semitendinosus muscle in domestic goats. J. Morphol. 199: 287–297, 1989.
 760. Gans, C., and H. Mendelssohn. Sidewinding and jumping progression of vipers. Tox. Anim. Plant Origin 1: 17–38, 1972.
 761. Gans, C., W. K. Morgan, and E. S. Allen. Surface locomotion of the elongate and limbless lizard Anniella pulchra (Anguidae). Herpetologica 48: 246–262, 1992.
 762. Gans, C., and T. S. Parsons. On the origin of the jumping mechanism in frogs. Evolution 20: 92–99, 1966.
 763. Gans, C., and H. I. Rosenberg. Numerical analysis of frog jumping. Herpetologica 22: 209–213, 1966.
 764. Gans, C., and A. M. Taub. Segmental correlation between integument and vertebral column in typhlopids (Reptilia: Squamata). Copeia 196: 107–108, 1965.
 765. Gardiner, B. G. Tetrapod classification. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 74: 207–232, 1982.
 766. Gareis, H., M. Solomonow, R. Baratta, R. Best, and R. D'Ambrosia. The isometric length–force models of nine different skeletal muscles. J. Biomech. 25: 903–916, 1992.
 767. Garland, T., Jr. Scaling maximal running speed and maximal aerobic speed to body mass in mammals and lizards. Physiologist 25: 338, 1982.
 768. Garland, T., Jr. Scaling the ecological cost of transport to body mass in terrestrial mammals. Am. Nat. 121: 571–587, 1983.
 769. Garland, T., Jr. The relation between maximal running speed and body mass in terrestrial mammals. J. Zool. 199: 157–170, 1983.
 770. Garland, T., Jr. Ontogenetic and individual variation in size, shape and speed in the Australian agamid lizard Amphibolurus nuchalis. J. Zool. 207: 425–439, 1985.
 771. Garland, T., Jr. Locomotor performance and activity metabolism of Cnemidophorus tigris in relation to natural behaviors. In: Biology of Whiptail Lizards (Genus Cnemidophorus), edited by J. W. Wright and L. J. Vitt. Norman, Oklahoma: Oklahoma Museum of Natural History, 1993, p. 163–210.
 772. Garland, T., Jr., and S. J. Arnold. Effects of a full stomach on locomotory performance of juvenile garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans). Copeia 1983: 1092–1096, 1983.
 773. Garland, T., Jr., A. F. Bennett, and C. B. Daniels. Heritability of locomotor performance and its correlates in a natural population. Experientia 46: 530–533, 1990.
 774. Garland, T., Jr., and P. L. Else. Seasonal, sexual, and individual variation in endurance and activity metabolism in lizards. Am. J. Physiol. 252 (Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol. 23): R439–R449, 1987.
 775. Garland, T., Jr., P. L. Else, A. J. Hulbert, and P. Tap. Effects of endurance training and captivity on activity metabolism of lizards. Am. J. Physiol. 252 (Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol. 23): R450–R456, 1987.
 776. Garland, T., Jr., and C. M. Janis. Does metatarsal/femur ratio predict maximal running speed in cursorial mammals? J. Zool. 229: 133–151, 1993.
 777. Garland, T., Jr., E. Hankins, and R. B. Huey. Locomotor capacity and social dominance in male lizards. Funct. Ecol. 4: 243–250, 1990.
 778. Gasc, J.‐P. Adaptations à la marche arboricole chez lecaméléon. Arch. Anat. Histol. Embryol. Norm. Exp. 46: 81–115, 1963.
 779. Gasc, J.‐P. Les adaptations anatomiques du lézard apode Feylinia currori Gray au fouissage par reptation ondulante. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 260: 1248–1251, 1965.
 780. Gasc, J.‐P. Les rapports anatomiques du membre pelvien vestigial chez les squamates serpentiformes. I. Anguis fragilis (Anguidae, Lacertilia) et Python sebae (Boidae, Ophidia). Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris 38: 99–110, 1966.
 781. Gasc, J.‐P. Introduction a l'étude de la musculature axiale des squamates serpentiformes. Mem. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris A 48: 69–125, 1967.
 782. Gasc, J.‐P. Un cas particulier de l'adaptation à la vie souterraine: le lézard serpentiforme Dibamus Duméril et Bibron. C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. Paris 265: 41–43, 1967.
 783. Gasc, J.‐P. L'interpretation functionelle de l'appareil musculo‐squelettique de l'axe vertébral chez les serpents (Reptilia). Mem. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris A 83: 1–182, 1974.
 784. Gasc, J.‐P. Contribution à la connaissance des squamates (Reptilia) de la guyane francaise. Nouvelles localites pour les sauriens. Bull. Soc. Biogeogr. 454: 1–20, 1975.
 785. Gasc, J.‐P. Snake vertebrae—a mechanism or merely a taxonomist's toy? In: The Morphology and Biology of Reptiles. London: Linn. Soc. Lond. Symp, 1976, 3: 177–190.
 786. Gasc, J.‐P. Méchanismes de la rudimentation des organes chez les embryons de vertébrés. Coll. Int. C. N. R. S. Paris 266: 341–352, 1977.
 787. Gasc, J.‐P. Correlations anatomiques dans le squelette et la musculature des reptiles serpentiformes. Coll. Int. C. N. R. S. Paris 266: 353–364, 1977.
 788. Gasc, J.‐P. Axial musculature. In: Biology of the Reptilia, edited by C. Gans and T. S. Parsons. New York: Academic, 1981, vol. 11, p. 355–435.
 789. Gasc, J.‐P. Le mécanisme du fouissage chez Amphisbaena alba (Amphisbaenidae, Squamata). Vert. Hung. 21: 147–155, 1982.
 790. Gasc, J.‐P., D. Cattaert, C. Chasserat, and F. Clarac. Propulsive action of a snake pushing against a single site: its combined analysis. J. Morphol. 201: 315–329, 1989.
 791. Gasc, J.‐P., and C. Gans. Comparison of the locomotor patterns of two anguid lizards. Am. Zool. 28: 15A, 1988.
 792. Gasc, J.‐P., F. K. Jouffroy, S. Renous, and F. Von Blottnitz. Morphofunctional study of the digging system of the Namib Desert golden mole (Eremitalpa granti namibensis): cinefluor‐ographical and anatomical analysis. J. Zool. 208: 9–35, 1986.
 793. Gasc, J.‐P., A. Raynaud, S. Renous, and C. Pieau. Contribution embriologique et anatomique à la recherche d'homologies dans la region pelvi‐cloacale chez un lézard à membres bien developpés (Lacerta viridis Laur.) et chez un lézard serpentiformes (Anguis fragilis L.). C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 277: 1155–1158, 1973.
 794. Gasc, J.‐P., and S. Renous. Les rapports anatomiques du membre pelvien vestigial chez les squamates serpentiformes. II. Scelotes breviceps et Scelotes inornatus (Scincidae, Sauria). Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris 186: 1701–1712, 1974.
 795. Gasc, J.‐P., and S. Renous. La région pelvi‐cloacale de Dibamus (Squamata, Reptilia). Nouvelle contribution à sa position systématique. Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris 1: 659–684, 1979.
 796. Gasc, J.‐P., S. Renous, A. Casinos, E. Laville, and J. Bou. Comparison of diverse digging patterns in some small mammals. Fortschr. Zool. 30: 35–38, 1985.
 797. Gasc, J.‐P., S. Renous, A. Diop. Structure microscopique de l'epiderme palmaire du saurien Coleodactylus amazonicus (Andersson, 1918) (Sphaerodactylinae), comparée à celle de l'epiderme des feuilles de la litiere, substrat locomoteur de l'animal. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 294: 169–174, 1982.
 798. Gasc, J.‐P., S. Renous, and J. Lescure. Le mouvement des membres au cours du comportement de nidification chez la Tortue Luth (Dermochelys coriacea). Étude preliminaire à la connaissance du repertoire moteur des tortues marines. Acta Zool. Cracov 31: 581–590, 1988.
 799. Gatesy, S. M. Hind limb movements in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) and postural grades. J. Zool. 224: 577–588, 1991.
 800. Gatesy, S. M. Hind limb scaling in birds and other theropods: implications for terrestrial locomotion. J. Morphol. 209: 83–96, 1991.
 801. Gatesy, S. M., and A. A. Biewener. Bipedal locomotion: effects of speed, size and limb posture in birds and humans. J. Zool. 224: 127–147, 1991.
 802. Gatesy, S. M., and K. P. Dial. Tail muscle activity patterns in walking and flying pigeons (Columbia livia). J. Exp. Biol. 176: 55–76, 1993.
 803. Gatesy, S. M., and K. P. Dial. Locomotor modules and the evolution of avian flight. Evolution 50: 331–340, 1996.
 804. Garten, R. E., Jr., J. D. Congdon, F. J. Mazzotti, and R. U. Fischer. Glycolysis and swimming performance in juvenile American alligators. J. Herpetol. 25: 406–411, 1991.
 805. Gatten, R. E., Jr., K. Miller, and R. J. Full. Energetics at rest and during locomotion. In: Environmental Physiology of the Amphibians, edited by M. E. Feder and W. W. Burggren. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, 1992, p. 314–377.
 806. Gatz, A. J. Ecological morphology of freshwater stream fishes. Tulane Stud. Zool. Bot. 21: 92–124, 1979.
 807. Gaudin, T. J., and A. A. Biewener. The functional morphology of xenarthrous vertebrae in the armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus (Mammalia, Xenarthra). J. Morphol. 214: 63–81, 1992.
 808. Gaunt, A. S. Fossorial adaptations in the bank swallow, Riparia riparia (Linnaeus). Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 6: 99–146, 1965.
 809. Gaunt, A. S., and C. Gans. Architecture of chicken muscles: short‐fibre patterns and their ontogeny. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 240: 351–362, 1990.
 810. Gaunt, A. S., and C. Gans. Serially arranged myofibers: an unappreciated variant in muscle architecture. Experientia 48: 864–868, 1992.
 811. Gaunt, A. S., and C. Gans. Variations in the distribution of motor end‐plates in avian pectoralis. J. Morphol. 215: 65–88, 1993.
 812. Gaunt, A. S., R. S. Hikida, J. R. Jehl, Jr., and L. Fenbert. Rapid atrophy and hypertrophy of an avian flight muscle. Auk 107: 649–659, 1990.
 813. Gaupp, E.W.T. Anatomie des Frosches, A. Ecker and R. Wiedersheim. Braunschweig: Vieweg, 1896–1904.
 814. Gauthier‐Pilters, H., and A. I. Dagg. The Camel. Its Evolution, Ecology, Behavior, and Relationship to Man. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, 1981.
 815. Gaymer, R. New methods of locomotion in limbless terrestrial vertebrates. Nature 234: 150–151, 1971.
 816. Gebo, D. L. Functional anatomy of the tarsier foot. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 73: 9, 1987.
 817. Gee, J. H. Ecological implications of buoyancy control in fish. In: Fish Biomechanics, P. W. Webb and D. Weihs. New York: Praeger, 1983, p. 140–176.
 818. Geerlink, P. J. The anatomy of the pectoral fins in Sarotherodon niloticus Trewavas (Cichlidae). Neth. J. Zool. 29: 9–32, 1979.
 819. Geerlink, P. J. Pectoral fin kinematics of Con's formosa (Teleostei, Labridae). Neth. J. Zool. 33: 515–531, 1983.
 820. Geerlink, P. J. Pectoral Fins. Aspects of Propulsion and Braking in Teleost Fishes. Groningen: Univ. of Groningen, 1986. Dissertation.
 821. Geerlink, P. J. The role of the pectoral fins in braking of mackerel, cod and saithe. Neth. J. Zool. 37: 81–104, 1987.
 822. Geerlink, P. J., and J. J. Videler. Joints and muscles of the dorsal fin of Tilapia nilotica L. (Fam. Cichlidae). Neth. J. Zool. 24: 279–290, 1974.
 823. Gegenbaur, C. Grundzüge der vergleichenden Anatomie. Leipzig: Engelmann, 1870.
 824. George, J. C., and A. J. Berger. Avian Myology. London: Academic, 1966.
 825. George, J. C., and D. Jyoti. Histochemical features of the breast and leg muscles of bird and bat and their physiological and evolutionary significance. J. Anim. Morphol. Physiol. 2: 37–45, 1955.
 826. George, J. C., and R. M. Naik. Histochemical distribution and chemical nature of the fuel store of the two types of fibres in the pectoralis major of the pigeon. Nature 181: 709–711, 1958.
 827. George, J. C., and R. M. Naik. Studies on the structure and physiology of the flight muscles of birds. 4. Observations on the fibre architecture of the pectoralis major muscle of the pigeon. Biol. Bull. 116: 239–247, 1959.
 828. George, J. C., and R. M. Naik. Some observations on the distribution of blood capillaries in the pigeon breast muscle. Auk 77: 224–225, 1960.
 829. George, J. C., A. K. Susheela, and N. V. Vallyathan. Histochemical evidence for biochemical differentiation and regional specialization in the pectoralis muscle of the house sparrow. Pavo 2: 115–119, 1964.
 830. Gerlach, U. J., and W. Lierse. Functional construction of the sacroiliac ligamentous apparatus. Acta Anat. 144: 97–102, 1992.
 831. Gero, D. R. The hydrodynamic aspects of fish propulsion. Am. Mus. Novitates 1601: 1–32, 1952.
 832. Ghista, D. N., T. G. Toredis, and T. M. Srinivasan. Human gait analysis—determination of instantaneous joint reactive forces, muscle forces and stress distribution in bone segment. Biomediz. Tech. 20: 204, 1975.
 833. Ghista, D. N., T. G. Toredis, and T. M. Srinivasan. Human gait analysis. II. Determination of instantaneous joint reactive forces, muscle forces and the stress distribution in bone segments. Biomediz. Tech. 21: 66–74, 1976.
 834. Giannoni, S. M., C. E. Borghi, and J. P. Marinez‐Rica. New data on the burrowing behavior of Microtus (Pitymys). Z. Saugetier. 57: 23–28, 1992.
 835. Gibb, Alice C., B. C. Jayne, and G. V. Lauder. Kinematics of pectoral fin locomotion in the bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus. J. Exp. Biol. 189: 133–161, 1994.
 836. Gillespie, J. R., G. L. Landgren, and D. E. Leith. 1:2 ratio of breathing to stride frequency in a galloping horse breathing 6% CO2. Equine Exerc. Physiol. 3: 66–70, 1991.
 837. Gingerich, P. D., S. M. Raza, M. Arif, M. Anwar, and X. Zhou. New whale from the Eocene of Pakistan and the origin of cetacean swimming. Nature 368: 844–847, 1994.
 838. Girgis, F. G., J. L. Marshall, and A.R.S. Monajem. Cruciate ligaments of knee‐joint anatomical, functional and experimental analysis. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 106: 216, 1975.
 839. Glasheen, J. W., and T. A. McMahon. An analysis of aquatic bipedalism in basilisk lizards. Am. Zool. 32: 144A, 1992.
 840. Gleeson, T. T., C.J.M. Nicol, and I. A. Johnston. Capillarization, mitochondrial densities, oxygen diffusion distances and innervation of red and white muscle of the lizard Dipsosaurus dorsalis. Cell Tissue Res. 237: 253–258, 1984.
 841. Gleeson, T. T., R. W. Putnam, and A. F. Bennett. Histochemical, enzymatic, and contractile properties of skeletal muscle fibers in the lizard Dipsosaurus dorsalis. J. Exp. Zool. 214: 293–302, 1980.
 842. Gluesing, E. A. Collared lizard predation: the effects of conspicuous morphology and movement. Copeia 1983: 835–837, 1983.
 843. Godfrey, J. J. Plesiosaur subaqueous locomotion: a reappraisal. N. Jb. Geol. Palaont. 1984: 661–672, 1984.
 844. Goel, S., and J. K. Mathur. Morphogenesis in reptilian limbs. British Society of Developmental Biology Symp. 3: 387–449, 1977.
 845. Goff, C. W., and W. Landmesser. Bipedal rats and mice. Laboratory animals for orthopaedic research. J. Bone Joint Surg. 39A: 616–622, 1957.
 846. Golani, I. Homeostatic motor processes in mammalian interactions: a choreography of display. In: Perspectives in Ethology, P.P.G. Bateson and P. H. Klopfer. New York: Plenum, 1976, vol. 2, p. 69–134.
 847. Goldspink, G. Design of muscles in relation to locomotion. In: Mechanics and Energetics of Animal Locomotion, R. McN. Alexander and G. Goldspink. London: Chapman and Hall, 1977, p. 1–22.
 848. Goldspink, G. Design of muscle for locomotion and the maintenance of posture. Trends Neurosci. 4: 218–221, 1981.
 849. Goldspink, G. The use of muscles during flying, swimming, and running from the point of view of energy saving. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 48: 219–238, 1981.
 850. Goldspink, G., C. Mills, and K. Schmidt‐Nielsen. Electrical activity of the pectoral muscles during gliding and flapping flight in the herring gull (Larus argentatus). Experientia 34: 862–865, 1978.
 851. Goodrich, E. S. Cyclostomes and fishes. In: A Treatise on Zoology, R. Lankester. London: Macmillan, 1909, p. 1–518.
 852. Goolish, E. M. Aerobic and Anaerobic scaling in fish. Biol. Rev. 66: 33–56, 1991.
 853. Gordon, A. M., A. F. Huxley, and F. J. Julian. The variation in isometric tension with sarcomere length in vertebrate muscle fibres. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 184: 170–192, 1966.
 854. Gordon, D. C., G. E. Loeb, and F.J.R. Richmond. Distribution of motoneurons supplying cat sartorius and tensor fasciae latae, demonstrated by retrograde multiple‐labelling methods. J. Comp. Neurol. 304: 357–372, 1991.
 855. Gordon, J. E. The New Science of Strong Materials or Why You Don't Fall Through the Floor. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1976.
 856. Gordon, J. E. Structures or Why Things Don't Fall Down. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1978.
 857. Gordon, K. R. Mechanics of the limbs of the walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) and the California sea lion (Zalopus califomianus) J. Morphol. 175: 73–90, 1983.
 858. Gordon, K. R. Adaptive nature of skeletal design; two‐tiered plasticity allows changes in strength and locomotion. BioScience 39: 784–790, 1989.
 859. Gorzula, S. J. An ecological study of Caiman crocodilus inhabiting savanna lagoons in Venezuelan Guayana. Oecologia 35: 21–34, 1978.
 860. Gosline, W. A. Functional Morphology and Classification of Teleostean Fishes. Honolulu: Univ. Press of Hawaii, 1971.
 861. Gosline, W. A. The structure and function of the dermal pectoral girdle in bony fishes with particular reference to ostariophysines. J. Zool. 183: 329–338, 1977.
 862. Goslow, G. E., Jr., and K. P. Dial. Active strength‐shorten contractions of the m. pectoralis in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris): evidence from electromyography and contractile properties. Neth. J. Zool. 49: 106–114, 1990.
 863. Goslow, G. E., Jr., K. P. Dial, and F. A. Jenkins, Jr. The avian shoulder: an experimental approach. Am. Zool. 29: 287–301, 1989.
 864. Goslow, G. E., Jr., K. P. Dial, and F. A. Jenkins, Jr. Bird flight: insights and complications. New techniques show that more than the wing participates in flying. BioScience 40: 108–115, 1990.
 865. Goslow, G. E., R. M. Reinking, and D. G. Stuart. The cat step cycle, hind limb joint angles and muscle lengths during unrestrained locomotion. J. Morphol. 141: 1–42, 1973.
 866. Goslow, G. E., Jr., E. K. Stauffer, W. C. Nemeth, and D. G. Stuart. Digit flexor muscles in the cat: their action and motor units. J. Morphol. 137: 335–352, 1972.
 867. Goslow, G. E., Jr., and K. M. Van Degraff. Hindlimb joint angle changes and action of the primary ankle extensor muscles during posture and locomotion in the striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis). J. Zool. 197: 405–419, 1982.
 868. Gourvest, N. Morphologie des doigts et locomotion chez le gecko (Tarentola mauritanica). Bull. Soc. Zool. France 84: 531–540, 1960.
 869. Graham, J. B. Heat transfer. In: Fish Biomechanics, P. W. Webb and D. Weihs. New York: Praeger, 1983, p. 248–279.
 870. Graham, J. B., H. Dewar, N. C. Lai, W. R. Lowell, and S. M. Arce. Aspects of shark swimming performance using a large water tunnel. J. Exp. Biol. 151: 175–192, 1990.
 871. Graham, J. B., W. R. Lowell, I. Rubinoff, and J. Motta. Surface and subsurface swimming of the sea snake Pelamis platurus. J. Exp. Biol. 127: 27–44, 1987.
 872. Grand, T. I. The functional anatomy of the ankle and foot of the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang). Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 26: 207–218, 1967.
 873. Grand, T. I. Functional anatomy of the upper limb. Bibl. Primatol. 7: 104–125, 1968.
 874. Grand, T. I. The functional anatomy of the lower limb of the howler monkey (Alouatta caraya). Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 28: 163–182, 1968.
 875. Grand, T. I. Altricial and precocial mammals: a model of neural and muscular development. Zoo Biol. 11: 3–15, 1992.
 876. Grand, T. I., and R. Lorenz. Functional analysis of the hip joint in Tarsius bancanus (Horsfield, 1821) and Tarsius syrichta (Linnaeus, 1758). Folia Primatol. (Basel) 9: 161–181, 1968.
 877. Grant, C. Relative antiquity of simultaneous, alternate and unilateral gaits. J. Entomol. Zool. 40: 93–94, 1948.
 878. Grassé, P.‐P. Traité de Zoologie. Paris: Masson, 1948.
 879. Gray, J. Studies in animal locomotion. I. The movement of fish with special reference to the eel. J. Exp. Biol. 10: 88–104, 1933.
 880. Gray, J. Studies in animal locomotion. II. The relationship between the waves of muscular contraction and the propulsive mechanism of the eel. J. Exp. Biol. 10: 386–390, 1933.
 881. Gray, J. Studies in animal locomotion. III. The propulsive mechanism of the whiting. J. Exp. Biol. 10: 391–400, 1933.
 882. Gray, J. Studies in animal locomotion. VI. The propulsive powers of the dolphin. J. Exp. Biol. 13: 192–199, 1936.
 883. Gray, J. Aspects of animal locomotion. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 128: 28–62, 1939.
 884. Gray, J. Studies in the mechanics of the tetrapod skeleton. J. Exp. Biol. 20: 88–116, 1944.
 885. Gray, J. The mechanism of locomotion in snakes, J. Exp. Biol. 23: 101–120, 1946.
 886. Gray, J. How Animals Move. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1953.
 887. Gray, J. Undulatory propulsion. Q. J. Microsc. Sci. 94: 551–578, 1953.
 888. Gray, J. General principles of vertebrate locomotion. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 5: 1–11, 1961.
 889. Gray, J. Animal Locomotion. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1968.
 890. Gray, J., and H. W. Lissmann. Further observations on the deafferentation on the locomotion activity of amphibian limbs. J. Exp. Biol. 23: 121–132, 1946.
 891. Gray, J., and H. W. Lissmann. The coordination of limb movements in the Amphibia. J. Exp. Biol. 23: 133–142, 1946.
 892. Gray, J., and H. W. Lissmann. The kinetics of locomotion of the grass‐snake. J. Exp. Biol. 26: 354–367, 1950.
 893. Green, D. M., and D. L. Barber. The ventral adhesive disc of the clingfish Gobiesox maeandricus: integumental structure and adhesive mechanisms. Can. J. Zool. 66: 1610–1619, 1988.
 894. Green, D. M., and J. Carson. The adhesion of treefrog toepads to glass: cryogenic examination of a capillary adhesion system. J. Nat. Hist. 22: 131–135, 1988.
 895. Green, E. E. Bipedal locomotion of a Ceylonese lizard. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 14: 817, 1903.
 896. Greene, P. R. Sprinting with banked turns. J. Biomech. 20: 667–680, 1987.
 897. Greenewalt, C. H. Hummingbirds. New York: Doubleday, 1960.
 898. Greenewalt, C. H. Dimensional relationships for flying animals. Smithson. Misc. Coll. 144: 1–46, 1962.
 899. Greenewalt, C. H. The flight of birds. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 65: 1–67, 1975.
 900. Greenwood, P. H., D. E. Rosen, S. H. Weitzman, and G. S. Myers. Phyletic studies of teleostean fishes, with a provisional classification of living forms. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 131: 345–355, 1966.
 901. Greenwood, P. H., and K. S. Thomson. The pectoral anatomy of Pantodon buchholzi Peters (a freshwater flying fish) and the related Osteoglossidae. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 135: 283–301, 1960.
 902. Greer, A. E. The generic relationships of the scincid lizard genus Leiolopisma and its relatives. Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. 31: 1–67, 1974.
 903. Greer, A. E. Limb reduction in the lizard genus Lerista. 1. Variation in the number of phalanges and presacral vertebrae. J. Herpetol. 21: 267–276, 1987.
 904. Greer, A. E. Limb reduction in the lizard genus Lerista. 2. Variation in the bone complements of the front and rear limbs and the number of postsacral vertebrae. J. Herpetol. 24: 142–150, 1990.
 905. Greer, A. E. The Biology & Evolution of Australian Lizards. Chipping Norton: Surrey Beatty, 1990.
 906. Greer, A. E. Hyperphalangy in squamates: insight on the reacquisition of primitive character states in limb‐reduced lineages. J. Herpetol. 26: 327–329, 1992.
 907. Greer, A. E. Lineage‐associated asymmetries in scale overlap patterns in squamates. Herpetologia 49: 318–326, 1993.
 908. Greer, A. E., and H. G. Cogger. Systematics of the reduce‐limbed and limbless skinks currently assigned to the genus Anomalopus (Lacertilia: Scincidae). Rec. Aust. Mus. 37: 11–54, 1985.
 909. Greer, A. E., and C. Gans. The amphisbaenian carpus: how primitive is it? J. Herpetol. 17: 406, 1983.
 910. Greer‐Walker, M., and G. Pull. A survey of red and white muscle in marine fish. J. Fish. Biol. 7: 295–300, 1975.
 911. Gregory, W. K. Notes on the principles of quadrupedal locomotion and on the mechanism of the limbs in hoofed animals. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 22: 267–294, 1912.
 912. Gregory, W. K. Studies on the body‐forms of fishes. Zoologica 8: 325–421, 1928.
 913. Gregory, W. K. The body‐forms of fishes and their inscribed rectilinear lines. Palaeobiologica 1: 93–101, 1928.
 914. Gregory, W. K. The bridge that walks, the story of nature's most successful design. Nat. Hist. 39: 33–48, 1937.
 915. Gregory, W. K. Studies on the origin and early evolution of paired fins and limbs. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 42: 273–360, 1941.
 916. Gregory, W. K., and C. L. Camp. Studies in comparative myology and osteology, No. III. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 38: 447–563, 1918.
 917. Griffith, H. Miniaturization and elongation in Eumeces (Sauria: Scincidae). Copeia 1990: 751–758, 1990.
 918. Griffith, H. Different modes of body elongation in lizards. Am. Zool. 32: 144A, 1992.
 919. Griffith, Hugh. Body elongation and decreased reproductive output within a restricted clade of lizards (Reptilia: Scincidae). J. Zool. 233: 541–550, 1994.
 920. Griffiths, R. I. The mechanics of the medial gastrocnemius muscle in the freely hopping wallaby (Thylogale billardierü). J. Exp. Biol. 147: 439–456, 1989.
 921. Grillner, S. Control of locomotion in bipeds, tetrapods and fish. In: Handbook of Physiology. The Nervous System. Motor Control, V. B. Brooks. Washington, DC: Am. Physiol. Soc, 1960, sect. 1, vol. II, pt. 2, p. 1179–1212.
 922. Grillner, S. Locomotion in vertebrates: central mechanisms and reflex interaction. Physiol. Rev. 55: 247–304, 1975.
 923. Grillner, S. Neurobiological bases of rhythmic motor acts in vertebrates. Science 228: 143–149, 1985.
 924. Grillner, S., T. Deliagina, Ö. Ekeberg, A. El Manira, A. Lansner, G. N. Orlovsky, and P. Wallén. Neural networks that coordinate, locomotion and body orientation in lamprey. Trends Neurosci. 18: 270–179, 1995.
 925. Grillner, S., and S. Kashin. On the generation and performance of swimming in fish. In: Neural Control of Locomotion, R. Herman, S. Grillner, P. Stein, and D. Stuart. New York: Plenum, 1976, p. 181–202.
 926. Grillner, S., A. McClellan, and K. Sigvardt. Mechanosensitive neurons in the spinal cord of the lamprey. Brain Res. 235: 169–173, 1982.
 927. Grillner, S., J. Nilsson, and A. Thornstensson. Intra‐abdominal pressure changes during natural movements in man. Acta Physiol. Scand. 103: 275–283, 1978.
 928. Grillner, S., and P. Wallén. On peripheral control mechanisms acting on the central pattern generators for swimming in the dogfish. J. Exp. Biol. 98: 1–22, 1982.
 929. Grillner, S., and P. Wallen. Central pattern generators for locomotion, with special reference to vertebrates. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 8: 233–261, 1985.
 930. Grillner, S., P. Wallen, N. Dale, L. Brodin, J. Buchanan, and R. Hill. Transmitters, membrane properties and network circuitry in the control of locomotion in lamprey. Trends Neurosci. 10: 34–41, 1987.
 931. Grobecker, D. B., and T. W. Pietsch. High‐speed cinematographic evidence for ultrafast feeding in antennariid anglerfishes. Science 205: 1161–1162, 1979.
 932. Grogan, J. W. The gaits of horses. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 119: 112–117, 1951.
 933. Groves, J. D. A note on climbing in the stinkpot, Sternotherus odoratus. Bull. MD Herpetol. Soc. 8: 87, 1972.
 934. Grubb, T. C., Jr. Burrow digging techniques of Leach's petrel. Auk 87: 587–588, 1970.
 935. Grzimek, B. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1972.
 936. Grzimek, B. Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1990.
 937. Guibé, J. La locomotion. Traité Zool. Anat. Syst Biol. 14: 181–193, 1970.
 938. Guimaraes, A. C., W. Herzog, T. L. Allinger, and Y. T. Zhang. The EMG‐force relationship of the cat soleus muscle and its association with contractile conditions during locomotion. J. Exp. Biol. 198: 975–987, 1995.
 939. Guimaraes, A. C., W. Herzog, M. Hullinger, Y. T. Zhang, and S. Day. Effects of muscle length on the EMG‐force relationship of the cat soleus muscle studied using non‐periodic stimulation of ventral root filaments. J. Exp. Biol. 193: 49–64, 1994.
 940. Gustafsson, B., and M. J. Pinter. On factors determining orderly recruitment of motor units: a role for intrinsic membrane properties. Trends Neurosci. 8: 431–433, 1985.
 941. Guth, V., R. Abbink, and H. Theysohn. Electromyographic investigations on gait. Methods and application in orthopaedics. Electromyogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19: 305–323, 1979.
 942. Guthe, K. F. Reptilian muscle: fine structure and physiological parameters. In: Biology of the Reptilia, C. Gans and T. S. Parsons. London: Academic, 1981, vol. 11, p. 265–354.
 943. Haas, R. Trot and pace. Science 263: 306–307, 1994.
 944. Haase, A. Untersuchungen über den Bau und die Entwicklung der Haftlappen bei den Geckotiden. Berlin: In??? Diss. Leipzig ( Arch. Natgesch.), 1–30, 1900.
 945. Haftorn, S. The diurnal body weight cycle in titmice Parus spp. Ornis Scand. 23: 435–443, 1992.
 946. Hagiwara, S., S. Chichibu, and N. Simpson. Neuromuscular mechanisms of wing beat in hummingbirds. Z. Vergl. Physiol. 60: 209–218, 1968.
 947. Haines, R. W. Some muscular changes in the tail and thigh of reptiles and mammals. J. Morphol. 58: 355–383, 1935.
 948. Haines, R. W. A revision of the extensor muscles of the forearm in tetrapods. J. Anat. 73: 211–233, 1939.
 949. Hainsworth, F. R. Precision and dynamics of positioning by Canada geese flying in formation. J. Exp. Biol. 128: 445–462, 1987.
 950. Hainsworth, F. R. Induced drag savings from ground effect and formation flight in brown pelicans. J. Exp. Biol. 135: 431–444, 1988.
 951. Halata, Z. Ruffini corpuscle—a stretch receptor in the connective tissue of the skin and locomotion apparatus. Prog. Brain Res. 74: 221–229, 1988.
 952. Haldane, J.B.S. On Being the Right Size. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1985.
 953. Hall, M. C. The Locomotor System. Functional Anatomy. Springfield: Thomas, 1965.
 954. Hanken, J. Morphological novelty in the limb skeleton accompanies miniaturization in salamanders. Science 229: 871–874, 1985.
 955. Harder, W. Anatomie der Fische. Handbuch der Binnenfischerei Mitteleuropas. Stuttgart: Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuch‐handlung, 1964; Anatomy of Fishes, Modified Translation. 1975.
 956. Hardy, J. D. Tail prehension and related behavior in a new world lizard. Herpetologica 14: 205–206, 1958.
 957. Harper, D. G., and R. W. Blake. On the error involved in high‐speed film when used to evaluate maximum acceleration of fish. Can. J. Zool. 67: 1929–1936, 1989.
 958. Harper, D. G., and R. W. Blake. Fast‐start performance of rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri and northern pike Esox lucius. J. Exp. Biol. 150: 321–342, 1990.
 959. Harris, J. E. The role of the fins in the equilibrium of swimming fish I. Wind tunnel test on a model of Mustelus cants (Mitchell). J. Exp. Biol. 13: 476–493, 1936.
 960. Harris, J. E. The mechanical significance of the position and movements of the paired fins in the teleostei. Papers Tortugas Lab. Carnegie Inst. 31: 173–189, 1937.
 961. Harris, J. E. The role of fin movements in the equilibrium of fish. Ann. Rep. Tortugas Lab. Carnegie Inst. 119: 91–93, 1937.
 962. Harris, J. E. The role of fins in the equilibrium of swimming fish. II. The role of the pelvic fins. J. Exp. Biol. 15: 32–47, 1938.
 963. Harris, J. E. Diademodus hydei, a new fossil shark from Cleveland shale. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 120: 683–697, 1950.
 964. Harris, J. E. Fin patterns and mode of life in fishes. In: Essays in Marine Biology, S. M. Marshall and P. Orr. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 1953, p. 17–28.
 965. Harris, J., and H. Ghiradella. The forces exerted on the substrate by walking and stationary crickets. J. Exp. Biol. 85: 263–279, 1980.
 966. Harris, V. A. On the locomotion of the mudskipper, Periophtalmus koelreuteri (Pallas): Gobiidae. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 134: 107–135, 1960.
 967. Harris, V. A. The Life of the Rainbow Lizard. London: Hutchinson, 1964.
 968. Hartman, F. A. Locomotor muscle‐weights in birds. Proc. Zool. Soc. Calcutta Mookerjee Mem. 5: 255–257, 1957.
 969. Hartman, F. A. Locomotor mechanisms of birds. Smithson. Misc. Collect. 143: 1–91, 1961.
 970. Harvey, E. B., H. E. Kaiser, and L. E. Rosenberg. Atlas of the Domestic Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Myology and Osteology. Washington, DC: U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 1968.
 971. Haxton, H. A. Muscles of the pelvic limb. A study of the differences between bipeds and quadrupeds. Anat. Rec. 98: 337–346, 1947.
 972. Hayes, K. C. Biomechanics of postural stability in man. Am. Osteopathic Assoc. 80: 295, 1980.
 973. Hazlehurst, G. A., and J.M.V. Rayner. Flight characteristics of Triassic and Jurassic Pterosauria: an appraisal based on wing shape. Paleobiology 18: 447–463, 1992.
 974. He, P., and C. S. Wardle. Tilting behaviour of the Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus, at low swimming speeds. J. Fish. Biol. 29: 223–232, 1986.
 975. Headley, F. W. Structure and Life of Birds. London: Macmillan, 1895.
 976. Heath, J. E. The origins of themoregulation. In: Evolution and Environment, E. T. Drake. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1968, p. 259–278.
 977. Heatwole, H. E. Relationship of escape behavior and camouflage in anoline lizards. Copeia 1968: 109–113, 1968.
 978. Heatwole, H. E., and E. Davison. A review of caudal luring in snakes with notes on its occurrence in the Saharan sand viper, Cerastes vipera. Herpetologica 32: 332–336, 1976.
 979. Hebrank, J. H., M. R. Hebrank, J. H. Long, B. A. Block, and S. A. Wainwright. Backbone mechanics of the blue marlin Makaira nigricans (Pisces, Istiophoridae). J. Exp. Biol. 148: 449–459, 1990.
 980. Hebrank, M. R. Mechanical properties and locomotor function of eel skin. Biol. Bull. 158: 58–68, 1980.
 981. Hebrank, M. R. Mechanical properties of fish backbones in lateral bending and in tension. J. Biomech. 15: 85–89, 1982.
 982. Heckrotte, C. Relations of body temperature, size, and crawling speed of the common garter snake, Thamnophis s. sirtalis. Copeia 1967: 759–763, 1967.
 983. Heckrotte, C. The effect of the environmental factors in locomotory activity of the plains garter snake, Thamnophis radix. Anim. Behav. 10: 193–207, 1972.
 984. Hedenström, A. Flight performance in relation to fuel load in birds. J. Theor. Biol. 158: 535–537, 1992.
 985. Hedenström, A., and T. Alerstam. Climbing performance of migrating birds as a basis for estimating limits for fuel‐carrying capacity and muscle work. J. Exp. Biol. 164: 19–38, 1992.
 986. Heglund, N. C., G. A. Cavagna, and C. R. Taylor. Energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. III. Energy changes of the centre of mass as a function of speed and body size in birds and mammals. J. Exp. Biol. 79: 41–56, 1982.
 987. Heglund, N. C., M. A. Fedak, C. R. Taylor, and G. A. Cavagna. Energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. IV. Total mechanical energy changes as a function of speed and body size in birds and mammals. J. Exp. Biol. 97: 57–66, 1982.
 988. Heglund, N. C., C. R. Taylor, and T. A. McMahon. Scaling stride frequency and gait to animal size: mice to horses. Science 186: 1112–1113, 1974.
 989. Heglund, N. C., P. A. Willems, M. Penta, and G. A. Cavagna. Energy‐saving gait mechanics with head‐supported loads. Nature 375: 52–54, 1995.
 990. Heller, J. H., M. S. Heller, S. Springer, and E. Clark. Squalene content of various shark livers. Nature 79: 919–920, 1957.
 991. Henderson, R. W., M. H. Binder, and R. A. Sajdak. Ecological relationships of the tree snakes Uromacer catesbyi and U. oxyrhynchus (Colubridae) on Isla Saona, Republica Dominicana. Amphibia Reptilia 2: 153–163, 1981.
 992. Henneman, E., and C. B. Olson. Relations between structure and function in the design of skeletal muscles. J. Neurophysiol. 28: 581–598, 1965.
 993. Heppner, F. H., and J.G.T. Anderson. Leg thrust important in flight take‐off in the pigeon. J. Exp. Biol. 114: 285–288, 1985.
 994. Heppner, F. H., J. L. Convissar, D. E. Moonan, Jr., and J. T. Anderson. Visual angle and formation flight in Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Auk 102: 195–198, 1985.
 995. Herkner, B. Biomechanische Rekonstruktion der Flossenevo‐lution. Natur und Museum 123: 189–203, 1993.
 996. Herman, R. M., S. Grillner, P.S.G. Stein, and D. G. Stuart. Neural Control of Locomotion. New York: Plenum 1976.
 997. Hermanson, J. W., and J. S. Altenbach. Functional anatomy of the shoulder and arm of the fruit‐eating bat Artibeus jamaicensis. J. Zool. 205: 157–177, 1985.
 998. Hermanson, J. W., M. A. Cobb, W. A. Schutt, Jr., F. Muradali, and J. M. Ryan. Histochemical and myosin composition of vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), pectoralis muscle targets a unique locomotory niche. J. Morphol. 217: 347–356, 1993.
 999. Hermanson, J. W., and R. C. Foehring. Histochemistry of flight muscles in the Jamaican fruit bat Artibeus jamaicensis: implications for motor control. J. Morphol. 196: 353–362, 1988.
 1000. Herre, A. W. On the gliding of flying lizards, genus Draco Copeia 1958: 338–339, 1958.
 1001. Herreid, C. F., II, and E. H. Schlenker. Energetics of mice in stable and unstable social conditions: evidence of an air‐borne factor affecting metabolism. Anim. Behav. 28: 20–28, 1980.
 1002. Herring, S. W., A. F. Grimm, and B. R. Grim. Regulation of sarcomere number in skeletal muscle: a comparison of hypotheses. Muscle Nerve 7: 161–173, 1984.
 1003. Hershler, C., and M. Milner. Optimality criterion for processing electromyographic (EMG) signals relating to human locomotion. IEEE Trans. Bio‐Med. Eng. 25: 413, 1978.
 1004. Hertel, H. Structure, Form, Movement. New York: Reinhold, 1966.
 1005. Hertwig, I., and U. Sinsch. Comparative toe pad morphology in marsupial frogs (Genus Gastrotheca): arboreal versus ground‐dwelling species. Copeia 1995: 38–47, 1995.
 1006. Hertz, P. E., and R. B. Huey. Compensation for altitudinal changes in the thermal environment by some Anolis lizards on Hispaniola. Ecology 62: 515–521, 1981.
 1007. Hertz, P. E., R. B. Huey, and T. Garland. Time budgets, thermoregulation, and maximal locomotor performance: are reptiles olympians or boy scouts? Am. Zool. 28: 927–938, 1988.
 1008. Hertz, P. E., R. B. Huey, and E. Nevo. Fight versus flight: body temperature influences defensive responses of lizards. Anim. Behav. 30: 676–679, 1982.
 1009. Hertz, P. E., R. B. Huey, and E. Nevo. Homage to Santa Anita: thermal sensitivity of sprint speed in agamid lizards. Evolution 37: 1075–1084, 1983.
 1010. Herzog, K. Anatomie und Flugbiologie der Vögel. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1968.
 1011. Herzog, W., S. Kamal, and H. D. Clarke. Myofilament lengths of cat skeletal muscle: theoretical considerations and functional implications. J. Biomech. 25: 945–948, 1992.
 1012. Herzog, W., T. R. Leonard, and A. Stano. A system for studying the mechanical properties of muscles and the sensorimotor control of muscle forces during unrestrained locomotion in the cat. J. Biomech. 28: 211–218, 1995.
 1013. Herzog, W., A. Stano, and T. R. Leonard. Telemetry system to record force and EMG from cat ankle extensor and tibialis anterior muscles. J Biomech. 26: 1463–1471, 1993.
 1014. Herzog, W., V. Zatsiorsky, B. I. Prilutsky, and T. R. Leonard. Variations in force‐time histories of cat gastrocnemius, soleus and plantaris muscles for consecutive walking steps. J. Exp. Biol. 191: 19–36, 1994.
 1015. Hess, F., and J. J. Videler. Fast continuous swimming of saithe (Pollacbius virens): a dynamic analysis of bending moments and muscle power. J. Exp. Biol. 109: 229–251, 1984.
 1016. Heusner, A. A. Body size and energy metabolism. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 5: 267–293, 1985.
 1017. Heyer, W. R., and S. Pongsapipatana. Gliding speeds of Ptychozoon lionatum (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) and Chrysopelea omata (Reptilia: Colubridae). Herpetologica 26: 317–319, 1970.
 1018. Hickman, G. C., E. Nevo, and G. Heth. Geographic variation in the swimming ability of Spalax ehrenbergi (Rodentia: Spalacidae) in Israel. J. Biogeogr. 10: 29–36, 1983.
 1019. Hicks, J. H. The mechanics of the foot. II. The plantar aponeurosis and the arch. J. Anat. 88: 25–30, 1954.
 1020. Higdon, J.J.L., and S. Corrsin. Induced drag of a bird flock. Am. Nat. 112: 727–744, 1978.
 1021. Hildebrand, M. Motions of the running cheetah and horse. J. Mammal. 40: 481–495, 1959.
 1022. Hildebrand, M. Walking, running, and jumping. Am. Zool. 2: 151–155, 1962.
 1023. Hildebrand, M. Symmetrical gaits of horses. Science 150: 701–708, 1965.
 1024. Hildebrand, M. Analysis of the symmetrical gaits of tetrapods. Folia Biotheor. 6: 9–22, 1966.
 1025. Hildebrand, M. Symmetrical gaits of primates. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 26: 119–130, 1967.
 1026. Hildebrand, M. Symmetrical gaits of dogs in relation to body build. J. Morphol. 124: 353–360, 1968.
 1027. Hildebrand, M. Analysis of Vertebrate Structure. New York: Wiley, 1974.
 1028. Hildebrand, M. Analysis of tetrapod gaits: general considerations and symmetrical gaits. In: Neural Control of Locomotion, R. M. Herman, S. Grillner, P.S.G. Stein, and D. G. Stuart. New York: Plenum, 1976, 1976, p. 203–236.
 1029. Hildebrand, M. Analysis of asymmetrical gaits. J. Mammal. 58: 131–156, 1977.
 1030. Hildebrand, M. Insertions and functions of certain flexor muscles in the hind leg of rodents. J. Morphol. 155: 111–122, 1978.
 1031. Hildebrand, M. The adaptive significance of tetrapod gait selection. Am. Zool. 20: 255–267, 1980.
 1032. Hildebrand, M. Digging of quadrupeds. In: Functional Vertebrate Morphology, M. Hildebrand, D. M. Bramble, K. F. Liem, and D. B. Wake. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1985, p. 89–109.
 1033. Hildebrand, M., D. M. Bramble, K. F. Liem, and D. B. Wake. Functional Vertebrate Morphology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1985.
 1034. Hildebrand, M., and J. P. Hurley. Energy of the oscillating legs of a fast‐moving cheetah, pronghorn, jackrabbit, and elephant. J. Morphol. 184: 23–31, 1985.
 1035. Hill, A. V. The dimensions of animals and their muscular dynamics. Proc. R. Inst. Great Britain 34: 450–471, 1949.
 1036. Hill, A. V. The dimensions of animals and their muscular dynamics. Sci. Progr. 38: 209–230, 1950.
 1037. Hill, A. V. First and Last Experiments in Muscle Mechanics. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1970.
 1038. Hill, J. E., and J. D. Smith. Bats: A Natural History. Cambridge: Heffers, 1984.
 1039. Hillenius, D. On the origin of the anuran body‐form (Amphibia: Anura). Beaufortia 25: 63–76, 1976.
 1040. Hiller, U. Untersuchungen zum Feinbau und zur Funktion der Haftborsten von Reptilien. Z. Morphol. Tiere 62: 307–362, 1968.
 1041. Hiller, U. Zusammenhang zwischen vorbehandelten Polyäthylen‐Folien durch Koronar‐Entladung und dem Haftvermogen von Tarentola m. mauritanica (Rept.). Forma Functio. 1: 350–352, 1969.
 1042. Hiller, U. Licht‐ und elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen zur Haftborstenentwicklung bei Tarentola m. mauritanica L. (Reptilia, Gekkonidae). Z. Morphol. Tiere 73: 263–278, 1972.
 1043. Hirose, S. Biologically Inspired Robots. Snake‐like Locomotors and Manipulators, Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1993.
 1044. Hirsch, W. Zur physiologischen Mechanik des Froschsprungs. Z. Vergl. Physiol. 15: 1–49, 1931.
 1045. Hisaw, F., and H. Gloyd. The bullsnake as a natural enemy of injurious rodents. J. Mammal. 7: 200–205, 1926.
 1046. Hobson, E. S. Feeding relationships of teleostean fishes on coral reefs in Kona, Hawaii. Fish. Bull. U.S. 72: 915–1031, 1974.
 1047. Hochachka, P. W., and G. N. Somero. Biochemical Adaptation. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1984.
 1048. Hödler, F. Untersuchungen über die Entwicklung von Sacralwirbel und Urosryl bei den Anuren. Ein Beitrag zur Deutung des anuren Amphibientypus. Rev. Suisse Zool. 56: 748–790, 1949.
 1049. Hoerner, S. F. Fluid‐Dynamic Drag. Brick Town, New Jersey: Hoerner Fluid Dynamics, 1965.
 1050. Hofer, H. Ueber das Bewegungsspiel der Klammeraffen. Natur Volk. 88: 397–407, 1958.
 1051. Hoff, K. Morphological Determinants of the Fast Start Performance in Anuran Tadpoles. Halifax: Dalhousie Univ., 1987. Disssertation.
 1052. Hoff, K., N. Huq, V. A. King, and R. J. Wassersug. The kinematics of larval salamander swimming (Ambystomatidae: Caudata). Can. J. Zool. 67: 2756–2761, 1989.
 1053. Hoff, K., and R. J. Wassersurg. The kinematics of swimming in larvae of the clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. J. Exp. Biol. 122: 1–22, 1986.
 1054. Hoffer, J. A., and G. E. Loeb. Implantable electrical and mechanical interfaces with nerve and muscle. Ann. Biomed. 8: 351–360, 1980.
 1055. Hoffer, J. A., and G. E. Loeb. Effect of fusimotor blockade on discharge patterns of cat hindlimb spindle primaries during walking. Neurosci. Abstr. 7: 408, 1981.
 1056. Hoffer, J. A., G. E. Loeb, W. B. Marks, M. J. O'Donovan, C. A. Pratt, and N. Sugano. Cat hindlimb motoneurons during locomotion. I. Destination, axonal conduction velocity, and recruitment threshold. J. Neurophysiol. 57: 510–573, 1987.
 1057. Hoffer, J. A., G. E. Loeb, and C. A. Pratt. Single unit conduction velocities from averaged nerve cuff electrode records in freely moving cats. J. Neurosci. Meth. 4: 211–225, 1981.
 1058. Hoffer, J. A., M. J. O'Donovan, C. A. Pratt, and G. E. Loeb. Discharge patterns of hindlimb motoneurons during normal cat locomotion. Science 213: 466–468, 1981.
 1059. Hoffstetter, R., and J.‐P. Gasc. Vertebrae and ribs of modern reptiles. In: Biology of the Reptilia, C. Gans, A. d'A. Bellairs, and T. S. Parsons. London: Academic, 1969, vol. 2, p. 201–310.
 1060. Holbrook, K. A., and G. F. Odland. A collagen and elastic network in the wing of the bat. J. Anat. 126: 21–36, 1978.
 1061. Hollister, G. Caudal skeleton of Bermuda shallow water fishes. I. Order Isospondyli, Elopidae, Megalopidae, Albulidae, Clupeidae, Dussumieriidae, Engraulidae. Zoologica 22: 385–399, 1936.
 1062. Holmgren, N. On the origin of the tetrapod limb. Acta Zool. 14: 185–295, 1933.
 1063. Home, E. Observations intended to show that the progressive motion of snakes is partly performed by means of the ribs. Phil. Trans. Lond. 1812: 163–168, 1812.
 1064. Honegger, R. E. Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Wickelskinkes Corucia zebrata. Salamandra 11: 27–32, 1975.
 1065. Honegger, R. E., and, H. Heusser. Beiträge zum Verhaltensin‐ ventar des Bindenwarans (Varanus salvator). Zool. Garten. 36: 251–260, 1969.
 1066. Hopson, J. A. The functional significance of the hypocercal tail and lateral fin fold of anapsid ostracoderms. Fieldiana 33: 83–93, 1974.
 1067. Hopwood, P. R. Intrinsic musculature of pectoral limb of eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus major (Shaw), Macropus giganteus (Zimm.)). J. Anat. 1: 445, 1974.
 1068. Hopwood, P. R., and R. M. Butterfield. Musculature of proximal pelvic limb of eastern grey‐kangaroo Macropus major (Shaw) Macropus giganteus. (Zimm). J. Anat. 1: 259, 1976.
 1069. Hora, S. L. The adhesive apparatus on the toes of certain geckos and tree‐frogs. J. Proc. Asiatic Soc. Bengal 19: 137–145, 1924.
 1070. Hora, S. L. Ancient Hindu concepts of correlation between form and locomotion of fishes. J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal Sci. 1: 1–7, 1935.
 1071. Hori, H., Y. Mochizukei, E. Suzuki, T. Suzuki, and R. Goris. Preliminary experiments on the prevention of damage by snakes to high‐voltage transmission lines. Part 1 of 3: climbing ability of snakes. Acta Herpetol. Jpn. 2: 22–24, 1965.
 1072. Horner, E. B. Arboreal adaptations of Peromyscus, with special reference to use of the tail. Contrib. Univ. Mich. Lab. Vert. Biol. 61: 1–85, 1954.
 1073. Horton, P. Diversity and systematic significance of anuran tongue musculature. Copeia 1982: 595–602, 1982.
 1074. Houssey, S. F. Forme, puissance et stabilité des poissons. Paris: Herman, 1912.
 1075. Howell, A. B. Aquatic Mammals. Springfield, Illinois: C. C. Thomas, 1930.
 1076. Howell, A. B. Morphogenesis of the shoulder architecture. Part I. General considerations. Rev. Biol. 8: 247–259, 1933.
 1077. Howell, A. B. Morphogenesis of the shoulder architecture. Part II. Pisces. Q. Rev. Biol. 8: 434–456, 1933.
 1078. Howell, A. B. The architecture of the pectoral appendage of the dogfish. J. Morphol. 54: 399–413, 1933.
 1079. Howell, A. B. The swimming mechanism of the platypus. J. Mammal. 18: 217–222, 1937.
 1080. Howell, A. B. Morphogenesis of the architecture of hip and thigh. J. Morphol. 62: 177–218, 1938.
 1081. Howell, A. B. Speed in Animals, Their Specialization for Running and Leaping. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, 1944.
 1082. Howland, H. C. Optimal strategies for predator avoidance: the relative importance of speed and manoeuverability. J. Theor. Biol. 47: 333–350, 1974.
 1083. Hoyle, G. Muscles and Their Neural Control. New York: Wiley, 1983.
 1084. Hoyt, D. F., and C. R. Taylor. Why do ponies use different gaits when running at different speeds? Am. Zool. 19: 899, 1979.
 1085. Hoyt, D. F., and C. R. Taylor. Gait and the energetics of locomotion in horses. Nature 292: 239–240, 1981.
 1086. Hubbs, C. L. Observations on the flight of fishes, with a statistical study of the flight of the Cypselurinae and remarks on the evolution of the flight of fishes. Mich. Acad. Sci. 17: 575–611, 1933.
 1087. Hubbs, C. L. Further observations and statistics on the flight of fishes. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett. 22: 641–660, 1937.
 1088. Hudson, G. E. Studies on the muscles of the pelvic appendage in birds. Am. Midl. Nat. 18: 1–108, 1937.
 1089. Huene, F. Beobachtungen über die Bewegungsart der Extremitäten bei Krokodilen. Biol. Centralbl. 33: 468–472, 1913.
 1090. Huey, R. B. Phylogenetic and ontogenetic determinants of sprint performance in some diurnal Kalahari lizards. Koedoe 25: 43–48, 1982.
 1091. Huey, R. B. Natural variation in body temperature and physiological performance in a lizard (Anolis cristatellus). In: Advances in Herpetology and Evolutionary Biology—Essays in Honor of Ernest E. Williams, A. G. J. Rhodin and K. Miyata. Cambridge, MA: Museum of Comparative Zoology (Harvard University), 1983, p. 484–490.
 1092. Huey, R. B., and P. E. Hertz. Effects of body size and slope on sprint speed of a lizard (Stellio (Agama) stellio). J. Exp. Biol. 97: 401–409, 1982.
 1093. Huey, R. B., and P. E. Hertz. Effects of body size and slope on acceleration of a lizard (Stellio stellio). J. Exp. Biol. 110: 113–123, 1984.
 1094. Huey, R. B., and P. E. Hertz. Is a jack‐of‐all‐temperatures a master of none? Evolution 38: 441–444, 1984.
 1095. Huey, R. B., P. H. Niewiarowski, Jefferey Kaufmann, and J. C. Herron. Thermal biology of nocturnal ectotherms: is sprint performance of geckos maximal at low body temperatures? Physiol. Zool.: 488–504, 1988.
 1096. Huey, R. B., W. Schneider, G. L. Erie, and R. D. Stevenson. A field‐portable racetrack and timer for measuring acceleration and speed of small cursorial animals. Experientia 37: 1350–1357, 1981.
 1097. Hughes, G. R. The sea turtles of south‐east Africa. II. The biology of the Tongaland loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta L. with comments on the leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea L. and the green turtle Chelonia mydas L. in the study region. S. Afr. Assoc. Mar. Biol. Res., Oceanogr. Res. Inst. Investig. Rep. 36: 1–96, 1974.
 1098. Hughes, P. M., and J.M.V. Raynier. Addition of artificial loads to long‐eared bats Plecotus auritus. J. Exp. Biol. 161: 285–298, 1991.
 1099. Hughes, P., and J.M.V. Raynier. The flight of pipistrelle bats Pipistrellus pipistrellus during pregnancy and lactation. J. Zool. 230: 541–555, 1993.
 1100. Hui, C. A. Maneuverability of the Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) during swimming. Can. J. Zool. 63: 2165–2167, 1985.
 1101. Hui, C. A. The porpoising of penguins; an energy conserving behavior for respiratory ventilation? Can. J. Zool. 65: 209–211, 1987.
 1102. Hui, C. A. Penguin swimming. I. Hydrodynamics. Physiol. Zool. 61: 333–343, 1988.
 1103. Hui, C. A. Penguin swimming. II. Energetics and behavior. Physiol. Zool. 61: 344–350, 1988.
 1104. Hultborn, H. Book review. Trends Neurosci. 15: 310, 1992.
 1105. Hummel, D. Formation flight as an energy saving mechanism. Israel J. Zool. 41: 261–278, 1995.
 1106. Humphrey, P. S., and B. C. Livezey. Flightlessness in flying steamer‐ducks. Auk 99: 368–372, 1982.
 1107. Hunt, C. C., and S. W. Kuffler. Motor innervation of skeletal muscle: multiple innervation of individual muscle fibres and motor unit function. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 126: 293–303, 1954.
 1108. Hussain, S. T. Evolutionary and functional anatomy of pelvic limb in fossil and recent Equidae (Perissodactyla, Mammalia). Anat. Histol. Embryol. 4: 179, 1975.
 1109. Hutzschenreuter, P. O., E. Sekler, and G. Faust. Loads on muscles, tendons and bones in the hind extremities of sheep—a theoretical study. Anat. Histol. Embryol. 22: 67–82, 1993.
 1110. Ingen Schenau G. J. van, and P. R. Cavanagh. Power equations in endurance sports. J. Biomech. 23: 865–881, 1990.
 1111. Inger, R. F. Ecological aspects of the origin of tetrapods. Evolution 11: 373–376, 1957.
 1112. Inger, R. F. On the terrestrial origin of frogs. Copeia 1962: 835–836, 1962.
 1113. Inger, R. F. Morphological and ecological variation in the flying lizards (genus Draco). Fieldiana Zool. 1346: 1–35, 1983.
 1114. Inman, V. T., H. J. Ralston, and F. Todd. Human Walking. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1981.
 1115. Ireland, L. C., and C. Gans. The adaptive significance of the flexible shell of the tortoise Malacochersus tornieri. Anim. Behav. 20: 778–781, 1973.
 1116. Ishida, H., T. Kimura, and M. Okada. Patterns of bipedal walking in anthropoid primates. In: Proc. Symp. 5th Cong. Int. Primatol. Soc. Tokyo: Japan Science, 1974, p. 287–301.
 1117. Ishida, H., M. Okada, R. H. Tuttle, and T. Kimura. Activities of hind limb muscles in bipedal gibbons. In: Recent Advances in Primatology, D. J. Chivers and K. A. Joysey. London: Academic, 1978, vol. 3, p. 459–462.
 1118. Jackson, D. C. Buoyancy control in the freshwater turtle, Pseudemys scripta elegans. Science 166: 1649–1651, 1969.
 1119. Jackson, D. C. Mechanical basis for lung volume variability in the turtle Pseudemys scripta elegans. Am. J. Physiol. 220: 754–758, 1971.
 1120. Jacobson, R. D., and M. Hollyday. A behavioral and electromyographic study of walking in the chick. J. Neurophysiol. 48: 238–256, 1982.
 1121. Jaeger, R. G., D. E. Barnard, and R. G. Joseph. Foraging tactics of a terrestrial salamander assessing prey density. Am. Nat. 119: 490–496, 1982.
 1122. Jaekel, O. Die Flügelbildung der Flugsaurier und Vögel. Anat. Am. 48: 1–19, 1915.
 1123. James, C. D., and J. B. Losos. Diet and reproductive biology of the Australian sand‐swimming lizards, Eremiascincus (Scincidae). Wildl. Res. 18: 641–654, 1991.
 1124. Jarvik, E. On the exoskeletal shoulder‐girdle of teleostean fishes. Kungl. Svensk. Vetenskapsakad. Handl. 21: 1–32, 1944.
 1125. Jarvik, E. On the origin of girdles and paired fins. Isr. J. Zool. 14: 141–172, 1965.
 1126. Jarvik, E. Basic Structure and Evolution of Vertebrates. New York: Academic, 1980.
 1127. Jayes, A. S., and R. McN. Alexander. Mechanics of locomotion of dogs (Canis familiaris) and sheep (Ovis aries). J. Zool. 185: 289–308, 1978.
 1128. Jayes, A. S., and R. McN. Alexander. The gaits of chelonians: walking techniques for very low speeds. J. Zool. 191: 353–378, 1980.
 1129. Jayne, B. C. Comparative morphology of the semispinalis‐spinalis muscle of snakes and correlations with locomotion and constriction. J. Morphol. 172: 83–96, 1982.
 1130. Jayne, B. C. Swimming in constricting (Elaphe g. guttata) and nonconstricting (Nerodia fasciata pictiventris) colubrid snakes. Copeia 1985: 195–208, 1985.
 1131. Jayne, B. C. Kinematics of terrestrial snake locomotion. Copew 1986: 915–927, 1986.
 1132. Jayne, B. C. Muscular mechanisms of snake locomotion: an electromyographic study of lateral undulation of the Florida banded water snake (Nerodia fasciata) and the yellow rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta). J. Morphol. 197: 159–181, 1988.
 1133. Jayne, B. C. Muscular mechanisms of snake locomotion—an electromyographic study of the sidewinding and concertina modes of Crotalus cerastes, Nerodia fasciata and Elaphe obsoleta. J. Exp. Biol. 140: 1–33, 1988.
 1134. Jayne, B. C., and A. F. Bennett. The effect of tail morphology on locomotor performance of snakes: a comparison of experimental and correlative methods. J. Exp. Zool. 252: 126–133, 1989.
 1135. Jayne, B. C., and A. F. Bennett. Scaling of speed and endurance in garter snakes: a comparison of cross‐sectional and longitudinal allometries. J. Zool. 220: 257–277, 1990.
 1136. Jayne, B. C., and A. F. Bennett. Selection on locomotor performance capacity in a natural population of garter snakes. Evolution 44: 1204–1229, 1990.
 1137. Jayne, B. C., A. F. Bennett, and G. V. Lauder. Muscle recruitment during terrestrial locomotion: how speed and temperature affect fibre type use in a lizard. J. Exp. Biol. 152: 101–128, 1990.
 1138. Jayne, B. C., and J. D. Davis. Kinematics and performance capacity for the concertina locomotion of a snake (Coluber constrictor). J. Exp. Biol. 156: 539–556, 1991.
 1139. Jayne, B. C., and G. V. Lauder. Red and white muscle activity and kinematics of the escape response of the bluegill sunfish during swimming. J. Comp. Physiol. A173: 495–508, 1993.
 1140. Jayne, B. C., and G. V. Lauder. How swimming fish use slow and fast muscle fibers: implications for models of vertebrate muscle recruitment. J. Comp. Physiol. A175: 123–131, 1994.
 1141. Jayne, B. C., and G. V. Lauder. Comparative morphology of the myomeres and axial skeleton in four genera of centrarchid fishes. J. Morphol. 220: 185–205, 1994.
 1142. Jayne, B. C., and G. V. Lauder. Are muscle fibers within fish myotomes activated synchronously? Patterns of recruitment within deep myomeric musculature during swimming in large‐mouth bass. J. Exp. Biol. 198: 805–815, 1995.
 1143. Jayne, B. C., and G. V. Lauder. Red muscle motor patterns during steady swimming in largemouth bass: effects of speed and correlations with axial kinematics. J. Exp. Biol. 198: 1575–1587, 1995.
 1144. Jenkins, F. A., Jr. Limb movements in a monotreme (Tachyglossus aculteatus): a cineradiographic analysis. Science 168: 1473–1475, 1970.
 1145. Jenkins, F. A., Jr. Limb posture and locomotion in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) and in other non‐cursorial mammals. J. Zool. 165: 303–315, 1971.
 1146. Jenkins, F. A., Jr. The postcranial skeleton of African cynodonts: problems in the early evolution of the mammalian postcranial skeleton. Bull. Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist. 36: 1–216, 1971.
 1147. Jenkins, F. A., Jr. Chimpanzee bipedalism: cineradiographic analysis and implications for the evolution of gait. Science 178: 877–879, 1972.
 1148. Jenkins, F. A., Jr. Bakker's study on energy requirements for lizard locomotion. Soc. Vert. Paleo. News Bull. 95: 12, 1972.
 1149. Jenkins, F. A., Jr. Bakker's study on energetics of lizard locomotion. Soc. Vert. Paleo. News Bull. 96: 9, 1972.
 1150. Jenkins, F. A., Jr. Bakker's study on effect of body temperature on lizard locomotor energetics. Soc. Vert. Paleo. News Bull. 97: 19–20, 1973.
 1151. Jenkins, F. A., Jr. The movement of the shoulder in claviculate and aclaviculate mammals. J. Morpbol. 144: 71–84, 1974.
 1152. Jenkins, F. A., Jr. The evolution of the avian shoulder joint. Am. J. Sci. 293‐A: 253–267, 1993.
 1153. Jenkins, F. A., and S. M. Camazine. Hip structure and locomotion in ambulatory and cursorial carnivores. J. Zool. 181: 351–370, 1977.
 1154. Jenkins, F. A., Jr. Wrist rotation in primates: a critical adaptation for brachiators. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 48: 429–451, 1981.
 1155. Jenkins, A. F., Jr., and G. E. Goslow, Jr. The functional anatomy of the shoulder of the Savannah monitor lizard (Varanus exanthematicus). J. Morphol. 175: 195–216, 1983.
 1156. Jenkins, F. A., Jr., K. P. Dial, and G. E. Goslow, Jr. A cineradiographic analysis of bird flight: the wishbone in starlings is a spring. Science 241: 1495–1498, 1988.
 1157. Jenkins, F. A., Jr. and F. R. Parrington. The postcranial skeletons of the Triassic mammals Eozostrodon, Megazostrodon, Erythrotherium. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. B 273: 287–431, 1976.
 1158. Jensen, R. H., and W. K. Metcalf. A systematic approach to the quantitative description of musculo‐skeletal geometry. J. Anat. 119: 209–221, 1975.
 1159. Jenssen, T. A. Display diversity in anoline lizards and problems of interpretation. In: Behavior and Neurology of Lizards, edited by N. Greenberg and P. D. MacLean. Bethesda, MD: Natl. Inst. Mental Health, 1978, p. 269–285.
 1160. Joanen, T. Nesting ecology of alligators in Louisiana. Proc. 23rd Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Game Fish Comm, 1969, p. 141–151.
 1161. Joanen, T., and L. McNease. A telemetric study of nesting female alligators on Rockefeller Refuge, Louisiana. Proc. 24th Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Game Fish Comm. 1970, p. 175–193.
 1162. Joanen, T., and L. McNease. A telemetric study of adult male alligators on Rockefeller Refuge, Louisiana. Proc. 26th Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Game Fish Comm. 1972, p. 252–275.
 1163. John, K. O. Cholinesterase activity in the muscles of two lizards—a glider and a runner. J. Anim. Morphol. Physiol. 13: 126–132, 1966.
 1164. Johnson, C. R. Some behavioural observations on wild and captive sand monitors, Varanus gouldii (Sauria: Varanidae). Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 59: 377–380, 1976.
 1165. Johnson, G. D., and C. E. Baldwin. Accounting for endothermy in fishes. Science 265: 1249–1250, 1994.
 1166. Johnson, R. G. The adaptive and phylogenetic significance of vertebral form in snakes. Evolution 9: 367–388, 1955.
 1167. Johnson, T. P., and I. A. Johnston. Temperature adaptation and the contractile properties of live muscle fibres from teleost fish. J. Comp. Physiol. [B] 161: 27–36, 1991.
 1168. Johnson, T. P., S. J. Swoap, A. F. Bennett, and R. K. Josephson. Body size, muscle power output and limitations on performance in the lizard Dipsosaurus dorsalis. J. Exp. Biol. 174: 199–213, 1993.
 1169. Johnston, I. A. Structure and function of fish muscle. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 48: 71–113, 1981.
 1170. Johnston, I. A. Dynamic properties of fish muscle. In: Fish Biomechanics, P. W. Webb and D. Weihs. New York: Praeger, 1983, p. 36–67.
 1171. Johnston, I. A. Muscle action during locomotion: a comparative perspective. J. Exp. Biol. 160: 167–185, 1991.
 1172. Jones, A. T. The gliding of a snake. Physics 4: 164–165, 1933.
 1173. Jones, G., and J.M.V. Rayner. Flight performance, foraging tactics and echolocation in the trawling insectivorous bat Myotis adversus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). J. Zool. 225: 393–412, 1991.
 1174. Jordan, C. E. A model of rapid‐start swimming at intermediate Reynolds number: undulatory locomotion in the chaetognath Sagitta elegans. J. Exp. Biol. 163: 119–137, 1992.
 1175. Josephson, R. K. Mechanical power output from striated muscle during cyclic contractions. J. Exp. Biol. 114: 493–512, 1985.
 1176. Jouffroy, F. K. Quantitative and experimental approaches to primate locomotion a review of recent advances. In: Perspectives in Primate Biology, P. K. Seth and S. Seth. New Delhi: Today and Tomorrow, 1989, p. 47–108.
 1177. Jouffroy, F. K. Appendicular muscle. In: Traité de Zoologie, P.‐P. Grassé. Paris: Masson, 1995, (in press).
 1178. Jouffroy, F. K., W. L. Jungers, and J. T. Sterk, Jr. Tele‐electromyographie des divers faisseux des muscles quadriceps femoris au cours de la locomotion chez un lemurien (Lemur fulvis). C. R. Acad. Sci. 288: 1627–1630, 1979.
 1179. Jouffroy, F. K., and L. Lessertisseur. Relationships between limb morphology and locomotor adaptations among prosimians: an osteometric study. In: Environment, Behavior, and Morphology: Dynamic Interactions in Primates, M. E. Morbeck, H. Preuschoft, and N. Gomberg. New York: Gustav Fischer, p. 147–181, 1979.
 1180. Jouffroy, F. K., M. H. Stack, and C. Niemitz. Gravity posture and locomotion in primates. 11: 278, 1990.
 1181. Julian, F. J., and D. L. Morgan. Intersarcomere dynamics during fixed‐end tetanic contractions of frog muscle fibres. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 293: 365–378, 1979.
 1182. Juricic, D., and M. Vukobratovic. Mathematical modeling of a bipedal walking system. American Society of Mechanical Engineers preprint 72‐WA/BHF‐13, Winter Annual Meeting, New York, NY, November 26–30, 1972. New York: ASME, 1972, p. 1–8.
 1183. Kahn, A. J., and A. Roberts. Experiments on the central pattern generator for swimming in amphibian embryos. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 296: 229–243, 1982.
 1184. Kahn, J., and A. Roberts. The central nervous origin of the swimming motor pattern in embryos of Xenopus laevis. J. Exp. Biol. 99: 185–196, 1982.
 1185. Kahn, J., and A. Roberts. The neuromuscular basis of rhythmic struggling movements in embryos of Xenopus laevis. J. Exp. Biol. 99: 197–205, 1982.
 1186. Kahn, J., A. Roberts, and S. M. Kashin. The neuromuscular basis of swimming movements in embryos of the amphibian Xenopus laevis. J. Exp. Biol. 99: 175–184, 1982.
 1187. Kälin, J., and L. Knüsel. Ueber die Krallen der Crocodiliden. Rev. Suisse Zool. 51: 382–388, 1944.
 1188. Kälin, J., and L. Knüsel. Ueber die Lokomotion der Crocodiliden. Rev. Suisse Zool. 51: 389–393, 1944.
 1189. Kallner, M. Die Muskulatur und die Funktion des Schulterg‐ürtels und der Vorderextremität des Orang‐utans. Gegenbaurs. Morphol. Jb. 97: 556–665, 1956.
 1190. Kaplan, S. R., and G. E. Goslow, Jr. Neuromuscular organization of the pectoralis (pars thoracicus) of the pigeon (Columba livia): implications for motor control. Anat. Rec. 224: 426–430, 1989.
 1191. Karpendji, I. A. The Physiology of the Joints. Annotated Diagrams of the Mechanics of the Human Joints. Edinburg: Churchill Livingstone, 1970.
 1192. Katz, B., and S. W. Kuffler. Multiple motor innervation of the frog's sartorius muscle. J. Neurophysiol. 4: 209–223, 1941.
 1193. Kaup, L. Untersuchungen an der Hinterextremitätenmuskulatur bipeder Säugetiere. Zool. Anz. 194: 416–436, 1955.
 1194. Kaup, L. Investigations on bones of hind extremity and pelvis in bipedal rodents. Zool. Anz. 196: 241–254, 1976.
 1195. Kavanau, J. L. Wheel‐running preferences of mice. Z. Tierpsychol. 23: 858–866, 1966.
 1196. Keast, A., and D. Webb. Mouth and body form relative to feeding ecology in the fish fauna of a small lake, Lake Opinicon, Ontario. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 23: 1845–1874, 1966.
 1197. Keenleyside, M.H.A. Diversity and Adaptation in Fish Behaviour. New York: Springer‐Verlag, 1979.
 1198. Keller, T. S., and D. M. Spengler. In vivo strain gage implantation in rats. J. Biomech. 15: 911–917, 1982.
 1199. Kelso, J.E.H. Birds using their wings as a means of propulsion under water. Auk 34: 426–428, 1922.
 1200. Kielan‐Jarowoska, S. Discovery of multituberculate marsupial bone. Nature. 222: 1091–1092, 1969.
 1201. Kilham, L. Breeding and other habits of casqued hornbills (Bycanistes subcylandricus). Smithson. Misc. Collect. 131: 1–45, 1956.
 1202. Kirkpatrick, S. J. Scale effects of the stresses and safety factors in the wing bones of birds and bats. J. Exp. Biol. 190: 195–215, 1994.
 1203. Kishinouye, K. Contributions to the comparative study of the so‐called scombroid fishes. J. Coll. Agricult. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 8: 293–475, 1923.
 1204. Kizirian, D. A. Evolution of limblessness and fossoriality in Bachia (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae). Program, Comb. Mtg. Am. Soc. Ichthyol. Herpetol., Austin, Texas, 1993, p. 185.
 1205. Kleine, E. Bau und Funktion der Flughaut von Draco volans Linné. Bonn: Univ. of Bonn, 1914. Dissertation.
 1206. Klingel, H. Ueber das Flugverhalten von Draco volans (Agamidae) und verwandten Arten. Zool. Anz. 175: 273–281, 1965.
 1207. Knowles, T. W., and P. D. Weigl. Thermal dependence of anuran burst locomotor performance. Copeia 1990: 796–802, 1990.
 1208. Knüsel, L. Beiträge zur Morphologie‐und Function der Crocodiliden‐Extremitäten. Freiburg: Univ. of Freiburg, 1944. Dissertation.
 1209. Knüsel, L. Beiträge zur Morphologie und Function der Crocodiliden‐Extremitäten. Beitr. Jahrber. Kant. Lehranst. Somen.. 1–88, 1944.
 1210. Ko, T. C., and C. T. Farley. The rolling egg mechanism in walking lizards. Am. Zool. 32: 38A, 1992.
 1211. Kokkanen, J. E. The size of the largest land animal. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. 118: 491–499, 1986.
 1212. Kokshaysky, N. V. Tracing the wake of a flying bird. Nature 279: 146–148, 1979.
 1213. Kolok, A. S. The swimming performances of individual large‐mouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) are repeatable. J. Exp. Biol. 170: 265–270, 1992.
 1214. Kooyman, G. L., M. A. Castellini, and R. W. Davis. Physiology of diving in marine mammals. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 43: 343–356, 1981.
 1215. Krakauer, T., C. Gans, and C. V. Paganelli. Ecological correlation of water loss in burrowing reptiles. Nature 218: 659–660, 1968.
 1216. Krieg, H. Beiträge zur Rudimentierungsfrage nach Beobach‐tungen an Chalcides tridactylus, Anguis fragilis und Lacerta serpa. Zool. Anz. 48: 213–219, 1917.
 1217. Krüger, W. Der Bewegungsapparat. In: Handbuch der Zoologie. Mammalia, W. Kükenthal. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1958, vol. 6, p. 1–170.
 1218. Krumbiegel, I. Biologie der Säugetiere. Krefeld, Oberhausen: Agis Verlag, 1954.
 1219. Kükenthal, W., and T. Krumbach (founding editors, recently edited by J. G. Helke, D. Starck, and H. Wermuth). Handbuch der Zoologie. Eine Naturgeschichte der Stamme des Tierreiches.
 1220. Kumakura, H. Functional analysis of the biceps femoris muscle during locomotor behavior in some primates. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 79: 379, 1989.
 1221. Kumar, V., N. Berme, and M. G. Pandy. The dynamics of quadrupedal locomotion. J. Biomech. Eng. 110: 230–237, 1988.
 1222. Kummer, B. Beziehungen zwischen der mechanischen Funktion und dem Bau der Wirbelsäule bei quadrupeden Säugetieren. Z. Tierzucht. Züchtungsbiol. 74: 159–167, 1960.
 1223. Kummer, B. Statik und Dynamik des menschlichen Körpers. Handbuch der qesamten Arbeitsmedizin, I. Berlin: Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1961, p. 9–65.
 1224. Kuroda, N. Analysis of three adaptive body forms in the steganopodes, with a note on pectoral muscles. Misc. Rep. Yamashina Inst. Omithol. Zool. (Tokyo) 3: 54–66, 1961.
 1225. Kuroda, N. A note on the pectoral muscles of birds. Auk 78: 261–263, 1961.
 1226. Kuznetsov, V. M., B. A. Lugoutsov, and Y. N. Sher. On the motive mechanism of snakes and fish [in Russian]. Arch. Ratl. Mech. Anat. 25: 367–387, 1967.
 1227. Laerm, J. Aquatic bipedalism in the basilisk lizard: the analysis of an adaptive strategy. Am. Midl. Nat. 89: 314–333, 1973.
 1228. Laerm, J. A functional analysis of morphological variation and differential niche utilization in basilisk lizards. Ecology 55: 404–411, 1974.
 1229. Lafrentz, K. Die Flughaut von Draco volans, ihr Bau, ihre Entwicklung und Funktion, nebsts Bemerkungen über die Bedeutung der Kehlsäcke. Zool. Jahrb. Anat. 38: 593–642, 1914.
 1230. Lanczos, C. Applied Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1956.
 1231. Lande, R. Evolutionary mechanisms of limb loss in tetrapods. Evolution 31: 73–92, 1978.
 1232. Landsmeer, J.M.F. Digital morphology in Varanus and Iguana. J. Morphol. 168: 289–295, 1981.
 1233. Landsmeer, J.M.F. The mechanism of forearm rotation in Varanus exanthematicus. J. Morphol. 175: 119–130, 1983.
 1234. Landsmeer, J.M.F. Morphology of the anterior limb in relation to sprawling gait in Varanus. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 52: 27–45, 1984.
 1235. Lang, T. G. Hydrodynamic analysis of cetacean performance. In: Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises, edited by K. S. Norris. Berkeley: Univ. CA. Press, 1966, p. 410–432.
 1236. Lang, T. G. Speed, power, and drag measurements of dolphins and porpoises. In: Swimming and Flying in Nature, edited by T. Y.‐T. Wu, C. J. Brokaw, and C. Brennen. New York: Plenum, 1975, vol. 2, p. 553–572.
 1237. Lang, T. G., and D. A. Daybell. Porpoise performance tests in a seawater tank. Nav. Ord. Test. Stat. Tech. Rep. 3063: 1–50, 1963.
 1238. Langfeld, K. S., T. Crockford, and I. A. Johnston. Temperature acclimation in the common carp: force—velocity characteristics and myosin subunit composition of slow muscle fibers. J. Exp. Biol. 155: 291–304, 1991.
 1239. Lanoo, M. J., D. S. Townsend, and R. J. Wassersug. Larval life in the leaves: arboreal tadpole types, with special attention to the morphology, ecology, and behavior of the oophagous Osteopilus brunneus (Hylidae) larva. Fieldiana Zool. 38: 1–31, 1986.
 1240. Lauder, G. V. Caudal fin locomotion in ray‐finned fishes: historical and functional analysis. Am. Zool. 29: 85–102, 1988.
 1241. Lauder, G. V., A. W. Crompton, C. Gans, J. Hanken, K. F. Liem, W. O. Maier, A. Meyer, R. Presley, O. C. Rieppel, G. Roth, D. Schluter, and G. A. Zweers. How are feeding systems integrated and how have evolutionary innovations been introduced? In: Complex Organismal Functions: Integration and Evolution in Vertebrates, edited by G. Roth and D. B. Wake. New York: Wiley, 1989, p. 97–115.
 1242. Lauder, G. V., and K. F. Liem. The evolution and interrelationships of the actinopterygian fishes. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard Univ. 150: 95–197, 1983.
 1243. Lawson, R. The anatomy of Hypogeophis rostratus (Amphibia: Apoda or Gymnophiona). II. The musculature. Proc. Univ. Newcastle upon Tyne Phil. Soc. 1: 52–63, 1965.
 1244. Laybourne, R. C. Collision between a vulture and an aircraft at an altitude of 37,000 feet. Wilson Bull. 86: 461–462, 1974.
 1245. Le Boeuf, B. J., Y. Naito, A. C. Huntley, and T. Asaga. Prolonged, continuous, deep diving by northern elephant seals. Can. J. Zool. 67: 2514–2519, 1989.
 1246. Lee, D. N., M.N.O. Davies, P. R. Green, and F. R. Van der Weel. Visual control of velocity approach by pigeons when landing. J. Exp. Biol. 180: 85–104, 1993.
 1247. Lemelin, Pierre. Comparative and functional myology of the prehensile tail in New world monkeys. J. Morphol. 224: 351–368, 1995.
 1248. Leonard, C. J. The cranial morphology of the didactyl sand skink, Scelotes bipes sexlineatus (Harlan). Publ. Univ. West. Cape B (1): 1–88, 1978.
 1249. Leonard, C. J. A Functional Morphological Study of Limb Regression in Some Southern African Species of Scincidae (Reptilia: Sauria). Cape Town: Univ. of Cape Town, 1979. Dissertation.
 1250. Leonard, C. J. Evolution of limblessness among scincid lizards of South Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci. 77: 94 1981.
 1251. Leonard, C. J., and C. Gans. A transition from appendicular to axial progression in a series of scincid lizards. Am. Zool. 26: 133A, 1986.
 1252. Licht, P., W. R. Dawson, and V. H. Shoemaker. Heat resistance of some Australian lizards. Copeia 1966: 162–169, 1966.
 1253. Lieber, R. L., R. Raab, S. Kashin, and V. R. Edgerton. Sarcomere length changes during fish swimming. J. Exp. Biol. 169: 251–254, 1992.
 1254. Lighthill, J. Note on the swimming of slender fish. J. Fluid Mech. 9: 305–317, 1960.
 1255. Lighthill, J. Hydromechanics of aquatic animal propulsion. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 1: 413–446, 1969.
 1256. Lighthill, J. Aerodynamic aspects of animal flight. In: Swimming and Flying in Nature, edited by T. Y.‐T. Wu, C. J. Brokaw, and C. Brennen. New York: Plenum, 1975, vol. 2, p. 423–491.
 1257. Lighthill, J. Mathematical Biofluiddynamics. Philadelphia: Soc. Industrial Appl. Math., 1975.
 1258. Lighthill, J. A simple fluid‐flow model of ground effect on hovering. J. Fluid Mech. 93: 781–797, 1979.
 1259. Lighthill, J. Biofluiddynamics of balistiform and gymnotiform locomotion. Part 2. The pressure distribution arising in two‐dimensional irrotational flow from a general symmetrical motion of a flexible flat plate normal to itself. J. Fluid Mech. 213: 1–10, 1990.
 1260. Lighthill, J. Biofluiddynamics of balistiform and gymnotiform locomotion. Part 3. Momentum enhancement in the presence of a body of elliptical cross‐section. J. Fluid Mech. 213: 11–20, 1990.
 1261. Lighthill, J. Biofluiddynamics of balistiform and gymnotiform locomotion. Part 4. Short‐wavelength limitations on momentum enhancement. J. Fluid Mech. 213: 21–32, 1990.
 1262. Lighthill, J., and R. W. Blake. Biofluiddynamics of balistiform and gymnotiform locomotion. Part 1. Biological background, and analysis by elongated‐body theory. J. Fluid Mech. 212: 183–207, 1989.
 1263. Lillywhite, H. B., and R. W. Henderson. Behavioral and functional ecology of arboreal snakes. In: Ecology and Behavior, edited by R. A. Seigel and J. T. Collins. New York: McGraw‐Hill, 1993, p. 1–48.
 1264. Lima, S. L. Predation risk and unpredictable feeding conditions: determinants of body mass in birds. Ecology 67: 377–385, 1986.
 1265. Limpus, C. J., and N. C. McLachlan. Observations on the leatherback turtle, Dermochelys coriacea (L.), in Australia. Aust. Wildl. Res. 6: 105–116, 1979.
 1266. Lind, A. J., and H. H. Welsh, Jr. Ontogenetic changes in foraging behaviour and habitat use by the Oregon garter snake, Thamnophis atratus hydrophilus. Anim. Behav. 48: 1261–1273, 1994.
 1267. Lindsey, C. C. Form, function, and locomotory habits in fish. In: Fish Physiology, edited by W. S. Hoar and D. J. Randall. New York: Academic, 1978, vol. 7, p. 1–100.
 1268. Lindstedt, S. L., J. F. Hokanson, D. J. Wells, S. D. Swain, H. Hoppeler, and V. Naval. Running energetics in the pronghorn antelope. Nature 353: 748–750, 1991.
 1269. Lindstedt, S. L., H. Hoppeler, K. M. Bard, and H. A. Thronson, Jr. Estimate of muscle‐shortening rate during locomotion. Am. J. Physiol. 249 (Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol. 20): R699–R703, 1985.
 1270. Linnenbach, M. Zum Feinbau der Haftscheiben von Hyla cinerea (Schneider, 1799) (Salientia: Hylidae). Salamandra 21: 81–83, 1985.
 1271. Lissaman, P.B.S., and C. A. Shollenberger. Formation flight of birds. Science 168: 1003–1005, 1970.
 1272. Lissmann, H. W. Rectilinear locomotion in a snake (Boa occidentalis). J. Exp. Biol. 26: 368–379, 1950.
 1273. Livezey, B. C. Flightlessness in grebes (Aves, Podicipedidae): its independent evolution in three genera. Evolution 43: 29–54, 1989.
 1274. Livezey, B. C. Morphometric patterns in recent and fossil penguins (Aves, Sphenisciformes). J. Zool. 219: 269–307, 1989.
 1275. Livezey, B. C. Evolutionary morphology of flightlessness in the Auckland Islands teal. Condor 92: 639–673, 1990.
 1276. Livezey, B. C. Flightlessness in the Galapagos cormorant (Compsohalieus [Nannopterum] harrisi): heterochrony, giantism, and specialization. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 105: 155–224, 1992.
 1277. Livezey, B. C. Morphological corollaries and ecological implications of flightlessness in the kakapo (Psittaciformes: Strigops habroptilus). J. Morpbol. 213: 105–145, 1992.
 1278. Livezey, B. C. An ecomorphological review of the dodo (Raphus cucullatus) and solitaire (Pezophaps solitaria), flightless columbiformes of the Mascarene Islands. J. Zool. 230: 247–292, 1993.
 1279. Livezey, B. C. Morphology of flightlessness in Chendytes, fossil seaducks (Anatidae: Mergini) of California. J. Vert. Paleontol. 12: 185–199, 1993.
 1280. Livezey, B. C., and P. S. Humphrey. Mechanics of steaming in steamer‐ducks. Auk 100: 485–488, 1983.
 1281. Livezey, B. C., and P. S. Humphrey. Dividing behaviour of steamer ducks Tachyeres spp. Ibis 126: 257–260, 1984.
 1282. Livezey, B. C., and P. S. Humphrey. Flightlessness in steamer‐ducks (Anatidae: Tachyeres): its morphological bases and probable evolution. Evolution 40: 540–558, 1986.
 1283. Loeb, G. E. The control and responses of mammalian muscle spindles during normally executed motor tasks. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev. 12: 157–204, 1984.
 1284. Loeb, G. E., M. J. Bak, and J. Duysens. Long‐term unit recording from somatosensory neurons in the spinal ganglia of the freely walking cat. Science 197: 1192–1194, 1977.
 1285. Loeb, G. E., and J. Duysens. Activity patterns in individual hindlimb primary and secondary muscle spindle afferents during normal movements in unrestrained cats. J. Neurophysiol. 42: 420–440, 1979.
 1286. Loeb, G. E., and C. Gans. Electromyography for Experimentalists. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, 1986.
 1287. Loeb, G. E., C. A. Pratt, C. M. Chanaud, and F.J.R. Richmond. Distribution and innervation of short, interdigitated muscle fibers in parallel‐fibered muscles of the cat hindlimb. J. Morphol. 191: 1–15, 1987.
 1288. Loeb, L. B. The “flight” of flying fish. Science 83: 260–261, 1936.
 1289. Lombard, R. E., and S. S. Sumida. Recent progress in understanding early tetrapods. Am. Zool. 32: 609–622, 1992.
 1290. Londos, P. L., and R. J. Brooks. Time course of temperature acclimation of locomotory performance in the toad, Bufo woodhousii woodhousii. Copeia 1990: 827–835, 1990.
 1291. Long, C. A., and P. Kamensky. Osteometric variation and function of the high‐speed wing of the free‐tailed bat. Am. Midl. Nat. 77: 452–461, 1967.
 1292. Long, J. H. Stiffness and damping forces in the intervertebral joints of blue marlin (Makaira nigricans). J. Exp. Biol. 162: 131–155, 1992.
 1293. Long, J. H., Jr., M. J. McHenry, and N. C. Boetticher. Undulatory swimming: how traveling waves are produced and modulated in sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus). J. Exp. Biol. 192: 129–145, 1994.
 1294. Losos, J. B. Concordant evolution of locomotion behaviour, display rate and morphology in Anolis lizards. Anim. Behav. 39: 879–890, 1990.
 1295. Losos, J. B. Ecomorphology, performance capability and scaling of West Indian Anolis lizards: an evolutionary analysis. Ecol. Monogr. 60: 369–388, 1990.
 1296. Losos, J. B., T. J. Papenfuss, and J. R. Macey. Correlates of sprinting, jumping and parachuting performance in the butterfly lizard, Leiolepis belliani. J. Zool. 217: 559–568, 1989.
 1297. Losos, J. B., and B. Sinervo. The effects of morphology and perch diameter on sprint performance of Anolis lizards. J. Exp. Biol. 145: 23–30, 1989.
 1298. Lovegrove, B. G., G. Heldmaier, and M. Knight. Seasonal and circadian energetic patterns in an arboreal rodent, Thallomys paedulicus, and a burrow‐dwelling rodent Aethomys namaquensis from the Kalahari desert. J. Therm. Biol. 16: 199–209, 1991.
 1299. Lovejoy, C. O. The gait of Australopithecines. Yearbook Phys. Anthropol. 17: 147–161, 1973.
 1300. Lovejoy, C. O. Biomechanical perspectives of the lower limb of early hominids. In: Primate Morphology and Evolution, edited by R. H. Turtle. The Hague: Mouton, 1975, p. 291–326.
 1301. Lovejoy, C. O. A biomechanical review of the locomotor diversity of early hominids. In: African Hominidae of the Plio‐Pleistocene, edited by C. Jolly. London: Dukcsworth, 1977.
 1302. Lovejoy, C. O., K. G. Heiple, and A. H. Burstein. The gait of Australopithecus. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 38: 757–780, 1973.
 1303. Lovvorn, J. R. Mechanics of underwater swimming in foot‐propelled diving birds. In: Acta XX Congr. Int. Omithol., edited by B. D. Bell, R. O. Cossee, J.E.C. Flux, B. D. Heather, R. A. Hitchmough, C.J.R. Robertson, and M. J. Williams. Wellington, New Zealand: Trust Board, 1991, vol. 3, p. 1868–1874.
 1304. Lovvorn, J. R., and D. R. Jones. Effects of body size, body fat, and change in pressure with depth on buoyancy and cost of diving ducks (Aythya spp.). Canad. J. Zool. 69: 2871–2887, 1991.
 1305. Loworn, J. R., and D. R. Jones. Body mass, volume, and buoyancy of some aquatic birds, and their relation to locomotor strategies. Canad. J. Zool. 69: 2888–2892, 1991.
 1306. Lovvorn, J. R., D. R. Jones, and R. W. Blake. Mechanics of underwater locomotion in diving ducks: drag, buoyancy and acceleration in a size gradient of species. J. Exp. Biol. 159: 89–108, 1991.
 1307. Lubosch, W. Bau und Entstehung der Wirbeltiergelenke. Eine morphologische und histogenetische Untersuchung. Jena: Gustav Fischer, 1910.
 1308. Luff, A. R., and U. Proske. Properties of motor units of the frog sartorius muscle. J. Physiol. (Land.) 258: 673–685, 1976.
 1309. Luff, A. R., and U. Proske. Properties of motor units of the frog iliofibularis muscle. Am. J. Physiol. 236: C35–C40, 1979.
 1310. Luke, C. Convergent evolution of lizard toe fringes. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. Lond. 16: 1–16, 1986.
 1311. Lutterschmidt, W. I. The effect of surgically implanted transmitters upon the locomotory performance of the checkered garter snake, Thamnophis m. marcianus. Herpetol. J. 4: 11–14, 1994.
 1312. Lutz, G. J., and L. C. Rome. Built for jumping: the design of the frog muscular system. Science 263: 370–372, 1994.
 1313. Lynch, K. Structure of the rectus abdominis muscle in frog larvae and postmetamorphic juveniles. Anat. Rec. 205: 115A 1983.
 1314. Lynch, K. Growth and metamorphosis of the rectus abdominis muscle in Rana pipiens. J. Morphol. 182: 317–337, 1984.
 1315. Macartney, J. M., P. T. Gregory, and K. W. Larsen. A tabular survey of data on movements and home ranges of snakes. J. Herpetol. 22: 61–73, 1988.
 1316. MacDonnell, A. J., and R. W. Blake. Rheotaxis in Otocinclus sp. (Teleostei: Loricariidae). Can. J. Zool. 68: 599–601, 1990.
 1317. Machin, K. E., and J.W.S. Pringle. The physiology of insect fibrillar muscle II. Mechanical properties of a beetle flight muscle. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 151: 204–255, 1959.
 1318. Mack, R. N., and J. N. Thompson. Evolution in steppe with few large, hooved mammals. Am. Nat. 119: 757–773, 1982.
 1319. MacKay, B., A. R. Muir, and A. Peters. Observations on the terminal innervation of segmental muscle fibers in Amphibia. Acta Anat. 40: 1–12, 1960.
 1320. Macpherson, J. M. Strategies that simplify the control of quadrupedal stance. II. Electromyographic activity. J. Neurophysiol. 60: 218–231, 1988.
 1321. Macpherson, J. M., F. B. Horak, D. C. Dunbar, and R. S. Dow. Stance dependence of automatic postural adjustments in humans. Exp. Brain Res. 78: 557–566, 1989.
 1322. Maderson, P.F.A. Keratinized epidermal derivatives as an aid to climbing in gekkonid lizards. Nature 203: 780–781, 1964.
 1323. Maderson, P.F.A. Some macroscopic and microscopic observations on the foot‐pads of the tokay (Gekko gecko). Mem. Hong Kong Nat. Hist. Soc. 7: 6–10, 1966.
 1324. Maderson, P.F.A. Lizard glands and lizard hands: models for evolutionary study. Forma Functio. 3: 179–204, 1970.
 1325. Madsen, T. Movements, home range size and habitat use of radio‐tracked grass snakes (Natrix natrix) in southern Sweden. Copeia 1984: 707–713, 1984.
 1326. Magid, A., and D. J. Law. Myofibrils bear most of the resting tension in frog skeletal muscle. Science 230: 1280–1282, 1985.
 1327. Magnan, A. Les charactěristics des oiseaux suivant la mode de vol. Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. Zool. 5: 125–334, 1922.
 1328. Magne de la Croix, P. Filogenia de las locomociones cuadrupedal y bipedal en los vertebrados y evolucion de la forma consecutiva de la locomotion. Anal. Soc. Cient. Argent. 108: 383–406, 1929.
 1329. Magne de la Croix, P. Los andares cuadrupedales y bipedales de hombre y de mono. Semana Medica 48: 1581–1588, 1929.
 1330. Magne de la Croix, P. Evolutión del galope transverso. Anal. Soc. Cient. Argent. 113: 38–41, 1932.
 1331. Magne de la Croix, P. La locomoción juvenil en el hombre y en los mammíferos. Anal. Soc. Cient. Argent. 116: 281–285, 1933.
 1332. Magne de la Croix, P. The evolution of locomotion in mammals. J. Mammal. 17: 51–54, 1936.
 1333. Magnuson, J. J. Hydrostatic equilibrium of Euthynnus affinis, a pelagic teleost without a gas bladder. Copeia 1970: 56–85, 1970.
 1334. Magnuson, J. J. Locomotion by scombroid fishes: hydromechanics, morphology, and behavior. In: Fish Physiology, edited by W. S. Hoar and D. J. Randall. New York: Academic, 1978, vol. 7, p. 239–313.
 1335. Magnusson, W. E. Dispersal of hatchling crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) (Reptilia, Crocodilidae). J. Herpetol. 13: 227–231, 1979.
 1336. Magnusson, W. E., L. Junqueira de Paiva, R. Moreira da Rocha, C. R. Franke, L. A. Kasper, and A. P. Lima. The correlates of foraging mode in a community of Brazilian lizards. Herpetologica 41: 324–332, 1985.
 1337. Mahendra, B. C. Contributions to the bionomics, anatomy, reproduction and development of the Indian house‐gecko, Hemidactylus flaviviridis Ruppel. Part II. The problem of locomotion. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 13: 288–306, 1941.
 1338. Main, A. R., and Bakker Adaptation of macropod marsupials to aridity. In: Ecology and Biogeography of Australia, edited by A. Keast. The Hague: Junk, 1981, p. 1491–1519.
 1339. Maiorana, V. C. Tail autotomy, functional conflicts and their resolution in a salamander. Nature 265: 533–525, 1977.
 1340. Maissiat, J. Etudes de Physique Animate. Paris: Bethune et Plon, 1843.
 1341. Majupuria, T. C. On the burrowing habits of the common Indian mastigure, Uromastix hardwickii Gray. In: Proc. 46th Indian Sci. Congr. Calcutta, 1959, p. 409–410.
 1342. Malins, D. C., and Barone, A. Glyceryl ether metabolism: regulation of buoyancy in dogfish Squalus acanthias. Science 167: 79–80, 1970.
 1343. Malkmus, R. Ungewöhnliche Fluchtreaktion einer Lacerta lepida (Reptilia: Sauria: Lacertidae). Salamandra 18: 357–358, 1983.
 1344. Malnate, E. V. Observations on the vertebral hypapophyses and associated musculature in some snakes, with special reference to the Colubridae. Zool. Meded. (Leiden) 47: 221–239, 1972.
 1345. Maloiy, G.M.O., R. McN. Alexander, R. Njau, and A. S. Jaynes. Allometry of the legs of running birds. J. Zool. 187: 161–167, 1979.
 1346. Maloiy, G.M.O., N. C. Heglund, L. M. Prager, G. A. Cavagna, and C. R. Taylor. Energetic cost of carrying loads: have African women discovered an economic way?. Nature 319: 668–669, 1986.
 1347. Man, J. G. de. Myologie comparee de l'extrémité postérieure chez les amphibiens. Nederl. Arch. Zool. 2: 53–88, 1874–1875.
 1348. Manabe, N., E. Sato, K. Maruyama, and T. Ishibashi. Histo‐chemical analysis of the skeletal muscle fibers in five species of Japanese reptiles (Mauremys japonica, Gekko japonicus, Elaphe quadrivirgata, Elaphe climacophora, Rhabdophis tigrinus). Jpn. J. Herpetol. 9: 33–45, 1981.
 1349. Mann, C. C. Jumping blues. Nat. Hist. 96: 96–97, 1987.
 1350. Manter, J. T. The mechanics of swimming in the alligator. J. Exp. Zool. 83: 345–358, 1940.
 1351. Manzano, G., and A. J. McComas. Longitudinal structure and innervation in two mammalian hindlimb muscles. Muscle Nerve 11: 1115–1122, 1988.
 1352. Marcellini, D. L., and T. E. Keefer. Analysis of the gliding behavior of Ptychozoon lionatum (Reptilia: Gekkonidae). Herpetologica 32: 362–366, 1976.
 1353. Marchaj, C. A. Aero‐Hydrodynamics of Sailing. Camden, New Jersey: Int. Marine, 1988.
 1354. Marden, J. H. Maximum lift production during takeoff in flying animals. J. Exp. Biol. 130: 235–258, 1987.
 1355. Marey, E. J. Animal Mechanism: A Treatise on Terrestrial and Aerial Locomotion. New York: Appleton, 1874.
 1356. Marinelli, W., and A. Strenger. Vergleichende Anatomie und Morphologie der Wirbeltiere. II Lieferung. Klasse: Cyclostomata. Wien: Verlag Franz Deuticke, 1956, p. 81–172.
 1357. Marks, R. W. The Dymaxion World of Buckminster Fuller. Carbondale: Univ. S. IL Press, 1960.
 1358. Marsh, O. C. Odontothornithes: A Monograph on the Extinct Toothed Birds of North America. Rep. U. S. Geological Exploration of the 40th Parallel 7. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1880.
 1359. Marsh, R. L. Jumping ability of anuran amphibians. Adv. Vet. Sci. Comp. Med. (B) 38: 51–111, 1994.
 1360. Marsh, R. L., and A. F. Bennett. Thermal dependence of contractile properties of skeletal muscle from the lizard Sceloporus occidentalis with comments on methods for fitting and comparing force‐velocity curves. J. Exp. Biol. 126: 63–77, 1986.
 1361. Marsh, R. L., and A. F. Bennett. Thermal dependence of sprint performance of the lizard Sceloporus occidentalis. J. Exp. Biol. 126: 79–87, 1986.
 1362. Marsh, R. L., and H. B. John‐Alder. Jumping performance of hylid frogs measured with high‐speed cine film. J. Exp. Biol. 188: 131–141, 1994.
 1363. Marshall, N. B. The Life of Fishes. New York: Universe, 1966.
 1364. Martens, M., R. Van Audekercke De Meester, P., and J. C. Mulier. Mechanical behaviour of femoral bones in bending loading. J. Biomech. 19: 443–454, 1986.
 1365. Martin, T. P., S. Bodine‐Fowler, R. R. Roy, E. Eldred, and V. R. Edgerton. Metabolic and fiber size properties of cat tibialis anterior motor units. Am. J. Physiol. 255 (Cell Physiol. 24): C43–C50, 1988.
 1366. Mashima, H. Force‐velocity relation and contractility in striated muscles. Jpn. J. Physiol. 34: 1–17, 1984.
 1367. Masman, D., and M. Klaassen. Energy expenditure during free flight in trained and free‐living Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus). Auk 104: 603–616, 1987.
 1368. Mather, V., and M. Hines. Studies in the innervation of skeletal muscle. V. The limb muscles of the newt, Triturus torosus. Am. J. Anat. 54: 177–196, 1934.
 1369. Mathieu‐Costello, O., R. K. Suarez, and P. W. Hochachka. Capillary‐to‐fiber geometry and mitochondrial density in hummingbird flight muscle. Respir. Physiol. 89: 113–132, 1992.
 1370. Mattheck, C. Claw of the tiger: assessment of mechanical shape optimization. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 150: 323–328, 1991.
 1371. Maurer, F. Der Aufbau und die Entwicklung der ventralen Rumpfmuskulatur bei den urodelen Amphibien und deren Beziehung zu den gleichen Muskeln der Selachier und Teleostier. Morphol. Jahrb. 18: 76–179, 1891.
 1372. Maurer, F. Die ventrale Rumpfmuskulatur der anuren Amphibien. Morphol. Jahrb. 22: 225–263, 1895.
 1373. Maurer, F. Die ventrale Rumpfmuskulator von Menobranchus, Menopoma und Amphiuma, verglichen mit den gleichen Muskeln anderer Urodelen. Jena. Z. Naturwiss. 47: 1–42, 1911.
 1374. Mautz, W. J., C. B. Daniels, and A. F. Bennett. Thermal dependence of locomotion and aggression in a xantusiid lizard. Herpetologica 48: 271–279, 1992.
 1375. Maynard Smith, J. The importance of the nervous system in the evolution of animal flight. Evolution 6: 127–129, 1952.
 1376. Maynard Smith, J., and R.J.G. Savage. Some locomotory adaptations in mammals. J. Linn. Soc. 42: 603–622, 1956.
 1377. McClearn, D. Locomotion, posture, and feeding behavior of kinkajous, coatis, and raccoons. J. Mammal. 73: 245–261, 1992.
 1378. McComas, A. J., S. Kereshi, and G. Manzano. Multiple innervation of human muscle fiber. J. Neurol. Sci. 64: 55–64, 1984.
 1379. McCrea, R., G. McCrea, and B. Hiserote. Excavation habits of the bullsnake, Pituophis melanoleucus sayi. Bull. Phil. Herpetol. Soc. 11: 12 1964.
 1380. McCully, K. K. Exercise‐induced injury to skeletal muscle. Federation Proc. 45: 2933–2936, 1986.
 1381. McCutcheon, C. W. The trout tail fin: a self‐cambering hydrofoil. J. Biomech. 3: 271–281, 1970.
 1382. McCutcheon, C. W. Froude propulsive efficiency of a small fish measured by wake visualization. In: Scale Effects in Animal Locomotion, edited by T. J. Pedley. New York: Academic, 1977, p. 339–363.
 1383. McEwen, E. Mechanical quadrupeds. Mech. Eng. Nov.:78, 1969.
 1384. McGeer, T. Principles of walking and running. In: Mechanics of Animal Locomotion, edited by R. McN. Alexander. Berlin: Springer‐Verlag, 1992, p. 113–139.
 1385. McGhee, R. B. Some finite state aspects of legged locomotion. Math. BioSci. 2: 67–84, 1968.
 1386. McGowan, C. The hind limb musculature of the brown kiwi, Apteryx australis mantelli. J. Morphol. 160: 33–74, 1979.
 1387. McGowan, C. The wing musculature of the brown kiwi Apteryx australis mantelli and its bearing on ratite affinities. J. Zool. 197: 173–219, 1982.
 1388. McGowan, C. The ichthyosaurian tail: sharks do not provide an appropriate analogue. Palaeontology 35: 555–570, 1992.
 1389. McHanwell, S., and T. J. Biscoe. The localization of motoneurons supplying the hindlimb muscles of the mouse. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 3: 247 1981.
 1390. McIlhenny, E. A. The Alligator's Life History. Boston: Christopher, 1935.
 1391. McKitrick, M. C. Trends in the evolution of hindlimb musculature in aerial‐foraging birds. Auk 110: 189–206, 1993.
 1392. McLaughlin, R. L., and D. L. Kramer. The association between amount of red muscle and mobility in fishes: a statistical evaluation. Environ. Biol. Fish. 30: 369–378, 1991.
 1393. McLeod, W. D., and S. Hunter. Biomechanical analysis of the knee—primary functions as elucidated by anatomy. Phys. Ther. 60: 1561 1980.
 1394. McMahon, T. A. Using body size to understand the structural design of animals: quadrupedal locomotion. J. Appl. Physiol. 39: 619–627, 1975.
 1395. McMahon, T. A. Scaling quadrupedal galloping: frequencies, stresses and joint angles. In: Scale Effects in Animal Locomotion, edited by T. J. Pedley. London: Academic, 1977, p. 143–151.
 1396. McMahon, T. A., and J. T. Bonner. On Size and Life. New York: Scientific American, 1983.
 1397. McMahon, T. A., and G. C. Cheng. The mechanics of running: how does stiffness couple with speed?. J. Biomech. 23: 65–78, 1990.
 1398. McMahon, T. A., and P. R. Greene. Fast running tracks. Sci. Am. 239: 112–121, 1978.
 1399. McMurrich, J. P. The phylogeny of the forearm flexors. Am. J. Anat. 2: 177–209, 1903.
 1400. McMurrich, J. P. The phylogeny of the palmar musculature. Am. J. Anat. 2: 463–500, 1903.
 1401. McMurrich, J. P. The phylogeny of the crural flexors. Am. J. Anat. 4: 33–76, 1904.
 1402. McNab, B. K. The influence of body size on the energetics and distribution of fossorial and burrowing mammals. Ecology 60: 1010–1021, 1979.
 1403. Medway, L. The functions of the membranes of Ptychozoon spp. Malayan Nat. J. 29: 28–30, 1975.
 1404. Melville Jones, G., and D.G.D. Watt. Observations on the control of stepping and hopping movements in man. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 219: 709–727, 1971.
 1405. Melville Jones, G., and D.G.D. Watt. Muscular control of landing from unexpected falls in man. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 219: 729–737, 1971.
 1406. Mendel, F. C. Use of hands and feet of three‐toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) during climbing and terrestrial locomotion. J. Mammal. 66: 359–366, 1985.
 1407. Mertens, R. Ueber die Funktion des Schwanzes der Wirbeltiere. Naturwiss. Wochenschr. 20: 721–726, 1921.
 1408. Mertens, R. Fallschirmspringer und Gleitflieger unter den Amphibien und Reptilien. Natur Volk. 89: 338–346, 1959.
 1409. Mertens, R. Fallschirmspringer und Gleitflieger unter den Amphibien und Reptilien. In: Der Flug der Tiere, edited by H. Schmidt. Frankfurt: Waldemar Kramer, 1960, p. 135–144.
 1410. Mertens, R. Schwimmunfähige Wasserschildkröten. Natur Volk. 90: 127–133, 1960.
 1411. Mertens, R. Wenig bekannte Seitenwinder unter den Wüsten‐ottern Asiens. Natur Mus. 95: 346–352, 1965.
 1412. Mertens, R. Zur Frage der Fluganpassungen von Chrysopelea (Serpentes, Colubridae). Salamandra 6: 11–14, 1970.
 1413. Mertens, R., and W. Hennig (Eds). Das Tierreich. Eine Zusammenstellung und Kennzeichnung der rezenten Tierformen. Berlin: de Gruyter, various dates.
 1414. Mertens, R., and W. Senfft. Aus dem Leben des Faltengeckos (Ptychozoon kuhli Stejneger). Natur Mus. 59: 218–224, 1929.
 1415. Messinger, D. S. Mechanics of Walking and Swimming of the Duck Anas platyrhynchos. Columbus: Ohio State Univ. 1979. Dissertation.
 1416. Metcalfe, J. D., G. P. Arnold, and P. W. Webb. The energetics of migration by selective tidal stream transport: an analysis for plaice tracked in the southern North sea. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 70: 149–162, 1990.
 1417. Meyer, W., K. Neurand, R. Schwarz, T. Battels, and H. Althoff. Arrangement of elastic fibres in the integument of domesticated mammals. Scanning Microsc. 8: 375–391, 1994.
 1418. Meyers, R. A. Morphology of the shoulder musculature of the American kestrel, Falco sparverius, with implications for gliding flight. Zoomorphology 112: 91–93, 1992.
 1419. Meyers, R. A. Gliding flight in the American kestrel (Falco sparverius): an electromyographic study. J. Morphol. 215: 213–224, 1993.
 1420. Meyers, R. A., and J. W. Hermanson. Pectoralis muscle morpholgy in the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus: a nonconvergence with birds. J. Morphol. 219: 269–274, 1994.
 1421. Meyhöfer, E., and T. Daniel. Dynamic mechanical properties of extensor muscle cells of the shrimp Pandalus danae: cell design for escape locomotion. J. Exp. Biol. 151: 435–452, 1990.
 1422. Michael, C., and E. Michael. An adventure with a pair of harlequin ducks in the Yosemite Valley. Auk 34: 14–23, 1922.
 1423. Mijsberg, W. A. Die Anatomie der Verbindungen der Becken‐knochen bei den Säugetieren, in Bezug auf die statischen Einflusse, denen das Becken ausgesetzt ist. Anat. Hefte 1. Abt. 58: 456–613, 1920.
 1424. Miller, J. B., and F. E. Stockdale. What muscle cells know that nerves don't tell them. Trends Neurosci. 10: 325–329, 1987.
 1425. Miller, K., P. B. Monteforte, and L. F. Landis. Scaling of locomotor performance and enzyme activity in the leopard frog Rana pipiens. Herpetologia 49: 383–392, 1993.
 1426. Miller, K., G. C. Packard, and M. J. Packard. Hydric conditions during incubation influence locomotor performance of hatchling snapping turtles. J. Exp. Biol. 127: 401–412, 1987.
 1427. Miller, R. A. Functional and morphological adaptations in the forelimbs of the slow lemurs. Am J. Anat. 73: 153–183, 1943.
 1428. Mitchell, D., and D.A.H. Taylor. Are light head loads carried free?. Nature 321: 120 1986.
 1429. Mlíkovský, J. Evolution of flightlessness in birds: an ecological approach. In: Evolution and Environment, edited by V. J. A. Novak and J. Mlikovsky. Praha: CSAV, 1982, p. 693–730.
 1430. Monod, T. Le complexe urophore des poissons teleostéens. Mem. Inst. Fond. d'Afr. Noire 81: 1–705, 1968.
 1431. Montgomery, A. R., and J. A. MacDonald. Performance of motor systems in antarctic fishes. J. Comp. Physiol. [A] 154: 241–248, 1984.
 1432. Mook, C. C. Notes on the postcranial skeleton in the Crocodilia. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 44: 67–100, 1921.
 1433. Moore, F. R., and R. E. Gatten, Jr. Locomotor performance of hydrated, dehydrated and osmotically stressed anuran amphibians. Herpetologica 45: 101–110, 1989.
 1434. Moore, J. A. Understanding nature—form and function. Am. Zool. 28: 449–584, 1988.
 1435. Morgan, D. L. New insights into the behavior of muscle during active lengthening. Biophys. J. 57: 209–221, 1990.
 1436. Morgan, D. L., and U. Proske. Vertebrate slow muscle: its structure, pattern of innervation, and mechanical properties. Physiol. Rev. 64: 103–169, 1984.
 1437. Mori, A. A note on the sidewinding locomotion in two colubrid snakes, Opisthotropis typica and Pseudoxenodon macrops. Snake 25: 67–70, 1993.
 1438. Mori, A., and T. Hikida. A preliminary study of sexual dimorphism in wing morphology of five species of the flying lizards, genus Draco. Jpn. J. Herpetol. 14: 178–184, 1992.
 1439. Morris, J. M. Biomechanics of foot and ankle. Clin. Orthopaed. Rel. Res. 122: 10 1977.
 1440. Morrison, J. B. The mechanics of muscle function in locomotion. J. Biomech. 3: 431–451, 1970.
 1441. Morton, D. J. Evolution of the human foot. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 7: 1–52, 1924.
 1442. Morton, D. J. Mechanism of the normal foot and of flat foot. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 6: 368–406, 1924.
 1443. Mosauer, W. A note on the sidewinding locomotion of snakes. Am. Nat. 64, 179–183, 1930.
 1444. Mosauer, W. On the locomotion of snakes. Science 76: 583–585, 1932.
 1445. Mosauer, W. Ueber die Ortsbewegung der Schlangen. Eine Kritik und Ergänzung der Arbeit Wiedemann's. Zool. Jahrb. 52: 191–215, 1932.
 1446. Mosauer, W. Locomotion and diurnal range of Sonora occipitalis, Crotalus cerastes, and Crotalus atrox, as seen from their tracks. Copeia 1933: 14–16, 1933.
 1447. Mosauer, W. How fast can snakes travel?. Copeia 1935: 6–9, 1935.
 1448. Mosauer, W. The myology of the trunk region of snakes and its significance for ophidian taxonomy and phylogeny. UCLA Publ. Biol. Sci. 1: 81–120, 1935.
 1449. Mosauer, W., and K. Wallis. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Reptilienfauna von Tunesien. I. Ueber die Sandspuren einiger Kleintiere der Sahara und ihre Deutung aus dem Bewegungs‐mechanismus. Zool. Anz. 79: 195–207, 1928.
 1450. Mosimann, J. E. The evolutionary significance of rare matings in animal populations. Evolution 12: 246–261, 1958.
 1451. Moss, M. L. Skeletal tissues in sharks. Am. Zool. 17: 335–342, 1977.
 1452. Moy‐Thomas, J. A., and R. S. Miles. Palaeozoic Fishes. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1971.
 1453. Muhl, Z. F. Active length—tension relation and the effect of muscle pinnation on fiber lengthening. J. Morphol. 173: 285–292, 1982.
 1454. Muhl, Z. F., and G. K. Gedak. The influence of periosteus on tendon and ligament migration. J. Anat. 145: 161–171, 1986.
 1455. Müller, M. Die Reduktion des Brustschultergürtels der Saurier bis zum völligen Verluste desselben. Leipzig: Univ. of Leipzig, 1899. Dissertation.
 1456. Muntz, L. Myogenesis in the trunk and leg during development of the tadpole of Xenopus laevis (Daudin 1802). J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 33: 757–774, 1975.
 1457. Murakami, G., T. Nakasone, K. Akita, Y. Kato, I. Sato, and K. Shimada. Organization of motoneurons innervating the axial musculature of the brown caiman (Caiman crocodilus fuscus). J. Morpbol. 221: 75–86, 1994.
 1458. Murphy, P. R., and H. A. Martin. Fusimotor discharge patterns during rhythmic movements. Trends Neurosci. 16: 273–278, 1993.
 1459. Murphy, R. C. The jumping ability of a plethodon and its possible bearing upon the origin of saltation in the ancestors of the Anura. Copeia 1917: 105–106, 1917.
 1460. Mushinsky, H., and C. Gans. The role of the tail in tunnel passage by Neoseps reynoldsi. Amphibia Reptilia 13: 393–403, 1992.
 1461. Muybridge, E. Animal Locomotion; An Electro‐photographic Investigation of Consecutive Phases of Animal Movements. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania, 1887. (Reprinted in 3 vols. as Muybridge's Complete Human and Animal Locomotion. New York: Dover, 1979).
 1462. Nachtigall, W. Gleitflug des Flugbeutlers Petaurista breviceps papuanus. II. Filmanalysen zur Einstellung von Gleitbahn und Rumpf sowie zur Steuerung des Gleitflugs. J. Comp. Physiol. 133: 89–95, 1979.
 1463. Nachtigall, W. Vogelflug. Stuttgart: Gustav Fisher, 1985.
 1464. Nagy, K. A., R. B. Huey, and A. F. Bennett. Field energetics and foraging mode of Kalahari lacertid lizards. Ecology 65: 588–596, 1984.
 1465. Naik, K. K. A comparison of the muscles in the forearm of a flapping and a soaring bird. J. Anim. Morphol. Physiol. 1: 26–34, 1954.
 1466. Naik, K. K. The bearing of the weight of the pectoral muscles on the flight of some common Indian birds. J. Anim. Morphol. Physiol. 1: 71–76, 1954.
 1467. Napier, J. R. Primate Locomotion. Oxford: Oxford Biology Readers, 1976.
 1468. Nashner, L. M. Fixed patterns of rapid postural responses among leg muscles during stance. Exp. Brain Res. 30: 13 1977.
 1469. Nasledov, G. A. Predstavleniia ob evoliutsii skeletnykh myshts pozvanochnykh v svete dannykh sovremennoi fiziologii. Usp. Fiziol. Nauk. 3: 7–25, 1972.
 1470. Nassar, P. N., and D. R. Carrier. Function of the epaxial muscles during trotting. Am. Zool. 32: 148A 1992.
 1471. Naylor, B. G., and R. A. Nussbaum. The trunk musculature of caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). J. Morphol. 166: 259–273, 1980.
 1472. Neill, W. T. The Last of the Ruling Reptiles. Alligators, Crocodiles, and Their Kin. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1971.
 1473. Nelson, J. S. Fishes of the World. New York: Wiley, 1976.
 1474. Nelson, R. C., C. M. Brooks, and N. L. Pike. Biochemical comparison of male and female distance runners. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 301: 793–807, 1977.
 1475. Nettmann, H. K., and S. Rykena. Mauergeckos (Tarentola mauritanica), die ihre Eier im Sand vergraben (Reptilia: Sauria: Gekkonidae). Salamandra 15: 53–57, 1979.
 1476. Nevo, E. Population Studies of Anurans from the Lower Cretaceous of Makhtesh Ramon, Israel. Jerusalem: Hebrew Univ., 1964. Dissertation.
 1477. Nevo, E., R. Guttman, M. Haber, and E. Erez. Activity patterns of evolving mole rats. J. Mammol. 63: 453–463, 1982.
 1478. Nevo, E., G. Heth, and A. Beiles. Population structure and evolution in subterranean mole rats. Evolution 36: 1283–1289, 1982.
 1479. Nickel, R., A. Schummer, E. Seiferle, J. Frewein, H. Wilkens, and K.‐H. Wille. The Anatomy of the Domestic Animals. The Locomotor System of the Domestic Mammals, edited by R. Nickel, A. Schummer, and E. Seiferle. Hamburg: Verlag Paul Parey, 1986, vol. 1.
 1480. Nicolopoulos‐Stournaras, S., and J. F. Iles. Hindlimb muscle activity during locomotion in the rat ( Rattus norvegicus) (Rodentia: Muridae). Lond. J. Zool. 203: 427–440, 1984.
 1481. Nikolaichuk, L. A., and A. A. Vronskiy. Changes in the myomeric form of lateral musculature in several bony fishes with different levels of locomotor activity. E. E. Schmalhausen Inst. Zool. Ukrain. SSR Kiev 1989: 93–94, 1989.
 1482. Nishi, S. Zur vergleichenden Anatomie der eigentlichen (genuinen) Rückenmuskeln. (Spino‐dorsale Muskeln der tetrapoden Wirbeltiere.) Morphol. Jb. 50: 167–318, 1916.
 1483. Nishi, S. Pri la generala diferencigo de l'trunkomuskularo. II. Diferencigo de l'trunkomuskularo ce amfibioj, reptilioj, kaj mamulo J. Okajimas Folia Anat. Jpn. 3: 1–10, 1925.
 1484. Nishi, S. Muskeln des Rumpfes. In: Handbuch der vergleichenden Anatomie der Wirbeltiere, edited by L. Bolk, E. Göppert, E. Kallius, and W. Lubosch. Berlin: Urban and Schwarzenberg, 1938, vol. 5, p. 351–466.
 1485. Nishikawa, K., and R. Wassersug. Morphology of the caudal spinal cord in Rana (Ranidae) and Xenopus (Pipidae). J. Comp. Physiol. 269: 193–202, 1988.
 1486. Nishikawa, K. C., and C. Gans. The role of hypoglossal sensory feedback during feeding in the marine toad, Bufo marinus. J. Exp. Zool. 264: 245–252, 1992.
 1487. Nissan, M. Review of some basic assumptions in knee biomechanics. J. Biomech. 13: 375–381, 1980.
 1488. Noble, G. K. The phylogeny of the Salientia. I. The osteology and the thigh musculature; their bearing on classification and phylogeny. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 46: 1–78, 1922.
 1489. Noble, G. K. The Biology of the Amphibia. New York: McGraw‐Hill, 1931.
 1490. Nodzenski, E., and R. F. Inger. Uncoupling of related structural changes in metamorphosing torrent‐dwelling tadpoles. Copeia 1990: 1047–1054, 1990.
 1491. Nodzenski, E., R. J. Wassersug, and R. F. Inger. Developmental differences in visceral morphology of megophryine pelobatid tadpoles in relation to their body form and mode of life. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 38: 369–388, 1989.
 1492. Nopcsa, F. Ideas on the origin of flight. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 15: 223–236, 1907.
 1493. Nopsca, F. On the origin of flight in birds. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 23: 463–477, 1923.
 1494. Norberg, R. A. Why foraging birds in trees should climb and hop upwards rather than downwards. Ibis 123: 281–283, 1981.
 1495. Norberg, R. A. Optimum locomotion modes for birds foraging in trees. Ibis 125: 172–180, 1983.
 1496. Norberg, R. A. Function of vein asymmetry and shaft curvature in bird flight feathers; inference on flight ability of Archaeopteryx. In: The Beginnings of Birds, edited by M. K. Hecht, J. H. Ostrom, G. Viohl, and P. Wellnhofer. Willibaldsburg, Germany: Freunde Jura‐Museums, 1985, p. 303–318.
 1497. Norberg, R. A. Tree creeper climbing: mechanics, energetics, and structural adaptations. Ornis Scand. 2: 55–67, 1971.
 1498. Norberg, R. A., and U. M. Norberg. Take‐off, landing and flight speed during fishing flights of Gavia stellata. Ornis Scand. 17: 191–209, 1986.
 1499. Norberg, U. M. An arrangement giving a stiff leading edge to the hand wing in bats. J. Mammal. 50: 766–770, 1969.
 1500. Norberg, U. M. Functional osteology and myology of the wing of Plecotus auritus Linneaus (Chiroptera). Ark. Zool. 22: 483–543, 1970.
 1501. Norberg, U. M. Functional osteology and myology of the wing of the dog‐faced bat Rousettus aegyptiacus (E. Geoffrey) (Pteropidae). Z. Morphol. Tiere 73: 1–44, 1972.
 1502. Norberg, U. M. Bat wing structures important for aerodynamics and rigidity (Mammalia, Chiroptera). Z. Morphol. Tiere 73: 45–71, 1972.
 1503. Norberg, U. M. Hovering flight of the pied flycatcher. In: Swimming and Flying in Nature, edited by T. Y.‐T. Wu, C. J. Browkaw, and C. Brennan. New York: Plenum, 1975, vol. 2, p. 869–881.
 1504. Norberg, U. M. Some advanced flight manoeuvers of bats. J. Exp. Biol. 64: 489–495, 1976.
 1505. Norberg, U. M. Aerodynamics, kinematics, and energetics of horizontal flapping flight in the long‐eared bat Plecotus auritus. J. Exp. Biol. 65: 179–212, 1976.
 1506. Norberg, U. M. Allometry of bat wings and legs and comparison with bird wings. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. [B] 292: 359–398, 1981.
 1507. Norberg, U. M. Flight, morphology and the ecological niche. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 48: 173–197, 1981.
 1508. Norberg, U. M. Evolution of flight in birds: aerodynamic, mechanical and ecological aspects. In: The Beginnings of Birds, edited by M. K. Hecht, J. H. Ostrom, G. Viohl, and P. Wellnhofer. Willibaldsburg, Germany: Freunde Jura‐Museums, 1985, p. 199–207.
 1509. Norberg, U. M. Evolution of vertebrate flight: an aerodynamic model for the transition from gliding to flapping flight. Am. Nat. 126: 303–327, 1985.
 1510. Norberg, U. M. Flying, gliding and soaring. In: Functional Vertebrate Morphology, edited by M. Hildebrand, D. M. Bramble, K. F. Liem, and D. B. Wake. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, p. 129–158, 1985.
 1511. Norberg, U. M. Evolutionary convergence in foraging niche and flight morphology in insectivorous aerial‐hawing birds and bats. Ornis. Scand. 17: 253–260, 1986.
 1512. Norberg, U. M. On the evolution of flight and wing form in bats. In: Bat Flight, edited by W. Nachtigall. Stuttgart: Biona Report 5, 1986, p. 13–26.
 1513. Norberg, U. M. Vertebrate Flight. Berlin: Springer‐Verlag, 1990.
 1514. Norberg, U. M. Wing design and migratory flight. Israel J. Zool. 41: 261–278, 1995.
 1515. Norberg, U. M., and R. A. Norberg. Ecomorphology of flight and tree‐trunk climbing birds. Natl. Mus. Nat. Sci. 2: 2271–2282, 1989.
 1516. Norberg, U. M., and J.M.V. Rayner. Ecological morphology and flight in bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera): wing adaptations, flight performance, foraging strategy and echolocation. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. [B] 316: 335–427, 1987.
 1517. Norris, K. S. Observations on the habits of the horned lizard Phrynosoma m'callii. Copeia 1949: 176–180, 1949.
 1518. Norris, K. S. The lizard that swims in the sand. Nat. Hist. 60: 404–407, 1951.
 1519. Norris, K. S., and J. L. Kavanau. The burrowing of western shovel‐nosed snake, Chionactis occipitalis Hallowell, and the undersand environment. Copeia 1966: 650–664, 1966.
 1520. Nowak, R. M. Walker's Mammals of the World. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1991.
 1521. Nudell, B. M., and A. D. Grinnell. Regulation of synaptic position, size, and strength in anuran skeletal muscle. J. Neurosci. 3: 161–176, 1983.
 1522. Nursall, J. R. The lateral musculature and swimming of fish. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. [B] 126: 127–143, 1956.
 1523. Nursall, J. R. Swimming and the origin of paired appendages. Am. Zool. 2: 127–141, 1962.
 1524. Nussbaum, R. A. Heterotopic bones in the hindlimbs of frogs of the families Pipidae, Ranidae and Sooglossidae. Herpeto‐logica 38: 312–320, 1982.
 1525. Nussbaum, R. A., and B. G. Naylor. Variation in the trunk musculature in caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). J. Zool. 198: 383–398, 1982.
 1526. Nussbaum, R. A., and M. Wilkinson. On the classification and phylogeny of caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona), a critical review. Herp. Monogr. 3: 1–42, 1989.
 1527. Obbard, M. E., and R. J. Brooks. Nesting migrations of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina). Herpetologica 36: 158–162, 1980.
 1528. Obbard, M. E., and R. J. Brooks. A radio‐telemetry and mark‐recapture study of activity in the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina. Copeia 1981: 630–637, 1981.
 1529. Obst, F. J. Turtles, Tortoise and Terrapins. New York: St. Martin's, 1988.
 1530. Oedmichen, E. Propulseurs et Amortiseurs de Chocs chez les Animaux. Mechanismes Naturels et Technique Humaine II. Paris: Hermann et Cie, 1938.
 1531. Oehme, H. Untersuchungen über Flug and Flügelbau von Kleinvögeln. J. Ornithol. 100: 363–396, 1959.
 1532. Oehme, H. Flug and Flügel von Star und Amsel. Ein Beitrag zur Biophysik des Vogelfluges und zur vergleichenden Morphologie der Flugorgane. I. Teil: Biophysik des Fluges. Biol. Zbl. 82: 413–454, 1963.
 1533. Oehme, H. Flug und Flügel von Star und Amsel. Die Flugorgane. Biol. Zbl. 82: 569–587, 1963.
 1534. O'Hara, J. Thermal influences on the swimming speed of loggerhead turtle hatchlings. Copeia 1980: 773–780, 1980.
 1535. Okada, M., T. Kimura, H. Ishida, and S. Kondo. Biomechanical aspects of primate quadrupedalism. In: Biomechanics, edited by E. Assmussen and K. Jorgensen. Baltimore: Univ. Park, 1977, p. 119–124.
 1536. Oldham, R. S. Terrestrial locomotion in two species of amphibian larva. J. Zool. 181: 285–295, 1977.
 1537. Oliver, J. A. Gliding in amphibians and reptiles, with a remark on an arboreal adaptation in the lizard, Anolis carolinensis carolinensis Voigt. Am. Nat. 85: 171–176, 1951.
 1538. Oliver, J. A. The matamata: surely all turtles can swim.?. Anim. King. 62: 167–170, 1959.
 1539. Olson, E. C. The dorsal axial musculature of certain primitive Permian tetrapods. J. Morphol. 59: 265–311, 1936.
 1540. Orr, J. L. Canada geese flying in formation with sandhill cranes. Bull. Okla. Ornithol. Soc. 19: 2 1986.
 1541. Osburn, R. C. Adaptative modifications of the limb skeleton in aquatic reptiles and mammals. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 16: 447–482, 1906.
 1542. Ostrom, J. Archaeopteryx and the origin of flight. Q. Rev. Biol. 49: 27–47, 1974.
 1543. Ostrom, J. H. The cursorial origin of avian flight. In: The Origin of Birds and the Evolution of Flight, edited by K. Padian. San Francisco: Mem. CA. Acad. Sci., 1986, 8: 73–81.
 1544. Ostrom, J. H. Wing biomechanics and the origin of bird flight. N. Jb. Geol. Palaont. Abh. 195: 253–266, 1995.
 1545. Otten, E. Concepts and models of functional architecture in skeletal muscle. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev. 16: 89–137, 1988.
 1546. Otten, E. Mathematical and philosophical reflections on motor control systems. Acta Morphol. Neerl. Scand. 27: 163–169, 1989.
 1547. Ounjian, M., R. R. Roy, E. Eldred, A. Garfinkel, J. R. Payne, A. Marsh, R. L. Bennett, and A. F. Bennett. Thermal dependence of contractile properties of skeletal muscle from the lizard Sceloporus occidentalis with comments on methods for fitting and comparing force‐velocity curves. J. Exp. Biol. 126: 63–77, 1986.
 1548. Owre, O. T. Adaptations for locomotion and feeding in the anhinga and double‐crested cormorant. Ornithol. Monogr. 6: 1–138, 1967.
 1549. Oxnard, C. E. The functional morphology of the primate shoulder as revealed by comparative anatomical, osteometric and discriminant function techniques. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 26: 219–240, 1967.
 1550. Oxnard, C. E. Form and Pattern in Human Evolution. Some Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Approaches. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, 1973.
 1551. Oxnard, C. E., R. German, F. K. Jouffroy, and J. Lesserti. A morphometric study of limb proportions in leaping prosimians. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 54: 421 1981.
 1552. Pabst, D. A. Intramuscular morphology and tendon geometry of the epaxial swimming muscles of dolphins. J. Exp. Biol. 230: 159–176, 1993.
 1553. Pace, N., D. F. Rahlmann, and A. H. Smith. Scale effects in the musculoskeletal system, viscera and skin of small terrestrial mammals. Physiologist 22: S51–S54, 1979.
 1554. Pack, H. J. A burrowing habit of Cnemidophorus tessellatus (Say). Copeia 1918: 51–52, 1918.
 1555. Packard, G. C., and T. J. Boardman. The misuse of ratios to scale physiological data that vary allometrically with body size. In: New Directions in Ecological Physiology, edited by M. E. Feder, A. F. Bennett, W. W. Burggren, and R. B. Huey. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1987, p. 216–236.
 1556. Padian, K. Komodo dragons fit Triassic trackways. Zoonooz. 1982: 16–17, 1982.
 1557. Padian, K. A functional analysis of flying and walking in pterosaurs. Paleobiology 9: 218–239, 1983.
 1558. Padian, K., and P. E. Olsen. Footprints of the Komodo monitor and the trackways of fossil reptiles. Copeia 1984: 662–671, 1984.
 1559. Padian, K., and J. M. V. Rayner. The wings of pterosaurs. Am. J. Sci. 293A: 91–166, 1993.
 1560. Page, S. G. A comparison of the fine structures of frog slow and twitch muscle fibres. J. Cell Biol. 26: 447–497, 1965.
 1561. Paladino, F. V., and J. R. King. Energetic cost of terrestrial locomotion: biped and quadruped runners compared. Rev. Can. Biol. 38: 321–323, 1979.
 1562. Pal'tsev, Y. I. Interaction of the tendon reflex arcs in the lower limbs in man as a reflexion of locomotor synergism. Biofizika 12: 915–924, 1967.
 1563. Panchin, Y. V., R. J. Perrins, and A. Roberts. The action of acetylcholine of the locomotor central pattern generator for swimming in Xenopus embryos. J. Exp. Biol. 161: 527–531, 1991.
 1564. Pandy, M. G., V. Kumar, and N. Berme. The dynamics of quadrupedal locomotion. J. Biomech. 110: 230–237, 1988.
 1565. Parichy, D. M., and R. H. Kaplan. Developmental consequences of tail injury on larvae of the Oriental fire‐bellied toad, Bombina orientalis. Copeia 1992: 129–137, 1992.
 1566. Parrott, G. C. Aerodynamics of a gliding flight of a black vulture Coragyps atratus. J. Exp. Biol. 49: 509–526, 1970.
 1567. Parsons, T. S. The nose and Jacobson's organ. In: Biology of the Reptilia, edited by C. Gans and T. S. Parsons. London: Academic, 1970, vol. 2, p. 99–191.
 1568. Parsons, T. S., and J. M. Stein. A cat skeleton with an anomalous third hind leg and abnormal vertebrae. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 114: 293–317, 1956.
 1569. Patak, A., and J. H. Baldwin. Structural and metabolic characterization of the muscles used to power running in the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), a giant flightless bird. J. Exp. Biol. 175: 233–249, 1993.
 1570. Patten, W. The Evolution of the Vertebrates and their Kin. London: Churchill, 1912.
 1571. Patterson, C. The caudal skeleton in lower Liassic pholidophoroid fishes. Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. 16: 203–239, 1968.
 1572. Patterson, C. The caudal skeleton in Mesozoic acanthopterygian fishes. Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. 17: 49–102, 1968.
 1573. Patterson, R. G. Why tortoises float. J. Herpetol. 7: 373–375, 1973.
 1574. Paynter, R. A. Birds in the upper arctic. Auk 702: 79–80, 1955.
 1575. Peabody, F. E. Trackways of living and fossil salamanders. Univ. CA Publ. Zool. 63: 1–72, 1959.
 1576. Pearson, K. The control of walking. Sci. Am. 72–86, 1977.
 1577. Pennycuick, C. J. The strength of the pigeon's wing bones in relation to their function. J. Exp. Biol. 46: 219–233, 1967.
 1578. Pennycuick, C. J. Power requirements for horizontal flight in the pigeon Columbia livia. J. Exp. Biol. 49: 527–555, 1968.
 1579. Pennycuick, C. J. The mechanics of bird migration. Ibis 111: 525–556, 1969.
 1580. Pennycuick, C. J. Gliding flight of the white‐backed vulture Gyps africanus. J. Exp. Biol. 55: 13–38, 1971.
 1581. Pennycuick, C. J. Control of gliding angle in Ruppell's griffon vulture Gyps ruppellini. J. Exp. Biol. 55: 39–46, 1971.
 1582. Pennycuick, C. J. Gliding‐flight of the dog‐faced bat Rousettus observed in a wind tunnel. J. Exp. Biol. 55: 833–835, 1971.
 1583. Pennycuick, C. J. Animal Flight. London: Arnold, 1972.
 1584. Pennycuick, C. J. Soaring behaviour and performance of some East African birds, observed from a motor‐glider. Ibis 114: 178–218, 1972.
 1585. Pennycuick, C. J. Mechanics of flight. In: Avian Biology, edited by D. S. Farner and J. R. King. New York: Academic, 1975, vol. 5, p. 1–75.
 1586. Pennycuick, C. J. On the running of the gnu (Connochaetes taurinus) and other animals. J. Exp. Biol. 63: 775–799, 1975.
 1587. Pennycuick, C. J. The flight of petrels and albatrosses (Procellariiformes), observed in south Georgia and its vicinity. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. [B] 300: 75–106, 1982.
 1588. Pennycuick, C. J. Thermal soaring compared in three dissimilar tropical bird species, Fregata magnificens, Pelicanus occidentalis and Coragyps atratus. J. Exp. Biol. 102: 307–325, 1983.
 1589. Pennycuick, C. J. Mechanical constraints on the evolution of flight. Mem. CA Acad. Sci. 8: 83–98, 1986.
 1590. Pennycuick, C. J. Bird Flight Performance. A Practical Calculation Manual. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1989.
 1591. Pennycuick, C. J. Newton Rules Biology. A Physical Approach to Biological Problems. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1992.
 1592. Pennycuick, C. J. The use and misuse of mathematical flight models. Israel J. Zool. 41: 261–278, 1995.
 1593. Pennycuick, C. J., T. Alerstam, and B. Larsson. Soaring migration of the common crane Grus grus observed by radar and from aircraft. Ornis Scand. 10: 241–251, 1979.
 1594. Pennycuick, C. J., C. E. Hiene, S. J. Kirkpatrick, and M. R. Fuller. The profile drag of a hawk's wing, measured by wake sampling in a wind tunnel. J. Exp. Biol. 165: 1–19, 1992.
 1595. Pennycuick, C. J., and A. Lock. Elastic energy storage in primary feather shafts. J. Exp. Biol. 64: 677–689, 1976.
 1596. Pennycuick, C. J., and G. A. Parker. Structural limitations on the power output of the pigeon's flight muscles. J. Exp. Biol. 45: 489–498, 1966.
 1597. Pennycuick, C. J., and K. D. Scholey. Flight behavior of Andean condors Vultur gryphys and turkey vultures Cathartes aura around the Paracas Peninsula, Peru. Ibis 126: 253–256, 1984.
 1598. Pepperell, J. G. Tuatara. Spbenodon punctatus locomotion: a summary. N. Z. Wildl. Serv. Occas. Publ. 2: 207–211, 1982.
 1599. Perrin, A. Contributions a l'étude de la myologie comparée du membre posterieur chez un certain nombre de Batraciens et de Sauriens. Bull. Sci. France Belgique 24: 372–540 (Theses Fac. Sci. Paris 1–182), 1892.
 1600. Perrin, A. Muscles du pied chez la Salamandra maculosa et le Siredon pisciformis. Bull. Soc. Philomat. Paris 8: 118–124, 1892.
 1601. Perrin, A. Contribution à l'étude de la myologie comparée: Membre posterieur chez un certain nombre de batraciens et de sauriens. Bull. Sci. France Belgique 24: 1–187, 1893.
 1602. Perrin, A. Contribution à l'étude de la myologie et de l'osteo‐logie comparée du membre anterieur chez un certain nombre de Batraciens et de Sauriens. Bull. Sci. France Belgique 32: 220–282, 1899.
 1603. Perry, A. K., R. Blickhan, and A. A. Biewener. Preferred speeds in terrestrial vertebrates: are they equivalent?. J. Exp. Biol. 37: 207–219, 1988.
 1604. Peter, K. Die Entwicklung und funktionelle Gestaltung des Schädels von Icbthyophis glutinosus. Morphol. Jahrb. 25: 1–78, 1898.
 1605. Peters, D. S. Functional and constructional limitations in the early evolution of birds. In: The Beginnings of Birds, edited by M. K. Hecht, J. H. Ostrom, G. Viohl, and P. Wellnhofer. Willibaldsburg, Germany: Freunde Jura‐Museums, 1985, p. 243–249.
 1606. Peters, D. S., and W. F. Gutmann. Constructional and functional preconditions for the transition to powered flight in vertebrates. In: The Beginnings of Birds, edited by M. K. Hecht, J. H. Ostrom, G. Viohl, and P. Wellnhofer. Willibaldsburg, Germany: Freunde Jura‐Museums, 1985, p. 233–242.
 1607. Peters, S. E. Postnatal development of gait behavior and functional allometry in the domestic cat (Felis catus). J. Zool. 199: 461–486, 1983.
 1608. Peters, S. E. Properties of twitch muscle units of the ankle extensor muscles in the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. J. Morphol. 221: 121–131, 1994.
 1609. Peters, S. E., and G. E. Goslow, Jr. From salamanders to mammals: continuity in musculoskeletal function during locomotion. Brain Behav. Evol. 22: 191–197, 1983.
 1610. Peters, S. E., and C. Rick. The actions of three hamstring muscles of the cat: a mechanical analysis. J. Morphol. 152: 315–328, 1977.
 1611. Peterson, E. H. Introduction to the symposium: axial movement systems—an emerging focus for the study of movement. Am. Zool. 29: 3–4, 1989.
 1612. Peterson, J. A. Arboreal locomotor adaptation in the shoulder of Chamaeleo. Anat. Rec. 169: 400 1971.
 1613. Peterson, J. A. Adaptation for Arboreal Locomotion in the Shoulder Region of Lizards. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago, 1973. Dissertation.
 1614. Peterson, J. A. Speed‐correlated changes in gait, limb orientation and movement components in a generalized lizard. Am. Zool. 21: 937 1981.
 1615. Peterson, J. A. The locomotion of Chamaeleo (Reptilia: Sauria) with particular reference to the forelimb. J. Zool. 202: 1–42, 1984.
 1616. Peterson, J. A., J. A. Benson, J. G. Morin, and M. J. McFall‐Ngai. Scaling in tensile skeletons: scale dependent length of the Achilles tendon in mammals. J. Zool. 202: 361–372, 1984.
 1617. Peterson, J. A., J. A. Benson, M. Ngai, J. Morin, and C. Ow. Scaling in tensile skeletons: structures with scale‐independent length dimensions. Science 217: 1267–1270, 1982.
 1618. Peterson, J. A., and E. E. Williams. A case history in retrograde evolution: the onca lineage in anoline lizards. II. Subdigital fine structure. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 149: 215–268, 1981.
 1619. Peyton, A. J. Determination of the moment of inertia of limb segments by a simple method. J. Biomech. 19: 405–410, 1986.
 1620. Pietsch, T. W., and B. B. Grobecker. Frogfishes of the World. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1987.
 1621. Pietsch, T. W., and B. B. Grobecker. Frogfishes. Sci. Am. 257: 96–103, 1990.
 1622. Pinshow, B., M. A. Fedak, and K. Schmidt‐Nielsen. Terrestrial locomotion in penguins: it costs more to waddle. Science 195: 592–594, 1977.
 1623. Platt, D. R. Natural history of the hognose snakes Heterodon platyrhinos and Heterodon nasicus. Univ. Kans. Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. 18: 253–420, 1969.
 1624. Plummer, M. V. Habitat utilization, diet and movements of a temperate arboreal snake (Opheodrys aestivus). J. Herpetol. 15: 425–432, 1981.
 1625. Pond, C. M. The effect of tail loss on rapid running in Dipsosaurus dorsalis. Am. Zool. 18: 612 1978.
 1626. Pontious, H., and R. Vecchio. Recording footsteps. The interactive effect which occurs between the foot and a ground surface, commonly referred to as the human footstep force signature, is of interest to specialists in many fields of endeavor, and of particular interest to US Army. Instrument Control Syst. 41: 75–77, 1968.
 1627. Poole, E. L. Weights and wing areas of North American birds. Auk 55: 511–517, 1936.
 1628. Pooley, A. C. The burrowing behavior of crocodiles. Lammergeyer 10: 60–63, 1969.
 1629. Pooley, A. C., and C. Gans. The Nile crocodile. Sci. Am. 234: 114–124, 1976.
 1630. Pough, F. H. Physiological aspects of the burrowing of sand lizards (Uma, Iguanidae) and other lizards. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 31: 869–884, 1969.
 1631. Pough, F. H. The burrowing ecology of the sand lizard, Uma notata. Copeia 1970: 145–157, 1970.
 1632. Pough, F. H. Amphibians and reptiles as low‐energy systems. In: Behavioral Energetics, edited by W. P. Aspey and S. I. Lustick. Columbus: Ohio State Univ. Press, 1983, p. 141–188.
 1633. Pough, F. H., J. B. Heiser, and W. N. McFarland. Vertebrate Life. New York: MacMillan, 1989.
 1634. Pough, F. H., W. E. Magnusson, M. J. Ryan, K. D. Wells, and T. L. Taigen. Behavioral energetics. In: Physiological Ecology of the Amphibia, edited by M. Feder and W. Burggren. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, 1992, p. 277–313.
 1635. Powers, L. V., S. C. Kandarian, and T. H. Kunz. Ontogeny of flight in the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus: behavior, morphology, and muscle histochemistry. J. Comp. Physiol. [A] 168: 675–685, 1991.
 1636. Prandtl, L., and O. G. Tietjens. Applied Hydro‐ and Aeromechanics. New York: Dover, 1934.
 1637. Prange, H. D. Energetics of swimming of a sea turtle. J. Exp. Biol. 64: 1–12, 1976.
 1638. Pratt, C. A., C. N. Chanaud, and G. E. Loeb. Functionally complex muscles of the cat hindlimb. IV. Intramuscular distribution of movement command signals and cutaneous reflexes in broad, bifunctional thigh muscles. Exp. Brain Res. 85: 281–299, 1991.
 1639. Pratt, C. A., and G. E. Loeb. Functionally complex muscles of the cat hindlimb. I. Patterns of activation across sartorius. Exp. Brain Res. 85: 243–256, 1991.
 1640. Pratt, G. W., and J. T. O'Connor. Force plate studies of equine biomechanics. Am. J. Vet. Res. 37: 1251–1255, 1976.
 1641. Pregill, G. P. Axial myology of the racer Coluber constrictor with emphasis on the neck region. Transact. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 18: 185–206, 1977.
 1642. Presch, W. The evolution of limb reduction in the teiid lizard genus Bachia. Bull. S. CA Acad. Sci. 74: 113–121, 1975.
 1643. Preuschoft, H. Statische Untersuchungen am Fuss der Primaten. II. Statik dez ganzen Fusses. Zeit. Anat. Entwgsch. 131: 156–192, 1970.
 1644. Preuschoft, H. Body posture and locomotion in some East African Miocene Dryopithecinae. In: Human Evolution, edited by M. Day. London: Taylor and Francis, 1973, p. 13–46.
 1645. Preuschoft, H. Body posture and mode of locomotion in fossil primates—method and example: Aegyptopithecus zeuxis, Program, Symp. Sth Congr. Int. Primatol. Soc. 1974, p. 345–359.
 1646. Preuschoft, H., C. Lesch, H. Witte, and S. Recknagel. Die beim Springen zwischen Pferdebein and Stangen auftretenden Kra fte. Pferdeheilkunde 7: 355–362, 1991.
 1647. Pridmore, P. A. Terrestrial locomotion in monotremes (Mammalia: Monotremata). J. Zool. 205: 53–73, 1985.
 1648. Pridmore, P. A. Trunk movements during locomotion in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica (Didelphidae). J. Morphol. 211: 137–146, 1992.
 1649. Pridmore, P., A. Locomotion in Dromiciops australis (Marsupialia: Microbiotheriidae). Aust. J. Zool. 42: 679–699, 1994.
 1650. Priede, I. G., P. M. Bagley, J. D. Armstrong, K. L. Smith, Jr., and N. R. Merrett. Direct measurement of active dispersal of food‐falls by deep‐sea demersal fishes. Nature 351: 647–649, 1991.
 1651. Prilutsky, B. I., and V. M. Zatsiorsky. Tendon action of two‐joint muscles: transfer of mechanical energy between joints during jumping, landing, and running. J. Biomech. 27: 25–34, 1994.
 1652. Pritchard, P.C.H. International migrations of South American sea turtles (Cheloniidae and Dermochelidae). Anim. Behav. 21: 18–27, 1973.
 1653. Pritchard, P.C.H. Post‐nesting movements of marine turtles (Cheloniidae and Dermochelyidae) tagged in the Guianas. Copeia 1976: 749–754, 1976.
 1654. Prochazka, V. J., K. Tate, R. A. Westerman, and S. P. Ziccone. Remote monitoring of muscle length and EMG in unrestrained cats. Electrocephalogr. Clin. Neuropbysiol. 37: 649–653, 1974.
 1655. Proske, U., and D. L. Morgan. Tendon stiffness: methods of measurement and significance for the control of movement. A review. J. Biomech. 20: 75–82, 1987.
 1656. Prosser, C. L., and F. E. Brown, Jr. Comparative Animal Physiology. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1961.
 1657. Prost, J. H. The methodology of gait analysis and gaits of monkeys. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 23: 215–240, 1965.
 1658. Prost, J. H. Bipedalism of man and gibbon compared using estimates of joint motion. Am J. Phys. Anthropol. 26: 135–148, 1967.
 1659. Prost, W. J. Biomechanics of the foot. Can. Family Phys. 25: 827 1979.
 1660. Punzo, F. Tail autotomy and running speed in the lizards Cophosaurus texanus and Uma notata. J. Herpetol. 16: 329–331, 1982.
 1661. Purves, P. E. Locomotion of whales. Nature 197: 334–337, 1963.
 1662. Putnam, C. A. Sequential motions of body segments in striking and throwing skills: descriptions and explanations. J. Biomech. 26: 125–135, 1993.
 1663. Putnam, R. W., and A. F. Bennett. Thermal dependence of behavioural performance of anuran amphibians. Anim. Behav. 29: 502–509, 1981.
 1664. Putnam, R. W., and A. F. Bennett. Histochemical, enzymatic, and contractile properties of skeletal muscles of three anuran amphibians. Am. J. Physiol. 244 (Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol. 15): R558–R567, 1983.
 1665. Putnam, R. W., T. T. Gleeson, and A. F. Bennett. Histochemical determination of the fiber composition of locomotory muscles in a lizard, Dipsosaurus dorsalis. J. Exp. Zool. 214: 303–309, 1980.
 1666. Pyke, G. H. Optimal travel speeds of animals. Am. Nat. 118: 475–487, 1981.
 1667. Quinn, T. H., and J. J. Baumel. Chiropteran tendon locking mechanisms. J. Morphol. 216: 197–208, 1993.
 1668. Radin, E. L. Biomechanics of the human hip. Clin. Orthopaed. Rel. Res. 152: 28 1980.
 1669. Rado, R., and J. Terkel. A radio‐tracking system for subterranean rodents. J. Wildl. Manage. 53: 946–949, 1989.
 1670. Raibert, M. H. Symmetry in running. Science 231: 1292–1294, 1986.
 1671. Raibert, M. H. Trotting, pacing and bounding by a quadrupedal robot. J. Biomech. 23: 79–98, 1990.
 1672. Raibert, M. H., and I. E. Sutherland. Machines that walk. Sci. Am. 248: 44–53, 1983.
 1673. Raikow, R. J. Locomotor system. In: Form and Function in Birds, edited by A. S. King and J. McLelland. New York: Academic, 1985, p. 57–147.
 1674. Raikow, R. J., L. Bicanovsky, and A. H. Bledsoe. Forelimb joint mobility and the evolution of wing‐propelled diving in birds. Auk 105: 446–451, 1988.
 1675. Ramaekers, J.G.M. The dynamic shear modulus and damping of compact bovine metacarpal bone in dependence on the topography along the bone shaft. Neth. J. Zool. 29: 151–165, 1979.
 1676. Ramakrishnan, H. K., and M. P. Kadaba. On the estimation of joint kinematics during gait. J. Biomech. 24: 969–977, 1991.
 1677. Ramsey, R. W., and S. F. Street. The isometric length‐tension diagram of isolated skeletal muscle fibers of the frog. J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 15: 11–34, 1940.
 1678. Rand, A. L. Flying lizard rivals Philippine birds. Bull. Chicago Nat. Hist. Mus. 25: 3–6, 1954.
 1679. Rand, A. S. Jumping ability of certain anurans with notes on endurance. Copeia 1952: 15–20, 1952.
 1680. Rand, A. S. Inverse relationship between temperature and shyness in the lizard Anolis lineatopus. Ecology 45: 863–864, 1964.
 1681. Rand, A. S. On the frequency and extent of naturally occurring foot injuries in Tropidurus torquatus (Sauria, Iguanidae). Papeis Avulsos 17: 225–228, 1965.
 1682. Rand, A. S., and H. Marx. Running speed of the lizard Basiliscus basiliscus on water. Copeia 1967: 230–233, 1967.
 1683. Rand, A. S., and P. Rand. The relation of size and distance jumped in Bufo marinus. Herpetologica 22: 206–209, 1966.
 1684. Rankin, P. R. Burrow plugging in the netted dragon Amphibolurus nuchalis with reports on the occurrence in three other Australian agamids. Herpetofauna 9: 18–22, 1977.
 1685. Rashevsky, N. Mathematical Biophysics. Physiocomathematical Foundations of Biology (3rd ed.), New York: Dover, 1960, vol. 2.
 1686. Rasmussen, S., A. K. Chan, and G. E. Goslow, Jr. The cat step cycle: electromyographic patterns for hindlimb muscles during posture and unrestrained locomotion. J. Morphol. 155: 253–269, 1978.
 1687. Rathor, M. S. The Indian sand lizard, Ophiomorus tridactylus (Blyth) Boulenger that swims in the sand. Zool. Pol. 20: 527–529, 1970.
 1688. Raynaud, A. Morphogenése des membres rudimentaires chez les reptiles: un problème d'embryologie et d'évolution. Bull. Soc. Zool. France 97: 469–485, 1972.
 1689. Raynaud, A., M. Clergue‐Gazeau, and J. Brabet. Remarques preliminaires sur la structure de la patte du Seps tridactyle (Chalcides chalcides, L.). Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Toulouse 122: 109–111, 1986.
 1690. Rayner, J.M.V. A new approach to animal flight mechanics. J. Exp. Biol. 80: 17–54, 1979.
 1691. Rayner, J.M.V. A vortex theory to animal flight. Part 1. The vortex wake of a hovering animal. J. Fluid Mech. 91: 697–730, 1979.
 1692. Rayner, J.M.V. A vortex theory to animal flight. Part 2. The forward flight of birds. J. Fluid. Mech. 91: 731–763, 1979.
 1693. Rayner, J.M.V. Flight adaptations in vertebrates. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 48: 137–172, 1981.
 1694. Rayner, J.M.V. Bounding and undulating flight in birds. J. Theor. Biol. 117: 47–77, 1985.
 1695. Rayner, J.M.V. Flight adaptations in vertebrates. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 48: 137–172, 1985.
 1696. Rayner, J.M.V. Linear relations in biomechanics: the statistics of scaling functions. J. Zool. 206: 415–439, 1985.
 1697. Rayner, J.M.V. Vertebrate Flight: A Bibliography to 1985. Bristol: Univ. Bristol Press, 1985.
 1698. Rayner, J.M.V. Pleuston: animals which move in water and air. Endeavour 10: 58–64, 1986.
 1699. Rayner, J.M.V. Form and function in avian flight. Curr. Ornithol. 5: 1–66, 1988.
 1700. Rayner, J.M.V. Avian evolution and the problem of Archaeopteryx. Soc. Exp. Biol. Semin. Ser. 36: 183–211, 1991.
 1701. Rayner, J.M.V. On the aerodynamics of animal flight in ground effect. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. [B] 334: 119–128, 1991.
 1702. Rayner, J.M.V. Aerodynamic corrections for the flight of birds and bats in wind tunnels. J. Zool. 234: 537–562, 1994.
 1703. Rayner, J.V.M. Flight mechanics and constraints on flight performance. Israel J. Zool. 41: 261–278, 1995.
 1704. Rayner, J.M.V., and H.D.J.N. Aldridge. Three‐dimensional reconstruction of animal flight paths and turning flight of microchiropteran bats. J. Exp. Biol. 118: 247–265, 1985.
 1705. Rayner, J.M.V., G. Jones, and A. Thomas. Vortex flow visualizations reveal change in upstroke function with flight speed in bats. Nature 321: 162–164, 1986.
 1706. Rayner, J.M.V., and R. J. Wootton. Biomechanics in evolution. Soc. Exp. Soc. Semin. Ser. 36: 1–273, 1991.
 1707. Reed, C. A. Locomotion and appendicular anatomy in three soricoid insectivores. Am. Midl. Nat. 45: 513–671, 1951.
 1708. Reed, C. A. Temporary bipedal locomotion in the lizard Agama caucasica in Iraq. Herpetologica 12: 128 1956.
 1709. Reed, C. A. Non‐swimming water turtles in Iraq. Copeia 1957: 51 1957.
 1710. Reese, A. M. The breeding habits of the Florida alligator. Smithson. Misc. Collect. 48: 381–387, 1907.
 1711. Regal, P. J. The evolutionary origin of feathers. Q. Rev. Biol. 50: 35–66, 1975.
 1712. Regal, P. J. Common sense and reconstructions of the biology of fossils: Archaeopteryx and feathers. In: The Beginnings of Birds, edited by M. K. Hecht, J. H. Ostrom, G. Viohl, and P. Wellnhofer. Willibaldsburg, Germany: Freunde Jura‐Museums, 1985, p. 67–74.
 1713. Reichman, O. J., and S. Aitchison. Mammal trails on mountain slopes: optimal paths in relation to slope angle and body weight. Am. Nat. 117: 416–420, 1981.
 1714. Reid, J. A. Gliding by the green crested lizard. Malayan Nat. J. 12: 119 1958.
 1715. Reighard, J., and H. S. Jennings. Anatomy of the Cat. New York: Holt, 1935.
 1716. Reineck, H.‐E., and J. D. Howard. Alligatorfährten. Natur Mus. 108: 10–15, 1978.
 1717. Reiners, S., H. M. Smith, and D. Chizsar. Locomotion in the brown tree snake Boiga irregularis. J. Co. Wy. Acad. Sci. 20: 25 1988.
 1718. Reinking, R. M., J. A. Stephens, and D. G. Stuart. The tendon organs of cat medial gastrocnemius: significance of motor type and size for the activation of Ib afferents. J. Physiol. (London) 250: 491–512, 1975.
 1719. Reiser, G. D. A functional analysis of bipedalism in lizards. Am. Zool. 14: 1267 1974.
 1720. Remizov, L. P. Biomechanics of optimal flight in ski‐jumping. J. Biomech. 17: 167–171, 1984.
 1721. Renous, S. Place des Lepoidosauriens actuels dans l'evolution des transformations constitutionelles du plexus brachial des tetrapodes. Gegenbaur. Morphol. Jahrb. Leipzig 120: 777–790, 1974.
 1722. Renous, S. Retentissement de la rudimentation des membres sur leur innervation chez les reptiles squamates. Coll. Int. C.N.R.S. Paris 266: 365–379, 1976.
 1723. Renous, S. Le problème de la rudimentation des membres chez les squamates. Contribution à l'étude de la réduction des membres pelviens. Bull. Biol. France Belgique 111: 75–84, 1977.
 1724. Renous, S. Retentissement de la rudimentation du membre posterieur sur son innervation chez les reptiles squamates. Morphol. Jahrb. 123: 881–901, 1977.
 1725. Renous, S. Locomotion. Paris: Dunod, 1994.
 1726. Renous, S., and V. Bels. Étude cinématique de la palette natatoire anterieure de la tortue Luth, Dermochelys coriacea (Vandelli, 1761), au cours de sa locomotion terrestre. Can. J. Zool. 69: 495–503, 1991.
 1727. Renous, S., and V. Bels. Comparison between aquatic and terrestrial locomotion of the leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea). J. Zool. 230: 357–378, 1993.
 1728. Renous, S., and J.‐P. Gasc. Étude de la locomotion chez un vertébré tétrapode. Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. Paris 19: 137–186, 1977.
 1729. Renous, S., and J.‐P. Gasc. Étude des modalités de réduction des membres chez un Squamate serpentiforme: Scelotes, scincidé afro‐malgache. Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. Paris 1: 99–132, 1979.
 1730. Renous, S., and J.‐P. Gasc. L'allure du potto (Perodicticus potto Muller, 1766) (Lorisinae, Primates) au cours de son deplacement sur un support horizontal. Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. Paris 2: 117–130, 1980.
 1731. Renous, S., and J.‐P. Gasc. Reflexions sur une allure asymetrique: le galop. Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. Paris 4: 25–31, 1982.
 1732. Renous, S., and J.‐P. Gasc. Le fouissage des Gymnophiones (Amphibia): hypothese morphofunctionelle fondée sur la comparaison avec d'autres vertebres apodes. Zool. Jahrb. 114: 95–130, 1986.
 1733. Renous, S., and J.‐P. Gasc. Body and vertebral proportions in Gymnophiona (Amphibia): diversity of morphological types. Copeia 1989: 837–847, 1989.
 1734. Renous, S., and J.‐P. Gasc. Position spatiale des squamates dans leur environnement: hypothese concernant le determinisme de l'anisotropie corporelle refletée par les microornementations des ecailles. Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. Paris 10: 183–196, 1989.
 1735. Renous, S., and J.‐P. Gasc. Morphological aspects and locomotor capacities in Gymnophiona (Amphibia). Program, Proc. Sixth Ord. Gen. Mtg. Societatis Europea Herpetologiae, edited by Z. Korsos and I. Kiss. Budapest, 1992, p. 1–3.
 1736. Renous, S., and R. Jullien. Les grands troncs nerveux du zeugopode des lacertiliens. Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Zool. 23: 167–206, 1972.
 1737. Renous, S., E. Hofling, and J.‐P. Gasc. Analysis of the locomotion pattern of two microteiid lizards with reduced limbs, Calyptommatus leiolepis and Nothobachia ablephara (Gymnophthalmidae). Zoology 99: 21–38, 1995.
 1738. Renous, S., J. Lescure, J.‐P. Gasc, and V. Bels. Intervention des membres dans la locomotion et le creusement du nid chez la tortue luth (Dermochelys coriacea) (Vandelli, 1961). Amphibia Reptilia 10: 355–369, 1990.
 1739. Rewcastle, S. C. The Structure and Function of the Crus and Pes in Extant Lacertilia. London: Univ. of London, 1977. Dissertation.
 1740. Rewcastle, S. C. Form and function in lacertilian knee and mesotarsal joints; a contribution to the analysis of sprawling locomotion. J. Zool. 191: 147–170, 1980.
 1741. Rewcastle, S. C. Stance and gait in tetrapods: an evolutionary scenario. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 48: 239–267, 1981.
 1742. Rewcastle, S. C. Fundamental adaptations in the lacertilian hind limb: a partial analysis of the sprawling limb posture and gait. Copeia 1983: 476–487, 1983.
 1743. Rhodes, D. H., and M. E. Richmond. Influence of soil texture, moisture and temperature on nest‐site selection and burrowing by the pine vole, Microtus pinetorum. Am. Midl. Nat. 113: 102–108, 1985.
 1744. Ribbing, L. Die distale Armmuskulatur der Amphibien, Reptilien und Saugetiere. Zool. Jahrb. 23: 587–682, 1907.
 1745. Richmond, F.J.R., and V. C. Abrahams. Morphology and enzyme histochemistry of dorsal muscles of the cat neck. J. Neurophysiol. 38: 1312–1321, 1975.
 1746. Richmond, F.J.R., and D. G. Stuart. Distribution of sensory receptors in the flexor carpi radialis muscle of the cat. J. Morphol. 183: 1–13, 1985.
 1747. Richmond, N. D. The mechanical functions of the testudinate plastron. Am. Midl. Nat. 72: 50–56, 1964.
 1748. Ricklefs, R. E., R. E. Shea, and I.‐H. Choi. Inverse relationship between functional maturity and exponential growth rate of avian skeletal muscle: a constraint on evolutionary response. Evolution 48: 1080–1088, 1994.
 1749. Riegel, P. S. Athletic records and human endurance. Am. Sci. 69: 285–290, 1981.
 1750. Rieppel, O. Studies on the skull of the Henophidia (Reptilia, Serpentes). J. Zool. 181: 145–173, 1977.
 1751. Rieppel, O. Studies on skeleton formation in reptiles. IV. The homology of the reptilian (Amniote) astragalus revisited. J. Vert. Paleontol. 13: 31–47, 1993.
 1752. Riezebos, C., and G.C.A. Elshoud. Dynamic analysis of the vertical jump in human. Generation of torques during restrained and unrestrained motion. Zool. Jahrb. 122: 255–265, 1992.
 1753. Ripley, S. The leaping of langurs: a problem in the study of locomotor adaptation. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 26: 149–170, 1967.
 1754. Ritter, D. Lateral bending during lizard locomotion. J. Exp. Biol. 173: 1–10, 1992.
 1755. Rizzi, M. A., and B. Covelli. Biomechanische Aspekte der menschlichen Haltung. Z. Orthopaed. Grenzgeb. 114: 833 1976.
 1756. Roberts, A. The neurons that control axial movements in a frog embryo. Am. Zool. 19: 53–63, 1989.
 1757. Roberts, A., and J.D.W. Clarke. The neuroanatomy of an amphibian embryo spinal cord. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. [B] 296: 195–212, 1982.
 1758. Roberts, A., N. Dale, and S. R. Soffe. Sustained responses to brief stimuli: swimming in Xenopus embryos. J. Exp. Biol. 112: 321–335, 1984.
 1759. Roberts, A., and J. A. Khan. Intracellular recordings from spinal neurons during swimming in paralysed amphibian embryos. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. [B] 196: 213–228, 1982.
 1760. Roberts, A., J. A. Kahn, S. R. Soffe, and J.D.W. Clarke. Neural control of swimming in a vertebrate. Science 213: 1032–1034, 1981.
 1761. Robichon, J., J. Pegington, and V. B. Moonje. Functional anatomy of ankle joint and its relationship to ankle injuries. Can. J. Surg. 15: 145 1973.
 1762. Robinson, J. A. The locomotion of plesiosaurs. Neu. Jahrb. Geol. Palaont. Abh. 149: 286–332, 1975.
 1763. Robinson, P. L. The functions of the hooked fifth metatarsal in lepidosaurian reptiles. Colloq. Int. C.N.R.S. 218: 461–483, 1975.
 1764. Rodda, G. Fence climbing by the arboreal snake Boiga irregularis. Snake 13: 101–103, 1991.
 1765. Rodda, G. H., and J. B. Phillipa. Navigational systems develop along similar lines in amphibians, reptiles, and birds. Ethol., Ecol. & Evol. 4: 43–51, 1992.
 1766. Rodrigues, M. T. Herpetofauna das dunas interiores do Rio Sao Francisco, Bahia, Brasil. I. Introduçao a area e descriçao de um novo genero de microteideos (Calyptommatus) com notas sobre sua ecologia, distribuiçao e especiaçao (Sauria, Teiidae). Pap. Avuls. Zool. 37: 285–320, 1991.
 1767. Röll, B. Epidermal fine structure of the toe tips of Sphaerodactylus cinereus (Reptilia, Gekkonidae). J. Zool. 135: 289–300, 1995.
 1768. Rome, L. C. Energetic cost of running with different muscle temperatures in Savannah monitor lizards. J. Exp. Biol. 99: 269–277, 1982.
 1769. Rome, L. C. The effect of long‐term exposure to different temperatures on the mechanical performance of frog muscle. Physiol. Zool. 56: 33–40, 1983.
 1770. Rome, L. C. Scaling of muscle fibres and locomotion. J. Exp. Biol. 168: 243–252, 1992.
 1771. Rome, L. C. The mechanical design of the muscular system. In: Comparative Vertebrate Exercise Physiology: Underlying Physiological Principles, edited by J. H. Jones. Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine, vol. 38A: 125–179. Orlando, FL: Academic, 1994, (in press).
 1772. Rome, L. C., I. Choi, G. Lutz, and A. Sosnicki. The influence of temperature on muscle function in the fast‐swimming scup. I. Shortening velocity and muscle recruitment during swimming. J. Exp. Biol. 163: 259–279, 1992
 1773. Rome, L. C., R. P. Funke, and R. McN. Alexander. The influence of temperature on muscle velocity and sustained performance in swimming carp. J. Exp. Biol. 154: 163–178, 1990.
 1774. Rome, L. C., R. P. Funke, and R. McN. Alexander, G. Lutz, H. Aldridge, F. Scott, and M. Freadman. Why animals have different muscle fibre types. Nature 335: 824–827, 1988.
 1775. Rome, L. C., and A. A. Sosnicki. The influence of temperature on mechanics of red muscle in carp. J. Physiol. 427: 151–169, 1990.
 1776. Rome, L. C., and A. A. Sosnicki. Myofilament overlap in swimming carp. II. Sarcomere length changes during swimming. Am. J. Physiol. 260 (Cell Physiol. 29): C289–C296, 1991.
 1777. Rome, L. C., and D. Swank. The influence of temperature on power output of scup red muscle during cyclic length changes. J. Exp. Biol. 171: 261–281, 1992.
 1778. Rome, L. C., D. Swank, and D. Corda. How fish power swimming. Science 261: 340–343, 1993.
 1779. Romer, A. S. The locomotor apparatus of certain primitive and mammal‐like reptiles. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 46: 517–606, 1922.
 1780. Romer, A. S. Crocodilian pelvic muscles and their avian and reptilian homologues. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 48: 533–552, 1923.
 1781. Romer, A. S. Pectoral limb musculature and shoulder‐girdle structure in fish and tetrapods. Anat. Rec. 27: 119–143, 1924.
 1782. Romer, A. S. The development of tetrapod limb musculature—the thigh of Lacerta. J. Morphol. 71: 251–298, 1942.
 1783. Romer, A. S. The Osteology of the Reptiles. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, 1956.
 1784. Romer, A. S. Vertebrate Paleontology. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, 1966.
 1785. Romer, A. S., and T. S. Parsons. The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1986.
 1786. Rooney, J. R. Biomechanics of equine lameness. Cornell Vet. 58: 49–58, 1968.
 1787. Rooney, J. R. Studies in equine biomechanics—vector application to muscle function. J. Equine Med. Surg. 1: 118 1977.
 1788. Rooney, J. R. Viewpoints—studies in equine biomechanics. J. Equine Med. Surg. 1: 287 1977.
 1789. Rooney, J. R. Studies in equine biomechanics. J. Equine Med. Surg. 1: 352 1977.
 1790. Rooney, J. R. Studies in equine biomechanics. J. Equine Med. Surg. 2: 107 1978.
 1791. Rooney, J. R. Studies in equine biomechanics. J. Equine Med. Surg. 2: 246 1978.
 1792. Rooney, J. R. Viewpoints—studies in equine biomechanics. J. Equine Med. Surg. 3: 43 1979.
 1793. Rooney, J. R. Studies in equine biomechanics. J. Equine Med. Surg. 3: 316 1979.
 1794. Roos, P. J. Lateral bending in newt locomotion. Proc. Kon. Nederl. Akad. Wetens. Amsterdam C 67: 223–232, 1964.
 1795. Rose, K. D. Climbing adaptations in the early Eocene mammal Chriacus and the origin of Artiodactyla. Science 236: 314–316, 1987.
 1796. Rose, W. The Reptiles and Amphibians of South Africa. Cape Town: Miller, 1950.
 1797. Rosen, D. E. Teleostean interrelationships, morphological function and evolutionary inference. Am. Zool. 22: 261–273, 1982.
 1798. Rosen, M. W. Water flow about a swimming fish. U.S. Nav. Ord. Test Station Tech. Publ. 2298: 1–96, 1959.
 1799. Rosenberg, H., N. Haugaard, and E. S. Haugaard. Alteration by halothane of glucose and glycogen metabolism in rat skeletal muscle. Anesthesiology 46: 313–318, 1977.
 1800. Rosier, H. First observation of bipedal locomotion in a gecko, Homopholis (Blaesodactylus) sakalava (Reptilia: Sauria: Gekkonidae). J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr. 30: 13–14, 1984.
 1801. Rosser, B.W.C. The wing muscles of the American coot. Can. J. Zool. 58: 1758–1773, 1980.
 1802. Rosser, B.W.C., M. B. Davis, J. R. Brocklebank, and J. C. George. On the histochemical characterization and distribution of fast and slow fibers in certain avian skeletal muscles. Acta Histochem. 81: 85–93, 1987b.
 1803. Rosser, B.W.C., and J. C. George. Histochemical characterization and distribution of fiber types in the pectoralis muscle of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) and emu (Dromanus novae‐hollandae). Acta. Zool. 66: 191–198, 1985.
 1804. Rosser, B.W.C., and J. C. George. Slow muscle fibers in the pectoralis of the turkey vulture (Cathartes aura): an adaptation for soaring flight. Zool. Anz. 217: 252–258, 1986.
 1805. Rosser, B.W.C., and J. C. George. The avian pectoralis: histochemical characterization and distribution of muscle fiber types. Can. J. Zool. 64: 1174–1185, 1986.
 1806. Rosser, B.W.C., J. C. George, and S. K. Frombach. Architecture of the pectoralis muscle of the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica): histochemical and ultrastructural characterization, and distribution of muscle fiber types. Can. J. Zool. 65: 63–71, 1987.
 1807. Rosser, B.W.C., D. M. Secoy, and P. W. Riegert. The leg muscles of the American coot (Fulica americana Gmelin). Can. J. Zool. 60: 1236–1256, 1982.
 1808. Roy, R. R., P. L. Powell, P. Kanim, and D. R. Simpson. Architectural and histochemical analysis of the semitendinosus muscle in mice, rats, guinea pigs and rabbits. J. Morphol. 181: 155–180, 1984.
 1809. Ruben, J. A. Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism during activity in snakes. J. Comp. Physiol. 109: 147–157, 1976.
 1810. Ruben, J. A. Correlation of enzymatic activity, muscle myoglobin concentration and lung morphology with activity metabolism in snakes. J. Exp. Zool. 197: 313–319, 1976.
 1811. Ruben, J. A. Morphological correlates of predatory modes in the coachwhip (Masticophis flagellum) and rosy boa (Lichanura roseofusca). Herpetologica 33: 1–6, 1977.
 1812. Ruben, J. A. Reptilian physiology and the flight capacity of Archaeopteryx. Evolution 45: 1–17, 1991.
 1813. Ruben, J. Powered flight in Archaeopteryx: response to Speakman. Evolution 47: 935–938, 1993.
 1814. Ruben, J. A., A. F. Bennett, and F. L. Hisaw. Selective factors in the origin of the mammalian diaphragm. Paleobiology 13: 54–59, 1987.
 1815. Ruben, J. A., and C. Geddes. Some morphological correlates of striking in snakes. Copeia 1983: 221–225, 1983.
 1816. Rubin, C. T., and L. E. Lanyon. Limb mechanics as a function of speed and gait: a study of functional strains in the radius and tibia of horse and dog. J. Exp. Biol. 101: 187–211, 1982.
 1817. Rudge, D. W. Structure, function, and variation in the hind‐limb muscles of the Margarornis assemblage (Aves: Passeri‐formes: Furnariidae). Ann. Carnegie Mus. 61: 207–237, 1992.
 1818. Rüdiger, N. Die Muskeln der vorderen Extremitäten der Reptilien und Vögel mit besonderer Rücksicht auf die analogen und homologen Muskeln bei den Säugethieren und dem Menschen. Haarlem: Erven Loosjes, 1868.
 1819. Ruibal, R., and V. Ernst. The structure of the digital setae of lizards. J. Morphol. 117: 271–293, 1965.
 1820. Rüppell, G. Bird Flight. New York: Van Nostrand Rein‐hold, 1977.
 1821. Rushmer, R. F., D. L. Kranklin, and R. M. Ellis. Left ventricle dimensions recorded by sonocardiography. Circ. Res. 14: 684–688, 1956.
 1822. Russell, A. P. A contribution to the functional analysis of the foot of the tokay, Gekko gecko (Reptilia: Gekkonidae). J. Zool. 176: 437–476, 1975.
 1823. Russell, A. P. The origin of parachuting locomotion in gliding lizards. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 65: 233–249, 1979.
 1824. Russell, A. P. Descriptive and functional anatomy of the digital vascular system of the tokay, Gekko gecko. J. Morphol. 169: 293–323, 1981.
 1825. Russell, A. P. The morphological basis of weight‐bearing in the scansors of the tokay gecko (Reptilia: Sauria). Can. J. Zool. 64: 948–955, 1986.
 1826. Russell, A. P. Limb muscles in relation to lizard systematics: a reappraisal. In: Phylogenetic Relationships of the Lizard Families: Essays Commemorating Charles L. Camp, edited by R. Estes and G. Pregill. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1988, p. 493–568.
 1827. Russell, A. P. The aponeuroses of the lacertilian ankle. J. Morphol. 218: 65–84, 1993.
 1828. Russell, A. P., and A. M. Bauer. Paraphalangeal elements of gekkonid lizards: a comparative survey. J. Morphol. 197: 221–240, 1988.
 1829. Russell, A. P., and A. M. Bauer. Digit I in pad‐bearing gekkonine geckos: alternate designs and the potential constraints of phalangeal number. Mem. Queens. Mus. 29: 452–472, 1990.
 1830. Russell, A. P., and A. M. Bauer. Substrate excavation in the Namibian web‐footed gecko, Palmatogecko rangei Andersson 1908, and its ecological significance. Trop. Zool. 3: 197–207, 1990.
 1831. Russell, A. P., and S. C. Rewcastle. Digital reduction in Sitana (Reptilia: Agamidae) and the dual roles of the fifth metatarsal in lizards. Can. J. Zool. 57: 1129–1135, 1979.
 1832. Rylkoff, H. Die Entwicklung der Schultermuskeln bei urodelen Amphibien. Z. Wiss. Zool. 122: 116–171, 1924.
 1833. Sabatier, A. Comparaison des ceintures et des membres anterieurs et posterieurs dans la serie des vertebres. Mem. Acad. Sci. Lett. Montpellier, 1880.
 1834. Saint‐Aubain, M. L. Amphibian limb ontogeny and its bearing on the phylogeny of the group. Z. Zool. Syst. Evolforsch. 19: 175–194, 1981.
 1835. Sajdak, R. A., M. A. Nickerson, R. W. Henderson, and M. W. Moffett. Notes on the movements of Basiliscus plumifrons. (Sauria: Iguanidae) in Costa Rica. Milwaukee Publ. Mus. Contr. Biol. Geol. 36: 1–8, 1980.
 1836. Salmon, M., and J. Wyneken. Orientation and swimming behavior of hatchling loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta L. during their offshore migration. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 109: 107–153, 1987.
 1837. Sanders, J., and M. Davies. Burrowing behaviour and associated hindlimb myology in some Australian hylid and leptodactylid frogs. Aust. Zool. 21: 123–142, 1984.
 1838. Sanes, J. R. Cell lineage and the origin of muscle fiber types. Trends Neurosci. 10: 219–220, 1987.
 1839. Sasaki, F. Histochemical and ultrastructural studies of tail muscles in the anuran tadpole. Acta Histochem. Cytochem. 7: 239–256, 1974.
 1840. Sasaki, F. Histochemical and biochemical investigation of the tail muscle of anuran tadpoles during metamorphosis. Acta Histochem. Cytochem. 10: 413–425, 1977.
 1841. Saunders, J.B.D.M., V. T. Inman, and H. D. Eberhart. The major determinants in normal and pathological gait. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 35: 543–558, 1953.
 1842. Savile, D.B.O. The flight mechanism of swifts and hummingbirds. Auk 67: 499–504, 1950.
 1843. Savile, D.B.O. Adaptive evolution in the avian wing. Evolution 11: 212–224, 1957.
 1844. Savile, D.B.O. Gliding and flight in vertebrates. Am. Zool. 2: 161–166, 1962.
 1845. Saville, P. D., and R. Smith. Bone density, breaking force and leg muscle mass as functions of weight in bipedal rats. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 25: 35–39, 1966.
 1846. Saville‐Kent, W. Observations on the frilled lizard, Chlamydosaurus kingi. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 95: 712–719, 1895.
 1847. Saville‐Kent, W. The frilled lizard: Chlamydosaurus kingi. Nature. 53: 395–398, 1896.
 1848. Saxena, S. C. Adhesive apparatus of an Indian hill stream sisorid fish, Pseudecheneis sulcatus. Copeia 1961: 471–473, 1961.
 1849. Saxena, S. C. On the pelvic girdle and fin of a hill stream sisorid fish, Pseudecheneis sulcatus. Copeia 1962: 656–657, 1962.
 1850. Saxena, S. C., and M. Chandy. Adhesive apparatus in certain Indian hill stream fishes. J. Zool. 148: 315–340, 1966.
 1851. Saxena, S. C., and M. Chandy. The pelvic girdle and fin in certain Indian hill stream fishes. J. Zool. 148: 167–190, 1966.
 1852. Schaeffer, B. The morphological and functional evolution of the tarsus in amphibians and reptiles. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 78: 395–472, 1941.
 1853. Schaeffer, B. Osteichthyan vertebrae. J. Linn. Soc. Lond. 47: 185–195, 1967.
 1854. Schaeffer, B., and D. E. Rosen. Major adaptive levels in the evolution of the actinopterygian feeding mechanism. Am. Zool. 1: 187–204, 1961.
 1855. Scheffer, T. Burrow associations of small mammals. Murrelet. 26: 24–26, 1945.
 1856. Schøtz, A., and H. Volsøe. The gliding flight of Holaspis quentheri Gray, a west‐African lacertid. Copeia 1959: 259–260, 1959.
 1857. Schleich, H.‐H., and W. Kästle. Hautstrukturen als Kletteran‐passungen bei Chamaeleo und Cophotis (Reptilia: Sauria: Chamaeleonidae, Agamidae). Salamandra 15: 95–100, 1979.
 1858. Schleich H.‐H., and W. Kästle. Hautsrukturen an Zehen und Schawänzen einiger Agamiden. Salamandra 18: 322–329, 1982.
 1859. Schleich, H.‐H., and W. Kästle. Ultrastrukturen der Zehe‐nunterseiten einiger arborikoler Iguaniden. Spixiana 8: 251–258, 1985.
 1860. Schlesinger, W. H., J.M.H. Knops, and T. H. Nash III Arboreal sprint failure: lizardfall in a California oak woodland. Ecology 74: 2465–2467, 1993.
 1861. Schmidt, H. Der Plug der Tiere. Frankfurt: Kramer, 1960.
 1862. Schmidt, K. P., and R. F. Inger. Living Reptiles of the World. Garden City: Doubleday, 1957.
 1863. Schmidt‐Nielsen, K. Animal Physiology: Adaptation and Environment. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1979.
 1864. Schmidt‐Nielsen, K. Scaling. Why is Animal Size So Important? Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1984.
 1865. Schmidt‐Nielsen, K. High pressure in the human hip joint. News Physiol. Sci. 1: 213 1986.
 1866. Schmitt, D., S. G. Larson, and J. T. Stern, Jr. Serratus ventral function in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops): are primate quadrupeds unique?. J. Zool. 232: 215–230, 1994.
 1867. Schneider, H. Aufbau und Funktion der Patagien gut flie‐gender Vögel. Gegenbaurs Morphol. Jahrb. 87: 27–84, 1942.
 1868. Schoener, T. W., and A. Schoener. Ecological and demographic correlates of injury rates in some Bahamian Anolis lizards. Copeia 1980: 839–850, 1980.
 1869. Schoener, T. W., and A. Schoener. Intraspecific variation in home‐range size in some Anolis lizards. Ecology 63: 809–823, 1982.
 1870. Schreber, K. Der Mensch als Kraftmaschine. Pflugers Arch. Ges. Physiol. 197: 300–320, 1923.
 1871. Schubert‐Soldern, R. Hydrostatische und hydrodynamische Bewegungsformen bei Schildkröten. Zool. Anz. Suppl. 29: 540–541, 1966.
 1872. Schultz, A., K. Haderspeck, D. Warwick, and D. Portillo. Use of lumbar trunk muscles in isometric performance of mechanically complex standing tasks. J. Orthop. Res. 1: 77–91, 1983.
 1873. Schultz, A. H. Studien über die Wirbelzahlen und Körperpro‐portionen von Halbaffen. Viert. Nat. Ges. Zurich 99: 397–375, 1954.
 1874. Schultze, H.‐P. The origin of the tetrapod limb within the rhipidistian fishes. In: Major Patterns in Vertebrate Evolution, edited by M. K. Hecht, P. C. Goody, and B. M. Hecht. New York: Plenum, 1977, p. 5441–544.
 1875. Schultze, H.‐P. A comparison of controversial hypotheses on the origin of tetrapods. In: Origins of the Higher Groups of Tetrapods: Controversy and Consensus, edited by H.‐P. Schultze and L. Trueb. Ithaca: Comstock, 1991, p. 29–67.
 1876. Schüre, U., and H.‐G. Horm. Freiland‐ und Gefangenschafts‐beobachtungen and Australischen Wasserwaranen, Varanus mertensi. Salamandra 12: 176–188, 1976.
 1877. Schwarzacher, H. G. Zur Lage der motorischen Endplatten in den Skeletmuskeln. Acta Anat. 30: 758–774, 1957.
 1878. Schwarzacher, H. G. Ueber die Länge und Anordnung der Muskelfasern der menschlichen Skeletmuskeln. Acta Anat. 37: 217–231, 1959.
 1879. Scott, N. J., Jr., D. E. Wilson, C. Jones, and R. M. Andrews. The choice of perch dimensions by lizards of the genus Anolis (Reptilia, Lacertilia, Iguanidae). J. Herpetol. 10: 75–84, 1976.
 1880. Scriabine, A., T. Schuurman, and J. Traber. Pharmacological basis for the use of nimodipine in central nervous system disorders. J. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 3: 1799–1806, 1989.
 1881. Scrutton, D. R., P. Robbson, and R. M. Davies. Polyplanar hip joint for use in lower limb bracing. Nature 4: 950–952, 1967.
 1882. Secor, S. M. Ecological significance of movements and activity range for the sidewinder, Crotalus cerastes. Copeia 1994: 631–645, 1994.
 1883. Secor, S. M., B. C. Jayne, and A. F. Bennett. Locomotor performance and energetic cost of sidewinding by the snake Crotalus cerastes. J. Exp. Biol. 163: 1–14, 1992.
 1884. Secor, S. M., and K. A. Nagy. Bioenergetic correlates of foraging mode for the snakes Crotalus cerastes and Masticophis flagellum. Ecology 75: 1600–1614: 1994.
 1885. Seidel, M. R. The osteoderms of the American alligator and their functional significance. Herpetologica 35: 375–380, 1979.
 1886. Semlitsch, R. D. Burrowing ability and behavior of salamanders of the genus Ambystoma. Can. J. Zool. 61: 616–620, 1982.
 1887. Semlitsch, R. D., and H.‐U. Reyer. Performance of tadpoles from the hybridogenetic Rana esculenta complex: interactions with pond drying and interspecific competition. Evolution 46: 665–676, 1992.
 1888. Senfft, W. V. Betrachtungen über die auffälligen Schwanzbe‐wegungen bei einigen Reptilien, speziell beim Faltengecko (Ptychozoon kuhli Stejneger). Bl. Aquar. Terr. Kunde. 43: 8–11, 1932.
 1889. Sewertzov, A. N. Studien über die Entwicklung der Nerven, Muskeln und des Skelettes der Extremitäten der niederen Tetrapoden. Bieträge zur einer Theorie der pentadactylen Extremität der Wirbeltiere. Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscow 21: 1–432, 1907.
 1890. Sewertzoff, A. N. Die Morphologie der Brustflosse der Fische. Jena. Z. Naturwiss. 62: 343–392, 1926.
 1891. Sewertzoff, A. N. Studien über die Reduktion der Organe der Wirbeltiere. Zool. Jb. (Anat.) 53: 611–700, 1931.
 1892. Sewertzoff, A. N. Evolution der Bauchflossen der Fische. Zool. Jb. (Anat.) 58: 415–500, 1934.
 1893. Shapiro, L. J., and W. L. Jungers. Back muscle function during bipedal walking in chimpanzee and gibbon: implications for the evolution of human locomotion. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 77: 201–212, 1988.
 1894. Shapovalov, A. I. Neuronal organization and synaptic mechanism of supraspinal motor control in vertebrates. Rev. Physiol. Biochem. Pharmacol. 72: 1–54, 1975.
 1895. Sherman, P. W., J.U.M. Jarvis, and R. D. Alexander. The Biology of the Naked Mole‐Rat. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1991.
 1896. Sherif, M. H., R. J. Gregor, L. M. Liu, R. R. Roy, and C. L. Hager. Correlation of myoelectric activity and muscle force during selected cat treadmill locomotion. J. Biomech. 16: 691–701, 1983.
 1897. Shimamura, M., S. Grillner, and V. R. Edgerton. Neuro‐biological Basis of Human Locomotion. Tokyo: Japan Sci., 1992.
 1898. Shimer, H. W. Adaptations to aquatic, arboreal, fossorial and cursorial habits in mammals. III. Fossorial adaptations. Am. Nat. 37: 819–825, 1903.
 1899. Shishkin, M. A. The origins of vertebral resegmentation in tetrapods. Paleontol. Zh. 3: 70–77, 1988.
 1900. Shishkin, M. A. Vertebral structure in crossopterygiian Rhipidistia. Paleontol. Zh. 4: 52–62, 1989.
 1901. Shubin, N. H., and P. Alberch. A morphogenetic approach to the origin and basic organization of the tetrapod limb. Evol. Biol. 123: 319–387, 1986.
 1902. Shubin, N., D. B. Wake, and A. J. Crawford. Morphological variation in the limbs of Taricha granulosa (Caudata: Salamandridae): Evolutionary and phylogenetic implications. Evolution 49: 874–884, 1995.
 1903. Shufeldt, R. W. The Myology of the Raven. London: MacMillan, 1890.
 1904. Sillar, K. T., J.F.S. Wedderburn, A.‐M. Woolston, and A. J. Simmers. Control of locomotor movements during vertebrate development. News Physiol. Sci. 8: 107–111, 1993.
 1905. Simic, V., and V. Andrejevíc. Morphologie und Topographie der Brustmuskeln bei Hausphasioniden und der Taube. Morphol. Jb. 104: 546–560, 1963.
 1906. Simmons, J. R. The direction of the thrust produced by the heterocercal tails of two dissimilar elasmobranchs: the port Jackson shark, Heterodontus partus jacksoni (Meyer), and the piked dogfish, Squalus megalops (Macleay). J. Exp. Biol. 52: 95–107, 1970.
 1907. Simons, E. L. Fossil primates and the evolution of some primate locomotor systems. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 26: 241–254, 1967.
 1908. Simpson, S. F. The flight mechanism of the pigeon Columba livia during take‐off. J. Zool. 200: 435–443, 1983.
 1909. Sinclair, A.R.E., M. D. Leakey, and M. Norton‐Griffiths. Migration and hominid bipedalism. Nature 324: 307–308, 1986.
 1910. Sinervo, B., and R. B. Huey. Allometric engineering: an experimental test of the causes of interpopulational differences in performance. Science 248: 1106–1109, 1990.
 1911. Singh, L.A.K., and H. R. Bustard. Locomotory behavior during basking and spoor formation in the gharial (Gavialis gangeticus). Br. J. Herpetol. 5: 673–676, 1977.
 1912. Skoczen, S. Tunnel digging by the mole (Talpa europea Linne). Acta Theriol. 2: 235–249, 1958.
 1913. Slijper, E. J. Biologic‐anatomical investigations on the bipedal gait and upright posture in mammals, with special reference to a little goat, born without forelegs. II. Proc. Nederl. Akad. Wetens. 45: 407–415, 1942.
 1914. Slijper, E. J. Comparative biologic‐anatomical investigations on the vertebral column and spinal musculature of mammals. Proc. Nederl. Akad. Wetens. 42: 1–128, 1946.
 1915. Slijper, E. J. Locomotion and locomotory organs in whales and dolphins (Cetacea). Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 5: 77–94, 1961.
 1916. Smith, B. D., and H. M. Smith. Bipedalism in the lizard Sceloporus undulatus erythrocheilus, and other notes on Wyoming herpetoza. J. Herpetol. 6: 81–82, 1972.
 1917. Smith, H. M. Water regulation and its evolution in the fishes. Q. Rev. Biol. 7: 1–26, 1932.
 1918. Smith, J.L.B. The Sea Fishes of Southern Africa. SA: Central News. Johannesburg, 1961.
 1919. Smith, J. M., and R.J.G. Savage. Some locomotory adaptations in mammals. J. Linn. Soc. Zool. 42: 603–622, 1956.
 1920. Smith, J. W. The act of standing. Acta Orthopaed. Scand. 23: 159–168, 1953.
 1921. Smith, J. W. Muscular control of the arches of the foot in standing: an electromyographic assessment. J. Anat. 88: 152–163, 1954.
 1922. Smith, R. S., G. Blinston, and W. K. Ovalle. Skeletomotor and fusimotor organization in amphibians. In: Control of Posture and Locomotion, edited by R. B. Stein, K. G. Pearson, R. S. Smith, and J. B. Redford. New York: Plenum, 1973 p. 105–118.
 1923. Smith, R. S., and J. Lannergren. Types of motor units in the skeletal muscle of Xenopus laevis. Nature 217: 281–283, 1968.
 1924. Smith, R. S., and W. K. Ovalle. Varieties of fast and slow extrafusal muscle fibres in amphibian hind limb muscles. J. Anat. 116: 1–24, 1973.
 1925. Snell, H. L., and T. H. Fritts. The significance of diurnal terrestrial emergence of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the Galapagos Archipelago. Biotropica 15: 285–291, 1983.
 1926. Snik, G. Van, M. Olmos, A. Casinos, and J. A. Planell. Stresses in leg tendons of birds. Netherlands J. Zool. 44: 1–14, 1994.
 1927. Snyder, R. C. Bipedal locomotion of the lizard Basiliscus basiliscus. Copeia 1949: 129–137, 1949.
 1928. Snyder, R. C. Quadrupedal and bipedal locomotion of lizards. Copeia 1952: 64–70, 1952.
 1929. Snyder, R. C. The anatomy and function of the pelvic girdle and hindlimb in lizard locomotion. Am. J. Anat. 95: 1–36, 1954.
 1930. Snyder, R. C. Adaptations for bipedal locomotion of lizards. Am. Zool. 2: 191–203, 1962.
 1931. Soffe, S. R. Centrally generated rhythmic and non‐rhythmic behavioural responses in Rana temporaria. J. Exp. Biol. 156: 81–99, 1991.
 1932. Soffe, S. R., and K. T. Sillar. Patterns of synaptic drive to ventrally located spinal neurones in Rana temporaria embryos during rhythmic and non‐rhythmic motor responses. J. Exp. Biol. 156: 101–118, 1991.
 1933. Sokoloff, A. T., T. Deacon, and G. E. Goslow, Jr. Musculotopic innervation of the primary flight muscles, the pectoralis (pas thoracicus) and supracoracoideus, of the pigeon (Columba livia): a WGA‐HRP study. Anat. Rec. 225: 35–40, 1989.
 1934. Sokolov, V. E. European Bison. Morphology, Systematics, Evolution, Ecology. Moscow: Nauka, 1979.
 1935. Sokolov, V. E. Manatee. Functional Morphology. Moscow: Nauka, 1986.
 1936. Somero, G. N., and J. J. Childress. A violation of the metabolism—size scaling paradigm: activities of glycolytic enzymes in muscle increase in larger‐sized fish. Physiol. Zool. 53: 322–337, 1980.
 1937. Speakman, J. R. Flight capabilities in Archaeopteryx. Evolution 47: 336–340, 1993.
 1938. Spedding, G. R. The wake of the jackdaw (Corvus monedula) in slow flight. J. Exp. Biol. 125: 287–307, 1986.
 1939. Spedding, G. R. The wake of the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) in gliding flight. J. Exp. Biol. 127: 45–57, 1987.
 1940. Spedding, G. R. The wake of kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) in flapping flight. J. Exp. Biol. 127: 59–78, 1987.
 1941. Spedding, G. R. The aerodynamics of flight. In: Mechanics of Animal Locomotion, edited by R. McN. Alexander. Berlin: Springer‐Verlag, p. 51–111, 1992.
 1942. Spedding, G. R., J.M.V. Rayner, and C. J. Pennycuick. Momentum and energy in the wake of a pigeon (Columha livia) in slow flight. J. Exp. Biol. 111: 81–102, 1984.
 1943. Speedy, E. D., and R. L. Mumme. Effects of reduced food intake and loss of body mass on sprint speed in Anolis carolinensis. J. Herpetol. 28: 395–399, 1994
 1944. Sperry, D. G. Fiber type composition and postmetamorphic growth of anuran hindlimb muscles. J. Morphol. 170: 321–345, 1981.
 1945. Sperry, D. G. Relationship between natural variations in motoneuron number and body size in Xenopus laevis: a test for size matching. J. Comp. Neurol. 264: 250–267, 1987.
 1946. Sperry, D. G. The origin of interindividual variation in motoneuron number in the lumbar lateral motor column of Xenopus laevis. Liss. Neurol. Neurobiol. 44: 29–51, 1988.
 1947. Sperry, D. G., and P. Grobstein. Regulation of neuron numbers in Xenopus laevis: effects of hormonal manipulation altering size at metamorphosis. J. Comp. Neurol. 232: 287–298, 1985.
 1948. Spigel, I. W. Running speed and intermediate brightness discrimination in the fresh water turtle (Chrysemys). J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 56: 924–928, 1963.
 1949. Spigel, I. M., and K. R. Ellis. Cerebral lesions and climbing suppression in the turtle. Psychonomic Sci. 5: 211–212, 1966.
 1950. Spigel, I. M., and K. R. Ellis. D‐amphetamine and climbing suppression in the turtle. Psychol. Rep. 20: 1257–1258, 1967.
 1951. Stalberg, E., and L. Antoni. Electrophysiological cross section of the motor unit. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 43: 469–474, 1980.
 1952. Stalberg, E., and P.R.W. Fawcett. Macro EMG in healthy subjects of different ages. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 45: 870–878, 1982.
 1953. Starck, D. Vergleichende Anatomie der Wirbeltiere auf evolutionsbiologischer Grundlage. Band 2: Das Skeletsystem Allgemeines, Skeletsubstanzen, Skelet der Wirbeltiere einschliesslich Lokomotionstypen. Berlin: Springer‐Verlag, 1979.
 1954. Starks, E. C. The primary shoulder girdle of the bony fishes. Stanford Univ. Publ. Univ. Ser. Biol. Sci. 6: 149–239, 1930.
 1955. Stebbins, R. C. Adaptations in the nasal passages for sand burrowing in the saurian genus Uma. Am. Nat. 77: 38–52, 1943.
 1956. Stebbins, R. C. Tail and foot action in the locomotion of Hydromantes platycephalus. Copeia 1947: 1–5, 1947.
 1957. Stebbins, R. C. Nasal structure in lizards with reference to olfaction and conditioning of the inspired air. Am. J. Anat. 83: 183–221, 1948.
 1958. Stegmann, B. C. Die funktionelle Bedeutung des Schlüssel‐beines bei den Vögeln. J. Ornithol. 105: 450–463, 1964.
 1959. Stehouwer, D. J., and P. B. Farel. Development of hindlimb locomotor activity in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) studies in vitro. Science. 219: 516–518, 1983.
 1960. Steiner, H., and G. Anders. Zur Frage der Entstehung von Rudimenten. Die Reduktion der Gliedmassen von Chalcides tridactylus Laur. Rev. Suisse Zool. 53: 537–545, 1946.
 1961. Stephens, J. A., and D. G. Stuart. The responses of Golgi tendon organs to contractions of the single motor units in a mixed mammalian muscle. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 242: 62P–63P, 1974.
 1962. Stephens, J. A., and D. G. Stuart. The motor units of cat medial gastrocnemius: speed–size relations and their significance for the recruitment order of motor units. Brain Res. 91: 177–195, 1975.
 1963. Stephens, N., and N. Holder. A horseradish peroxidase study of motorneuron pools of the forelimb and hindlimb musculature of the axolotl. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. [B] 224: 325–339, 1985.
 1964. Stern, J. T., Jr. Functional myology of the hip and thigh of cebid monkeys and its implications for the evolution of erect posture. Bibl. Primatol. 4: 1–318, 1971.
 1965. Stern, J. T., Jr. Investigations concerning the theory of spurt and shunt muscles. J. Biomech. 4: 437–453, 1971.
 1966. Stern, J. T., Jr. Anatomical and functional specializations of the human gluteus maximus. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 36: 315–540, 1972.
 1967. Stern, J. T., Jr., and C. E. Oxnard. Primate locomotion: some links with evolution and morphology. Primatologia 4: 1–93, 1973.
 1968. Stern, J. T. Jr., E. B. Pare, and J. M. Schwartz. New perspectives on muscle use during locomotion—electro‐myographic studies of rapid and complex behaviors. Am. Osteopath. Assoc. 80: 287 1980.
 1969. Stern, J. T., Jr., and R. L. Susman. Electromyography of the gluteal muscles in Hylobates, Pongo,—implications for the evolution of hominid bipedality. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 55: 153 1981.
 1970. Stern, J. T., Jr., J. P. Wells, W. L. Jungers, A. K. Vangor, and J. G. Walker. An electromyographic study of the pectoralis major in atelines and Hylobates with special reference to the evolution of a pars clavicularis. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 52: 13–25, 1980.
 1971. Stern, J. T., Jr., J. P. Wells, A. K. Vargor, and J. G. Fleagle. Electromyography of some muscles of the upper limb in Ateles and Lagothrix. Yearbook Phys. Anthropol. 20: 498–507, 1977.
 1972. Steudel, K. The work and energetic cost of locomotion. Mass distribution in quadrupeds. J. Exp. Biol. 154: 273–285, 1990.
 1973. Steudel, K., and J. Beattie. Scaling of cursoriality in mammals. J. Morphol. 217: 55–63, 1993.
 1974. Steudel, K., and J. Beattie. Does limb length predict the relative energetic cost of locomotion in mammals?. J. Zool. 235: 501–514, 1995.
 1975. Stevens, E. D., and W. H. Neil. Body temperature relations of tunas, especially skipjack. In: Fish Physiology, edited by W. S. Hoar and D. J. Randall. New York: Academic, 1978, vol. 7, p. 315–359.
 1976. Stevens, G. A. Swimming of dolphins. Sci. Prog. 38: 524–525, 1950.
 1977. Stewart, D. Variations from normal gait after muscle section in rabbits. J. Anat. 72: 101–108, 1937.
 1978. Steyn, W., and S. Steyn. New data on a sand‐shuttling eye‐popping lizard. Madoqua 2: 39–43, 1970.
 1979. Stickel, L. F. Populations and home range relationships of the box turtle, Terrapene c. Carolina (Linnaeus). Ecol. Monogr. 20: 351–378, 1950.
 1980. Stickney, R. R., D. B. White, and D. Miller. Observations of fin use in relation to feeding and resting behavior in flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes). Copeia 1973: 154–156, 1973.
 1981. Stolpe, M. Physiologisch‐anatomische Untersuchungen über die hinteren Extremität der Vögel. J. Ornithol. 80: 161–247, 1932.
 1982. Stolpe, M., and K. Zimmer. Der Schwirrflug des Kolibri in Zeitlupenfilm. J. Ornithol. 87: 136–155, 1939.
 1983. Storer, J. H. The flight of birds. Bull. Cranbrook Inst. Sci. 28: i‐xv–1–94, 1948.
 1984. Storer, R. W. Evolution in diving birds. In: Proc. XII Int. Ornithol. Congr. 1988, edited by G. Bergman, K. O. Donner, and L. von Haartman. Helsinki: Tilmannin Kirjapzino, 1960, p. 694–707.
 1985. Storey, K. B., J. M. Storey, S.P.J. Brooks, T. A. Churchill, and R. J. Brooks. Life in a frozen state: adaptive strategies for natural freeze tolerance in amphibians and reptiles. Am. J. Physiol. 258 (Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol. 29): R559–R568, 1990.
 1986. Strahan, R. The Australian Museum Complete Book of Australian Mammals. Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1983.
 1987. Strang, K. T., and K. Steudel. Explaining the scaling of transport costs: the role of stride frequency and stride length. J. Zool. 221: 343–358, 1990.
 1988. Strathmann, R. R. Why does a larva swim so long?. Paleobiology 6: 373–376, 1980.
 1989. Straus, W. L., Jr. The homologies of the forearm flexors: urodeles, lizards, mammals. Am. J. Anat. 70: 281–316, 1942.
 1990. Straus, W. L., Jr. The posture of the great ape hand in locomotion, and its phylogenetic implications. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 27: 199–207, 1980.
 1991. Strickler, T. L. Functional Myology and Osteology of the Shoulder in Chiroptera. Basel: Contrib. Vert. Evol., 1978.
 1992. Struhsaker, T. T. Morphological factors regulating flight in bats. J. Mammal. 41: 152–159, 1961.
 1993. Stuart, D. G., and J. A. Stephens. The recruitment order of motor units and its significance for the behaviour of tendon organs during normal muscle activity. In: The Motor System: Neurophysiology and Muscle Mechanisms, edited by M. Shahani. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1976, p. 37–47.
 1994. Suarez, R. K. Hummingbird flight: sustaining the highest mass‐specific metabolic rates among vertebrates. Experientia 48: 565–570, 1992.
 1995. Subotnick, S. Lower‐extremity problems in atheletes—biome‐chanical approach. Arch. Podiatr. Med. Foot Surg. 5: 23–29, 1978.
 1996. Subramonian, S. Some observations on the habits of the slender loris, Loris tardigradus (Linnaeus). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 54: 387–398, 1957.
 1997. Sukhanov, V. B. Some problems of the phylogeny and systematics of Lacertilia (seu Sauria). Zool. Zh. 40: 73–83, 1961.
 1998. Sukhanov, V. B. Material on the locomotion of terrestrial vertebrates 1. General classification of symmetrical gaits (in Russian). Bull. Moscow Soc. Nat. Biol. Ser. 72: 118–134, 1967.
 1999. Sukhanov, V. B. Materials to the locomotion of terrestrial vertebrates. II. The gaits of lizards and some characteristic features of the locomotion of lower tetrapods (in Russian). Bull. Moscow Soc. Nat. Biol. Ser. 73: 123–140, 1968.
 2000. Sukhanov, V. B. General System of Symmetrical Locomotion of Terrestrial Vertebrates and Some Features of Movement of Lower Tetrapods, translated by Smithson. Inst. and Natl. Sci. Found. New Delhi: Amerind, 1974.
 2001. Sullivan, T. E., and R. B. Armstrong. Rat locomotory muscle‐fiber activity during trotting and galloping. J. Appl. Physiol.: Respir. Environ. Exerc. Physiol. 44: 358 1978.
 2002. Sumida, S. S. Two different vertebral forms in the axial column of Labidosaurus (Captorhinomorpha: Captorhinidae). J. Paleontol. 61: 155–167, 1987.
 2003. Sumida, S. S. Vertebral Morphology, Alternation of Neural Spine Height, and Structure in Permo‐Carboniferous Tetrapods, and a Reappraisal of Primitive Modes of Terrestrial Locomotion. Univ. CA. Publ. Zool. 122: 1–129, 1990.
 2004. Susman, R. L., and J. T. Stern, Jr. Telemetered electromyography of flexor digitorum profundus and flexor digitorum superficialis in Pan troglodytes and implications for interpretation of the O.H.7 hand. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 50: 565–574, 1979.
 2005. Sutherland, S. The multiple motor innervation of individual muscle fibres in man. Acta Anat. 16: 167–168, 1952.
 2006. Suthers, R. A., S. P. Thomas, and B. J. Suthers. Respiration, wing‐beat and ultrasonic pulse in an echo‐locating bat. J. Exp. Biol. 56: 37–48, 1972.
 2007. Suzuki, A., and H. Tamate. Histochemical properties and fiber type composition of the pectoral and thigh muscles of the Japanese quail. Acta Histochem. Cytochem. 12: 69–74, 1979.
 2008. Suzuki, A., T. Tsuchiya, S. Ohwada, and H. Tamate. Distribution of myofiber types in thigh muscles of chickens. J. Morphol. 185: 145–154, 1985.
 2009. Svihla, A., and R. D. Svihla. Bipedal locomotion in the iguana, Iguana tuberculata. Copeia 1952: 119 1952.
 2010. Swain, D. P., B. E. Riddell, and C. B. Murray. Morphological differences between hatchery and wild populations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch): environmental versus genetic origin. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48: 1783–1791, 1991.
 2011. Swartz, S. M., M. B. Bennett, and D. R. Carrier. Wing bone stresses in free flying bats and the evolution of skeletal design for flight. Nature 359: 726–729, 1992.
 2012. Swiderski, D. L. Morphology and evolution of the wrists of burrowing and nonburrowing shrews (Soricidae). J. Mammal. 72: 118–125, 1991.
 2013. Swingland, I. R., and M. Coe. The natural regulation of giant tortoise populations on Aldabra atoll. Reproduction. J. Zool. 186: 285–309, 1978.
 2014. Swingland, I. R., and P. J. Greenwood, eds. The Ecology of Animal Movement. Oxford: Clarendon, 1984.
 2015. Switak, K. H. Leben in der Wüste. Chilomeniscus und Chionactis, die Nattern die im Sand schwimmen. Aquarium 12: 355–359, 1978.
 2016. Swoap, S. J., T. P. Johnson, R. K. Josephson, and A. F. Bennett. Temperature, muscle power output and limitations on burst locomotor performance of the lizard Dipsosaurus dorsalis. J. Exp. Biol. 174: 185–197, 1993.
 2017. Sy, M. Funktionell‐anatomische Untersuchungen am Vogelflügel. J. Omithol. 84: 200–296, 1936.
 2018. Symmons, S. Notochordal and elastic components of the axial skeleton of fishes and their function in locomotion. J. Zool. 189: 157–206, 1979.
 2019. Szarski, H. The functions of myomere folding in aquatic vertebrates. Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. 12: 305–306, 1964.
 2020. Szarski, H. The significance of folding of myomeres in aquatic vertebrates. Przegl. Zool. 9: 241–243, 1965.
 2021. Taber, W. B., Jr. Curvature of wing and flapping flight. Wilson Bull. 44: 75–78, 1932.
 2022. Talesara, C. L., and G. Goldspink. A combined histochemical and biochemical study of myofiber ATPase in pectoral, leg and cardiac muscle of several species of bird. Histochem. J. 10: 696–710, 1978.
 2023. Tanaka, H., S. Mishima, and Y. Abe. Studies on the behavior of Trimeresurus flavoviridis (Hallowell, 1860), a venomous snake, on Amami Oshima Island in regard to speed of movement, nocturnal activity and sensitivity to infrared radiation. Bull. Tokyo Med. Dent. Univ. 14: 79–104, 1967.
 2024. Tanner, K. Notizen zur Pflege und zum Verhalten einiger Blindwühlen (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). Salamandra 7: 91–100, 1971.
 2025. Taoning, V. A. Experimental study of meristic characters in fishes. Biol. Rev. 27: 169–193, 1952.
 2026. Tarsitano, S. F. The morphological and aerodynamic constraints on the origin of avian flight. In: The Beginnings of Birds, edited by M. K. Hecht, J. H. Ostrom, G. Viohl, and P. Wellnhofer. Willibaldsburg, Germany: Freunde Jura‐Museums, 1985, p. 319–332.
 2027. Taylor, B. K. The anatomy of the forelimb in the anteater (Tamandua) and its functional implications. J. Morphol. 157: 347–368, 1978.
 2028. Taylor, C. R. Energy cost of animal locomotion. In: Comparative Physiology, edited by L. Bolis, K. Schmidt‐Nielsen, and S.H.P. Maddrell. New York: Elsevier, 1973, p. 23–42.
 2029. Taylor, C. R. Why change gaits? Recruitment of muscles and muscle fibers as a function of speed and gait. Am. Zool. 18: 153–161, 1978.
 2030. Taylor, C. R. Force development during sustained locomotion: a determinant of gait, speed and metabolic power. J. Exp. Biol. 115: 253–262, 1985.
 2031. Taylor, C. R. Freeloading women. Nature 375: 17 1995.
 2032. Taylor, C. R., S. L. Caldwell, and V. J. Rowntree. Running up and down hills: some consequences of size. Science 178: 1096–1097, 1972.
 2033. Taylor, C. R., N. C. Heglund, and T. A. McMahon, and T. R. Looney. Energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. I. Metabolic energy consumption as a function of speed and body size in birds and mammals. J. Exp. Biol. 97: 1–21, 1982.
 2034. Taylor, C. R., N. C. Heglund, T. A. McMahon, and T. R. Looney. Energetic cost of generating muscular force during running. J. Exp. Biol. 86: 9–18, 1980.
 2035. Taylor, C. R., and V. J. Rowntree. Running on two or on four legs: which consumes more energy?. Science 179: 186–187, 1973.
 2036. Taylor, C. R., A. Shkolnik, R. Dmi'el, D. Baharav, and A. Borut. Running in cheetahs, gazelles, and goats: energy cost and limb configuration. Am. J. Physiol. 227: 848–850, 1974.
 2037. Taylor, E. H. The Caecilians of the World. Lawrence: Univ. Kansas Press, 1967.
 2038. Taylor, G. Analysis of the swimming of long and narrow animals. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. [A] 214: 158–183, 1952.
 2039. Taylor, J. A. Food and foraging behaviour of the lizard, Ctenotus taeniolatus. Aust. J. Ecol. 11: 49–54, 1986.
 2040. Taylor, M. E. Locomotion in some East African viverrids. J. Mammal. 51: 42–51, 1970.
 2041. Taylor, M. E. The functional anatomy of some African Viverridae (Carnivora). J. Morphol. 143: 307–336, 1974.
 2042. Taylor, M. E. The functional anatomy of the hindlimb of some African Viverridae (Carnivora). J. Morphol. 148: 227–254, 1976.
 2043. Ten Cate, J. La coordination des mouvements locomoteurs apres la section transversale de la moelie epiniere chez les couleuvres. Arch. Need. Physiol. 21: 195–201, 1936.
 2044. Ten Cate, J. Rückenmarksreflexe bei Schildkröten. Acta Brevia Neerl. Physiol. 6: 6 1936.
 2045. Ten Cate, J. Reaktionen der Schildkröte vor und nach der Durchtrennung des Rückenmarks. Arch. Neerl. Physiol. 22: 76 1937.
 2046. Tenney, M. S. Why legs, not wheels?. News Physiol. Sci. 7: 46 1992.
 2047. Tercafs, R. R. Observations sur la natation chez les reptiles. Bull. Soc. R. Zool. Anvers. 20: 3–19, 1961.
 2048. Theiler, K. Ueber die Differenzierung der Rumpfmyotome beim Menschen und die Herkunft der Bauchwandmuskeln. Acta Anat. 30: 842–864, 1957.
 2049. Thenius, E. Phylogenie der Mammalia. Stammesgeschichte der Säugetiere (einschliesslich der Hominiden). Berlin: de Gruyter, 1969.
 2050. Theys, J.‐P. Approche Biomecanique du Saut chez Anolis carolinensis (Voigt 1837) (Reptilia: Iguandidae). Liège: Univ. of Belgium, 1986. Dissertation.
 2051. Thireau, M. Contribution a l'étude de la morphologie caudale, de l'anatomie vertebrale et costale des genres Athens, Atractaspis et Causus (Viperides de l'Ouest Africain). Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris 39: 454–470, 1967.
 2052. Thollesson, M., and U. M. Norberg. Moments of inertia of bat wings and body. J. Exp. Biol. 158: 19–35, 1991.
 2053. Thomas, A.L.R. On the aerodynamics of birds' tails. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. [B] 340: 361–380, 1993.
 2054. Thomas, A.L.R., G. Jones, J.M.V. Rayner, and P. M. Hughes. Intermittent gliding flight in the pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus pipestrellus) (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). J. Exp. Biol. 149: 407–416, 1990.
 2055. Thomas, D. P. The effect of load carriage on normal standing in man. J. Anat. 93: 75–87, 1959.
 2056. Thomas, D. P., and R. J. Whitney. Postural movements during normal standing in man. J. Anat. 93: 524–539, 1959.
 2057. Thomas, R. Bipedal locomotion of lizards. Nature 66: 551 1902.
 2058. Thomas, S. P. Ventilation and oxygen extraction in the bat Pteropus gouldii during rest and steady flight. J. Exp. Biol. 94: 231–250, 1981.
 2059. Thompson, S. D. Bipedal hopping and seed‐dispersion selection by heteromyid rodents: the role of locomotion energetics. Ecology 66: 220–229, 1985.
 2060. Thompson, S. D., R. E. MacMillen, E. M. Burke, and C. R. Taylor. The energetic cost of bipedal hopping in small mammals. Nature 287: 223–224, 1980.
 2061. Thomsen, L. Behavior and ecology of burrowing owls on the Oakland municipal airport. Condor 73: 177–192, 1971.
 2062. Thomson, D. B., S. H. Scott, and F.J.R. Richmond. Neuromuscular organization of feline anterior sartorius: 1. Asymmetric distribution of motor units. J. Morphol. 206: 351–361, 1991.
 2063. Thomson, K. S. The adaptation and evolution of early fishes. Q. Rev. Biol. 46: 139–166, 1971.
 2064. Thomson, K. S. On the heterocercal tail in sharks. Paleobiology 2: 19–38, 1976.
 2065. Thomson, K. S., and D. E. Simanek. Body form and locomotion of sharks. Am. Zool. 17: 343–354, 1977.
 2066. Thorington, R. W., and L. R. Heaney. Body proportions and gliding adaptations of flying squirrels (Petauristinae). J. Mammol. 62: 101–114, 1981.
 2067. Thorogood, P., and P. Ferretti. Hox genes, fin folds and symmetry. Nature. 364: 196 1993.
 2068. Thorstensson, A., H. Carlson, M. R. Zomlefer, and J. Nilsson. Lumbar back muscle activity in relation to trunk movements during locomotion in man. Acta Physiol. Scand. 116: 13–20, 1982.
 2069. Thulborn, T. Dinosaur Tracks. New York: Chapman and Hall, 1990.
 2070. Tiedemann, F. Vergleichend anatomische Untersuchungen an Muskeln und Knochen des Beckengürtels von Ophisaurus harti Blgr., Ophisaurus apodus Pall. und Ophisaurus koellikeri Gthr. Ann. Nat. Hist. Mus. Wien 80: 325–335, 1976.
 2071. Tiedemann, M. A., and F. Tiedemann. Vergleichend anatomische Untersuchungen and Schulter‐ und Beckengürtel verschiedener südafrikanisher Skinkarten mit besondered Berücksichtigung von Reducktionserscheinungen. Zoologica 124: 1–80, 1975.
 2072. Tobalske, B. W., and K. P. Dial. Neuromuscular control and kinematics of intermittent flight in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). J. Exp. Biol. 187: 1–18, 1994.
 2073. Tokuriki, M. Electromyographic and joint‐mechanical studies in quadrupedal locomotion. 1. Walk. Jpn. J. Vet. Sci. 35: 433–446, 1973.
 2074. Tokuriki, M. Electromyographic and joint‐mechanical studies in quadrupedal locomotion. II. Trot. Jpn. J. Vet. Sci. 35: 525–533, 1973.
 2075. Tokuriki, M. Electromyographic and joint‐mechanical studies in quadrupedal locomotion. III. Gallop. Jpn. J. Vet. Sci. 36: 121–132, 1974.
 2076. Tokuriki, M. Cinematographic and electromyographic analysis of vertical standing jump in the dog. J. Exp. Biol. 83: 271–282, 1979.
 2077. Tomita, M. A study on the movement pattern of four limbs in walking. J. Anthropol. Soc. Nippon 75: 120–146, 1967.
 2078. Tornier, G. Ein Eidechsenschwanz mit Saugscheibe. Biol. Entralblatt 19: 549–552, 1889.
 2079. Torrella, J. R., V. Fouces, J. Palomeque, and G. Viscor. Innervation distribution pattern, nerve ending structure, and fiber types in pigeon skeletal muscle. Anat. Rec. 237: 178–186, 1993.
 2080. Totland, G. K. Histological and histochemical studies of segmental muscle in the axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum Shaw (Amphibia: Urodela). Norw. J. Zool. 24: 79–90, 1976.
 2081. Totland, G. K. Three muscle fibre types in the axial muscle of axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum Shaw). A quantitative light‐ and electron microscopic study. Cell Tissue Res. 168: 65–78, 1976.
 2082. Towe, A. L., and E. S. Luschei. Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology, Motor Coordination. New York: Plenum, 1981, vol. 5.
 2083. Townsend, C. W. The position of birds' feet in flight. Auk 26: 109–116, 1909.
 2084. Townsend, M. A., and A. Seireg. The synthesis of bipedal locomotion. J. Biomech. 5: 71–83, 1972.
 2085. Townsend, M. A., and T. C. Tsai. Biomechanics and modeling of bipedal climbing and descending. J. Biomech. 9: 227–239, 1976.
 2086. Triantafyllou, M., and G. S. Triantafyllou. An efficient swimming machine. Sci. Am. 272 (3): 64–70, 1995.
 2087. Tricker, R.A.R., and B.J.K. Tricker. The Science of Movement. New York: Elsevier, 1967.
 2088. Trotter, J. A. Interfiber tension transmission in series‐fibered muscles of the cat hindlimb. J. Morphol. 206: 351–361, 1990.
 2089. Trotter, J. A. Dynamic shape of tapered skeletal muscle fibers. J. Morphol. 207: 211–223, 1991.
 2090. Trotter, J. A. Functional morphology of force transmission in skeletal muscle. Acta Anat. 146: 205–222, 1993.
 2091. Trotter, J. A., J. D. Salgada, R. Ozbaysal, and A. S. Gaunt. The composite structure of quail pectoralis muscle. J Morphol. 212: 27–35, 1992.
 2092. Tsuji, J. S., R. B. Huey, F. H. Van Berkum, T. Garland, Jr., and R. G. Shaw. Locomotor performance of hatchling fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis): quantitative genetics and morphometric correlates. Evolut. Ecol. 3: 240–252, 1989.
 2093. Tucker, R. Myosystema trioplanulare trunci and its biomechanical characteristics related to the technique of locomotion. Acta Anat. 25: 192–203, 1955.
 2094. Tucker, R. Contributions to the biomechanics of the vertebral column. I. Biomechanical characteristics of the thoracolumbar curvature. Acta Theriol. 8: 45–72, 1964.
 2095. Tucker, R. Contributions to the biomechanics of the vertebral column. II. Rotatory system induced in the thoraco‐lumbar curvature by the epaxial musculature. Acta Theriol. 9: 171–192, 1964.
 2096. Tucker, V. A. Gliding birds: the effect of variable wing span. J. Exp. Biol. 133: 33–58, 1987.
 2097. Tucker, V. A. Gliding birds: descending flight of the white‐backed vulture, Gyps africanus. J. Exp. Biol. 140: 325–344, 1988.
 2098. Tucker, V. A. Pitching equilibrium, wingspan, and tail span in a Harris' hawk, Parabuteo unicinctus. J. Exp. Biol. 165: 21–41, 1992.
 2099. Tucker, V. A. Gliding birds: reduction of drag by wing tip slots between primary feathers. J. Exp. Biol. 180: 285–310, 1993.
 2100. Tucker, V. A., and C. Heine. Aerodynamics of gliding flight in a Harris' hawk, Parabuteo uncinctus. J. Exp. Zool. 149: 469–489, 1990.
 2101. Tucker, V. A., and G. C. Parrott. Aerodynamics of gliding flight in a falcon and other birds. J. Exp. Biol. 52: 345–367, 1970.
 2102. Tullis, A., B. A. Block, and B. D. Sidell. Activities of key metabolic enzymes in the heater organs of scombroid fishes. J. Exp. Biol. 161: 383–403, 1991.
 2103. Turner, F. B., D. C. Weaver, and J. C. Rorabaugh. Effects of reduction in windblown sand on the abundance of the fringetoed lizard (Uma inomata) in the Coachella Valley, California. Copeia 1984: 370–378, 1984.
 2104. Turner, J. S., C. R. Tracy, B. Weigler, and T. Baynes. Burst swimming of alligators and the effect of temperature. J. Herpetol. 19: 450–458, 1985.
 2105. Turtle, R. H. Knuckle‐walking and the evolution of hominoid hands. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 26: 171–206, 1967.
 2106. Turtle, R. H. Knuckle‐walking and the problem of human origins. Science 166: 953–961, 1969.
 2107. Turtle, R. H., J. V. Basmajian, and H. Ishida. Activities of pongid thigh muscles during bipedal behavior. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 50: 123–136, 1979.
 2108. Tweedie, M.W.F. The flying gecko, Ptychozoon kuhli Stejn. Proc Zool. Soc. Lond. 120: 13 1950.
 2109. Tyler, J. D. A case of swimming in Terrapene Carolina (Testudines: Emydidae). Southwest. Nat. 23: 189–190, 1979.
 2110. Uchida, T. A., and K. Yokoyama. Functional morphology of wings from the standpoint of adaptation for flight in Chiroptera. 2. Growth and changes in mode of lift. J. Fac. Agricult. Kyushu Univ. 23: 185 1979.
 2111. Ullén, F., T. G. Deliagina, G. N. Orlovsky, and S. Grillner. Spatial orientation in the lamprey: I. Control of pitch and roll. J. Exp. Biol. 198: 665–673, 1995.
 2112. Umetani, Y., and S. Hirose. Biomechanical study on serpentine locomotion—mechanical analysis and zoological experiment for the stationary straight‐forward movement. Trans. Soc. Instrum. Contr. 6: 724–731, 1972.
 2113. Umetani, Y., and S. Hirose. Biomechanical study on serpentine locomotion—gliding shape of snake in stationary straightforward movement. Trans. Soc. Instrum. Contr. 10: 513–518, 1974.
 2114. Underwood, G. On the classification and evolution of geckos. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 124: 469–492, 1954.
 2115. Underwood, G. Simplification and degeneration in the course of evolution of squamate reptiles. Coll. Int. C.N.R.S. Paris 266: 341–362, 1977.
 2116. Urban, E. K. Quantitative study of locomotion in teiid lizards. Anim. Behav. 13: 513–529, 1965.
 2117. Vallois, H. V. Les Transformations de la Musculature de l'Episome chez les Vertébrés. Paris: Octave Doin, 1922.
 2118. Van Berkum, F. H. Evolutionary patterns of the thermal sensitivity of sprint speed in Anolis. Evolution 40: 594–604, 1986.
 2119. Van Berkum, F. H. Latitudinal patterns of the thermal sensitivity of sprint speed in lizards. Am. Nat. 132: 327–343, 1988.
 2120. Van Berkum, F. H., R. B. Huey, J. S. Tsuji, and T. Garland. Repeatability of individual differences in locomotor performance and body size during early ontogeny of the lizard Sceloporus occidentalis (Baird and Girard). Funct. Ecol. 3: 97–105, 1989.
 2121. Van Berkum, F. H., and J. S. Tsuji. Inter‐familiar differences in sprint speed of hatchling Sceloporus occidentalis (Reptilia: Iguanidae). J. Zool. 212: 511–519, 1987.
 2122. Van Damme, R., D. Bauwens, and R. F. Verheyen. Effects of relative clutch mass on sprint speed in the lizard Lacerta vivipara. J. Herpetol. 23: 459–461, 1989.
 2123. Van De Graaff, K. M., J. Harper, and G. E. Goslow, Jr. Analysis of posture and gait selection during locomotion in the striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis). J. Mammal. 63: 582–590, 1982.
 2124. Vanden Berge, J. C. Aves myology. In: Sisson and Grossman's Anatomy of Domestic Animals, edited by R. Getty. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1975, p. 1802–1849.
 2125. Vandervael, F. Notions d'Analyse des Mouvements du Corps Humain, edited by J. Brachet, A. Dalco, J. Fautrez, J. Firket, M. Florkin, and P. Van Pee. Liège: 1944.
 2126. Van Harreveld, A. On the force and size of motor units in the rabbit's sartorius muscle. Am. J. Physiol. 151: 96–106, 1947.
 2127. Van Leeuwen, J. L., A. S. Jayes, and R. McN. Alexander. Estimates of mechanical stresses in tortoise leg muscles during walking. J. Zool. 195: 53–69, 1981.
 2128. Van Linge, B. Electromyographic analysis of the action of the Mm. extensor digitorum brevis and longus. Acta Morphol. Neerland Scand. 5: 197 1962.
 2129. Van Linge, B. The behaviuor of the quadriceps muscle during walking. An electromyographic investigation. Acta Morphol. Neerland Scand. 5: 293 1963.
 2130. Van Valkenburgh, B. Skeletal indicators of locomotor behavior in living and extinct carnivores. J. Vert. Paleontol. 7: 162–182, 1987.
 2131. Vanzolini, P. E. Climbing habits of Leptotyphlopidae (Serpentes) and Wall's theory of the evolution of the ophidian eye. Pap. Avuls. Zool. Sao Paulo 23: 13–16, 1970.
 2132. Vaughan, C. L., J. G. Hay, and J. G. Andrews. Closed loop problems in biomechanics. Part I—A classification system. J. Biomech. 15: 197–200, 1982.
 2133. Vaughan, C. L., J. G. Hay, and J. G. Andrews. Closed loop problems in biomechanics. Part II—An optimization approach. J. Biomech. 15: 201–210, 1982.
 2134. Vaughan, T. A. Functional morphology of three bats: Eumops, Myotis, Macrotus. Univ. Kans. Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. 12: 1–153, 1959.
 2135. Vaughn, T. A. The skeletal system. In: Biology of Bats, edited by W. A. Wimsatt. New York: Academic, 1970, vol. 1, p. 97–138.
 2136. Vaughn, T. A. The muscular system. In: Biology of Bats, edited by W. A. Wimsatt. New York: Academic, 1970, vol. 1, p. 139–164.
 2137. Vaughn, T. A. Flight patterns and aerodynamics. In: Biology of Bats, edited by W. A. Wimsatt. New York: Academic, 1970, vol. 1, p. 195–216.
 2138. Vaughn, T. A. Mammalogy. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1978.
 2139. Vaughn, T. A., and G. C. Bateman. Functional morphology of the forelimbs of mormoopid bats. J. Mammal. 51: 217–235, 1970.
 2140. Vazquez, R. J. Archaeopteryx and powered flight. Res. Explor. 8: 387–388, 1992.
 2141. Vazquez, R. J. Functional osteology of the avian wrist and the evolution of flapping flight. J. Morphol. 211: 259–268, 1992.
 2142. Vazquez, R. J. Functional anatomy of the pigeon hand (Columbia livia): A muscle stimulation study. J. Morpbol. 226: 33–46, 1995.
 2143. Videler, J. J. On the interrelationships between morphology and movement in the tail of the cichlid fish Tilapia nilotica L. Neth. J. Zool. 25: 144–194, 1975.
 2144. Videler, J. J. Mechanical properties of tail joints. Fortschr. Zool. 24: 183–194, 1977.
 2145. Videler, J. J. Swimming movements, body structure and propulsion in cod Gadus morbua. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 48: 1–27, 1981.
 2146. Videler, J. J. Fish swimming movements: a study of one element of behaviour. Neth. J. Zool. 35: 170–185, 1985.
 2147. Videler, J. J. Fish Locomotion. New York: Chapman and Hall, 1993.
 2148. Videler, J. J. Consequences of weight decrease on flight performance during migration. Israel J. Zool. 41: 261–278, 1995.
 2149. Videler, J. J., and A. Groenewold. Field measurements of hanging flight in the kestrel Falco tinnunculus. J. Exp. Biol. 155: 519–530, 1991.
 2150. Videler, J. J., and F. Hess. Fast continuous swimming of two pelagic predators, saithe (Pollachius virens) and mackerel (Scomber scombrus): a kinematic analysis. J. Exp. Biol. 109: 209–228, 1984.
 2151. Videler, J., and P. Kamermans. Differences between upstroke and downstroke in swimming dolphins. J. Exp. Biol. 119: 265–274, 1985.
 2152. Videler, J. J., and C. S. Wardle. Fish swimming stride by stride: speed limits and endurance. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisher. 1: 23–40, 1991.
 2153. Videler, J. J., and D. Weihs. Energetic advantages of burst‐and‐coast swimming of a fish at high speeds. J. Exp. Biol. 97: 169–178, 1982.
 2154. Videler, J. J., D. Weihs, and S. Daan. Intermittent gliding in the hunting flight of the kestrel, Falco tinnunculus L. J. Exp. Biol. 102: 1–12, 1983.
 2155. Villareal, F. J., L. K. Waldman, and W.Y.W. Lew. A technique for measuring two‐dimensional finite strains in the canine left ventricle. Circ. Res. 62: 711–721, 1988.
 2156. Vincent, J. Structural Biomaterials. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1990.
 2157. Vitt, L. J., and W. E. Cooper, Jr. Foraging and diet of a diurnal predator (Eumeces laticeps) feeding on hidden prey. J. Herpetol. 20: 408–415, 1986.
 2158. Vitt, L. J., and T. E. Lacher, Jr. Behavior, habitat, diet, and reproduction of the iguanid lizard Polychrus acutirostris in the caatinga of northeastern Brazil. Herpetologica 37: 53–63, 1981.
 2159. Vlymen, W. J. Swimming energetics of larval anchovy, Engraulis mordax. Fish. Bull. U.S. 72: 885–899, 1974.
 2160. Vogel, S. Life in Moving Fluids. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1981.
 2161. Vogel, S. Life's Devices. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1988.
 2162. von Holste, E., and D. Kuchemann. Biological and aerodynamic problems of animal flight. J. R. Aero. Soc. 46: 44–54, 1942.
 2163. Von Mises, R. Theory of Flight. New York: Dover, 1945.
 2164. Von Schnurbein, A. F. Der Bewegungsapparat von Hypogeophis. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Gymnophionen XXIII. Morpbol. Jahrb. 75: 315–330, 1934.
 2165. Voris, H. K., and B. C. Jayne. The costocutaneous muscles in some sea snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes). J. Herpetol. 10: 175–180, 1976.
 2166. Vronskiy, A. A., and L. A. Nikolaichuk. Functional morphology of intermuscular bones in several types of fish. Vestn. Zool. 6: 50–58, 1986.
 2167. Vronskiy, A. A., and L. A. Nikolaichuk. Comparative anatomy of the myomeric lateral musculature in bony fishes with various levels of locomotor activity. Vestn. Zool. 1: 44–52, 1988.
 2168. Vronskiy, A. A., and L. A. Nikolaichuk. Comparative anatomy of the myomeric lateral musculature in bony fishes with various levels of locomotor activity. Vestn. Zool. 3: 54–62, 1989.
 2169. Vronskiy, A. A., L. A. Nikolaichuk, and A. A. Kuzmenko. Structural organization of trunk musculature of certain types of skates. Sb. Bion. Kiev Nay. Dumka 22: 79–85, 1988.
 2170. Wada, N., H. Hori, and M. Tokuriki. Electromyographic and kinematic studies of tail movements in dogs during treadmill locomotion. J. Morphol. 217: 105–113, 1993.
 2171. Wainwright, S. A. To bend a fish. In: Fish Biomechanics, edited by P. W. Webb and D. Weins. New York: Praeger, 1983, p. 68–91.
 2172. Wainwright, S. A. Axis and Circumference. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1988.
 2173. Wainwright, S. A., W. D. Biggs, J. D. Currey, and J. M. Gosline. Mechanical Design of Organisms. New York: Wiley, 1976.
 2174. Wake, D. B., and I. G. Dresner. Functional morphology and evolution of tail autotomy in salamanders. J. Morphol. 122: 265–306, 1967.
 2175. Wake, D. B., K. C. Nishikawa, U. Dicke, and G. Roth. Organization of the motor nuclei in the cervical cord of salamanders. J. Comp. Neurol. 278: 195–208, 1988.
 2176. Wake, M. H. The skull as a locomotor organ. In: The Vertebrate Skull, edited by J. Hanken and B. Hall. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, p. 197–240, 1993.
 2177. Walker, J. A field formula for calculation speed and flight efficiency of a soaring bird. Sci. Am. 252: 122–126, 1985.
 2178. Walker, W. F., Jr. The development of the shoulder region of the turtle, Chrysemys picta marginata, with special reference to the primary musculature. J. Morphol. 80: 195–249, 1947.
 2179. Walker, W. F., Jr. Aspects of the functional anatomy of the chelonian pectoral girdle and limb. Am. Zool. 2: 566 1962.
 2180. Walker, W. F., Jr. An analysis of forces developed at the feet of turtles during walking. Am. Zool. 3: 488 1963.
 2181. Walker, W. F., Jr. A structural and functional analysis of walking in the turtle, Chrysemys picta marginata. J. Morphol. 134: 195–213, 1971.
 2182. Walker, W. F., Jr. Swimming in sea turtles of the family Cheloniidae. Copeia 1971: 229–233, 1971.
 2183. Walker, W. F., Jr. Body form and gait in terrestrial vertebrates. Ohio J. Sci. 72: 177–183, 1972.
 2184. Walker, W. F., Jr. Locomotion. In: Turtles, Perspectives and Research, edited by M. Harless and H. Morlock. New York: Wiley, p. 435–454, 1979.
 2185. Walmsley, B., J. A. Hodgson, and R. E. Burke. Forces produced by medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscles during locomotion in freely moving cats. J. Neurophysiol. 41: 1203–1216, 1978.
 2186. Walters, V. Body form and swimming performance in scombroid fishes. Am. Zool. 2: 143–149, 1962.
 2187. Walters, V. The “problematic” hydrodynamic performance of Gero's great barracuda, Sphyraena barracuda (Walbaum). Nature 212: 215–216, 1966.
 2188. Walters, V., and H. L. Fierstine. Measurements of swimming speeds of yellowfin tuna and wahoo. Nature 202: 208–209, 1964.
 2189. Walton, B. M. Physiology and phylogeny: the evolution of locomotor energetics in hylid frogs. Am. Nat. 141: 26–50, 1993.
 2190. Walton, M., B. C. Jayne, and A. F. Bennett. The energetic cost of limbless locomotion. Science 249: 524–527, 1990.
 2191. Walton, B. M., C. C. Peterson, and A. F. Bennett. Is walking costly for anurans? The energetic cost of walking in the northern toad Bufo boreas halophilus. J. Exp. Biol. 17: 165–178, 1994.
 2192. Wang, X. T., M. R. De Ruijter Alexander, R. McN., and R. F. Ker. The effects of temperature on the tensile stiffness of mammalian tail tendons. J. Zool. 223: 491–497, 1991.
 2193. Wardle, C. S. Limit of fish swimming speed. Nature 255: 725–727, 1975.
 2194. Wardle, C. S. Swimming activity in marine fish. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 39: 521–540, 1985.
 2195. Wardle, C. S., and A. Reid. The application of large amplitude elongated body theory to measure swimming power in fish. In: Fisheries Mathematics, edited by J. H. Steele. New York: Academic, 1977, p. 171–191.
 2196. Wardle, C. S., and J. J. Videler. How do fish break the speed limit. Nature 284: 445–447, 1980.
 2197. Ward‐Smith, A. J. A mathematical theory of running, based on the first law of thermodynamics, and its application to the performance of world‐class athletes. J. Biomech. 18: 337–349, 1985.
 2198. Wassersug, R. J. Locomotion in amphibian larvae (or why aren't tadpoles built like fishes?). Am. Zool. 29: 65–84, 1989.
 2199. Wassersug, R. J., K. J. Frogner, and R. F. Inger. Adaptations for life in tree holes by rhacophorid tadpoles from Thailand. J. Herpetol. 15: 41–52, 1981.
 2200. Wassersug, R. J., and W. R. Heyer. Morphological correlates of subaerial existence in leptodactylid tadpoles associated with flowing water. Can. J. Zool. 61: 761–769, 1983.
 2201. Wassersug, R. J., and W. F. Pyburn. The biology of the Peret' toad, Otophryne robusta (Micxrohylidae), with special consideration of its fossorial larva and systematic relationships. J. Zool. 91: 137–169, 1987.
 2202. Wassersug, R. J., and D. G. Sperry. The relationship of locomotion to differential predation on Pseudacris triseriata. Ecology 58: 830–839, 1977.
 2203. Wassersug, R. J., and K. von Seckendorff Hoff. Do tadpoles swim like fishes?. Fortschr. Zool. 30: 31–34, 1985.
 2204. Wassersug, R. J., and K. von Seckendorff Hoff. The kinematics of swimming in anuran larvae. J. Exp. Biol. 119: 1–30, 1985.
 2205. Wassersug, R. J., and K. von Seckendorff Hoff. The implications of shape and metamorphosis for drag forces on anuran larvae. Ann. Soc. R. Zool. Belg. 119: 62–63, 1989.
 2206. Watanabe, K., and F. Sasaki. Ultrastructural changes in the tail muscles of anuran tadpoles during metamorphosis. Cell Tissue Res. 155: 321–336, 1974.
 2207. Waters, J. F. Locomotor adaptations of some limbless Squamata (Reptilia). Diss. Abstr. Int. B 305: 2473 1969.
 2208. Wathuta, E. M. Allometry of the limb bones of mammals from shrews (Sorex) to elephant (Loxodonta). J. Zool. 189: 305–314, 1979a.
 2209. Watson, S. J., and A. Bekoff. A kinematic analysis of hindlimb motility on 9 and 10 day old chick embryos. J. Neurobiol. 21: 651–660, 1990.
 2210. Watt, D.G.D., E. K. Stauffer, A. Taylor, R. M. Reinking, and D. G. Stuart. Analysis of muscle receptor connections by spike‐triggered averaging. 1. Spindle primary and tendon organ afferents. J. Neurophysiol. 39: 1375–1392, 1976.
 2211. Wayne, R. K. Developmental constraints on limb growth in domestic and some wild canids. J. Zool. 10: 381–399, 1986.
 2212. Webb, G. A. A note on climbing ability in tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) and predation on arboreal nesting birds. Victorian Nat. 98: 159–160, 1982.
 2213. Webb, G.J.W. The natural history of Crocodylus porosus. In: A Study of Crocodylus porosus in Northern Australia, edited by H. Messel and S. T. Butler. Sydney: Shakespeare Head, 1977, p. 239–312.
 2214. Webb, G.J.W., and C. Gans. Galloping in Crocodylus johnstoni—a reflection of terrestrial activity. Rec. Aust. Mus. 34: 607–618, 1982.
 2215. Webb, G.J.W., and H. Messel. Morphometric analysis of Crocodylus porosus from the north coast of Arnhem Land, northern Australia. Aust. J. Zool. 26: 1–27, 1978.
 2216. Webb, G.J.W., and H. Messel. Movement and dispersal patterns of Crocodylus porosus in some rivers of Arnhem Land, northern Australia. Aust. Wildl. Res. 5: 263–283, 1978.
 2217. Webb, J. E. A review of swimming in amphioxus. In: Perspectives in Experimental Biology, edited by P. S. Davies. London: Pergamon, 1976, p. 447–454.
 2218. Webb, P. W. Kinematics of pectoral‐fin propulsion in Cymatogaster aggregata. J. Exp. Biol. 59: 697–710, 1973.
 2219. Webb, P. W. Acceleration performance of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, and green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus. J. Exp. Biol. 63: 451–465, 1975.
 2220. Webb, P. W. Efficiency of pectoral‐fin propulsion in Cymatogaster aggregata. In: Swimming and Flying in Nature, edited by T. Y. Wu, C. J. Brokaw, and C. Brennan. New York: Plenum, 1975, vol. 2, p. 573–583.
 2221. Webb, P. W. Hydrodynamics and energetics of fish propulsion. Bull. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 190: 1–159, 1975.
 2222. Webb, P. W. Effects of median fin amputation on fast‐start performance of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). J. Exp. Biol. 68: 123–135, 1977.
 2223. Webb, P. W. Effects of size on performance and energetics of fish. In: Scale Effects in Animal Locomotion, edited by T. J. Pedley. New York: Academic, 1977, p. 315–331.
 2224. Webb, P. W. Fast start performance and body form in seven species of teleost fish. J. Exp. Biol. 74: 211–226, 1978.
 2225. Webb, P. W. Temperature effects on acceleration of trout (Salmo gairdneri). J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 35: 1417–1422, 1978.
 2226. Webb, P. W. Responses of northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax, larvae to predation by a biting planktivore, Amphiprion percula. Fish. Bull. U.S. 79: 727–735, 1981.
 2227. Webb, P. W. Locomotor patterns in the evolution of actinopterygian fishes. Am. Zool. 22: 329–342, 1982.
 2228. Webb, P. W. Speed, acceleration and manoeuverability of two teleost fishes. J. Exp. Biol. 102: 115–122, 1983.
 2229. Webb, P. W. Body form, locomotion and foraging in aquatic vertebrates. Am. Zool. 24: 107–120, 1984.
 2230. Webb, P. W. Kinematics of lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, at cruising speeds. Can. J. Zool. 64: 2137–2141, 1986.
 2231. Webb, P. W. Simple physical principles and vertebrate aquatic locomotion. Am. Zool. 28: 709–725, 1988.
 2232. Webb, P. W. Steady swimming kinematics of tiger musky, an esociform accelerator, and rainbow trout, a generalist cruiser. J. Exp. Biol. 138: 51–69, 1988.
 2233. Webb, P. W. Station holding by three species of benthic fishes. J. Exp. Biol. 145: 303–320, 1989.
 2234. Webb, P. W. How does benthic living affect body volume, tissue composition, and density of fishes?. Can. J. Zool. 68: 1250–1255, 1990.
 2235. Webb, P. W. Composition and mechanics of routine swimming of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus nerka. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48: 583–590, 1991.
 2236. Webb, P. W. Is the high cost of body/caudal fin undulatory swimming due to increased friction drag or inertial recoil?. J. Exp. Biol. 162: 157–166, 1992.
 2237. Webb, P. W. Is tilting behaviour at low swimming speeds unique to negatively buoyant fish? Observations on steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and bluegill, Lepomis macrochims. J. Fish. Biol. 43: 687–694, 1993.
 2238. Webb, P. W. The effect of solid and porous channel walls on steady swimming in steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. J. Exp. Biol. 178: 97–108, 1993.
 2239. Webb, P. W. Exercise performance of fish. In: Comparative Vertebrate Exercise Physiology, edited by J. H. Jones. Orlando: Academic, 1994, p. 1–49.
 2240. Webb, P. W. Swimming. In: Fish Physiology, edited by D. H. Evans. New York: CRC, 1994, p. 47–73.
 2241. Webb, P. W., and R. W. Blake. Swimming. In: Functional Vertebrate Morphology, edited by M. Hildebrand, D. M. Bramble, K. F. Liem and D. B. Wake. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1985, p. 110–128.
 2242. Webb, P. W., and V. de Buffrenil. Locomotion in the biology of large aquatic vertebrates. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 119: 629–641, 1990.
 2243. Webb, P. W., D. G. Hardy, and V. L. Mehl. The effect of armored skin on the swimming of longnose gar, Lepisosteus osseus. Can. J. Zool. 70: 1173–1179, 1992.
 2244. Webb, P. W., and R. S. Keyes. Swimming kinematics of sharks. Fish. Bull. U.S. 80: 803–812, 1982.
 2245. Webb, P. W., and J. M. Skadsen. Reduced skin mass: an adaptation for acceleration in some teleost fishes. Can. J. Zool. 57: 1570–1575, 1979.
 2246. Webb, P. W., and J. M. Skadsen. Strike tactics of Esox. Can. J. Zool. 58: 1462–1469, 1980.
 2247. Webb, P. W., and G. R. Smith. Function of the caudal fin in early fishes. Copeia 1980: 559–562, 1980.
 2248. Webb, P. W., and D. Weihs. Functional locomotor morphology of early life history stages of fishes. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 115: 115–127, 1986.
 2249. Webster, D. B., and M. Webster. Adaptive value of hearing and vision in kangaroo rat predator avoidance. Brain Behav. Evol. 4: 310–322, 1971.
 2250. Weeks, O. I., and A. W. English. Cat triceps surae motor nuclei are organized topologically. Exp. Neurol. 96: 163–177, 1987.
 2251. Wegner, R. N. Lumbosacrale Uebergangswirbel bei einer Gabelantilope. Anat. Anz. 107: 279–290, 1959.
 2252. Weihs, D. A hydrodynamic analysis of fish turning manoeuvers. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. [B] 182: 59–72, 1972.
 2253. Weihs, D. Mechanically efficient swimming techniques for fish with negative buoyancy. J. Mar. Res. 31: 194–209, 1973.
 2254. Weihs, D. Optimal fish cruising speed. Nature 245: 48–50, 1973.
 2255. Weihs, D. The mechanism of rapid starting of slender fish. Biorheology 10: 343–350, 1973.
 2256. Weihs, D. The energetic advantages of burst swimming. J. Theor. Biol. 49: 215–229, 1974.
 2257. Weihs, D. Energetic significance of changes in swimming modes during growth of anchovy larvae, Engraulis mordax. Fish. Bull. U.S. 77: 597–604, 1980.
 2258. Weihs, D. Body section variations in sharks—an adaptation for efficient swimming. Copeia 1981: 217–219, 1981.
 2259. Weihs, D. Effects of swimming path curvature on the energetics of fish motion. Fish. Bull. U.S. 79: 171–176, 1981.
 2260. Weihs, D. Design features and mechanics of axial locomotion in fish. Am. Zool. 29: 151–160, 1989.
 2261. Weihs, D., and P. W. Webb. Optimization of locomotion. In: Fish Biomechanics, edited by P. W. Webb and D. Weihs. New York: Praeger, 1983, p. 339–371.
 2262. Weinstein, G. N., C. Anderson, and J. D. Steeves. Functional characterization of limb muscles involved in locomotion in the Canada goose (Branta canadensis). Can. J. Zool. 62: 1596–1604, 1984.
 2263. Weis‐Fogh, T. Energetics of hovering flight in hummingbirds and Drosophila. J. Exp. Biol. 56: 79–104, 1972.
 2264. Weitzman, S. H. The osteology and relationships of the South American characid fishes of the subfamily Gasteropelecinae. Stanford Ichthyol. Bull. 4: 211–263, 1945.
 2265. Wells, D. J. Muscle performance in hovering hummingbirds. J. Exp. Biol. 178: 39–58, 1993.
 2266. Wells, D. J. Ecological correlates of hovering flight of hummingbirds. J. Exp. Biol. 178: 59–70, 1993.
 2267. Wells, J. P., and G. A. Wood. Application of biomechanical motion analysis to aspects of green monkey (Cercopithecus a. sabaeus) locomotion. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 43: 217 1975.
 2268. Welsch, U., V. Storch, and W. Fuchs. The fine structure of the digital pads of rhacophorid tree frogs. Cell Tissue Res. 148: 407–416, 1974.
 2269. Welty, J. C., and L. Baptista. The Life of Birds. New York: Saunders, 1988.
 2270. Wentink, G. H. The action of the hind limb musculature of the dog in walking. Acta Anat. 96: 70–80, 1976.
 2271. Wentink, G. H. Biokinetical analysis of hind limb movements of the dog. Zeit. Anat. Entwick. 151: 171–182, 1977.
 2272. Wentink, G. H. Biokinetical analysis of the movements of the pelvic limb of the horse and the role of the muscles in the walk and the trot. Anat. Embryol. 152: 261–272, 1978.
 2273. Wentink, G. H. Dynamics of the hindlimbs at walk in horse and dog. Anat. Embryol. 155: 261–272, 1979.
 2274. Wermel, J. Ueber die Körperproportionen der Wirbeltiere und ihre funktionelle Bedeutung. Biometrische Uebungen. Zweiter Aufsatz. Die Extremitätenproportionen und der Sprung der Salientia. Z. Anat. Entwick. 103: 645–659, 1954.
 2275. Wermuth, H. Eine Grosskopfschildkröte als Kletterkünstler. Dt. Aquar. Terr. Zeitsch. 23: 23–25, 1970.
 2276. Werner, Y. L., and M. Bronza. Hypothetical function of elevated locomotory postures in geckos (Reptilia: Gekkonidae). Isr. J. Zool. 18: 349–355, 1969.
 2277. Weston, H. G., Jr. A swimming lizard. Yosemite Nat. Notes 34: 103 1955.
 2278. Wetzel, M. C., A. E. Atwater, J. V. Waite, and D. G. Stuart. Neural implications of different profiles between treadmill and overground locomotion turning in cats. J. Neurophysiol. 38: 492–501, 1975.
 2279. Whitaker, R. Climbing response of two snake species during rain (Echis carinatus and Viper a russellii). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 70: 387–388, 1974.
 2280. Whitaker, R. Breeding the African dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis) at Zoo Negara, Kuala Lumpur, with an observation on galloping. Hamadryad 6: 14 1981.
 2281. White, T. D. An analysis of epipubic bone function in mammals using scaling theory. J. Theor. Biol. 139: 343–357, 1989.
 2282. White, T. D. and R. A. Anderson. Locomotor patterns and costs as related to body size and form in teiid lizards. J. Zool. 233: 107–128, 1994.
 2283. Whitehead, H. Why whales leap. Sci. Am. 252: 84–93, 1985.
 2284. Whiting, H. P. Pelvic girdle in amphibian locomotion. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 5: 43–57, 1961.
 2285. Whiting, M. J., B. D. Greene, J. R. Dixon, A. L. Mercer, and C. C. Eckerman. Observations on the foraging ecology of the Western coachwhip snake, Masticophis flagellum testaceus. Snake 24: 157–160, 1992.
 2286. Whiting, W. C., R. J. Gregor, R. R. Roy, and V. R. Edgerton. A technique for estimating mechanical work of individual muscles in the cat during treadmill locomotion. J. Biomech. 17: 685–694, 1984.
 2287. Wiedemann, E. Zur Ortsbewegung der Schlangen und Schleichen. Zool. Jb. 50: 557–596, 1932.
 2288. Wiedersheim, R. Zur Anatomie und Physiologie des Phyllodactylus europaeus mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Aquaeductus vestibuli der Ascalaboten im Allgemeinen. Morphol. Jb. 1: 495–534, 1875.
 2289. Wiedersheim, R. Die Anatomie der Gymnophionen. Jena: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1879.
 2290. Wiedersheim, R. Das Gliedmassenskelet der Wirbeltiere auf besonderer Berücksichtiqung des Schulter‐ und Beckengürtels bei Fischen, Amphibien und Reptilien. Jena: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1892.
 2291. Wiedersheim, R. Vergleichende Anatomie der Wirbeltiere. Jena: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1909.
 2292. Wieland, C. M., and R. C. Eaton. An electronic cine camera system for the automatic collection and analysis of high‐speed movement of unrestrained animals. Behav. Res. Meth. Instr. 15: 437–440, 1983.
 2293. Wilcox, H. H. The pelvic musculature of the loon, Gavia immer. Am. Midl. Nat. 48: 513–573, 1952.
 2294. Wilder, H. H. The limb muscles of Necturus, and their bearing upon the question of limb homology. Science 27: 493–494, 1908.
 2295. Wilkinson, R. S., and J. W. Lichtman. Regular alternation of fiber types in the transversus abdominis muscle of the garter snake. J. Neurosci. 5: 2979–2988, 1985.
 2296. Willems, P. A., G. A. Cavagna, and N. C. Heglund. External, internal and total work in human locomotion. J. Exp. Biol. 198: 379–393, 1995.
 2297. Willemse, J. J. The way in which flexures of the body are caused by muscular contractions. Proc. Kon. Neerl. Akad. Wetens. 62: 589–593, 1959.
 2298. Willemse, J. J. Functional anatomy of the myosepta in fishes. Proc. Ned. Akad. Wetens. 69: 58–63, 1966.
 2299. Willemse, J. J. Arrangement of connective tissue fibers in the musculus lateralis of the spiney dogfish, Squalus acanthias. Z. Morphol. Tiere 72: 221–244, 1972.
 2300. Williams, E. E., and J. A. Peterson. Convergent and alternative designs in the digital adhesive pads of scincid lizards. Science 215: 1509–1511, 1982.
 2301. Williams, T. C., L. C. Ireland, and J. M. Williams. High altitude flights of the free‐tailed bats Tadarida brasiliensis observed with radar. J. Mammal. 54: 807–820, 1973.
 2302. Williams, T. L., S. Grillner, V. V. Smoljaninov, P. Wallen, S. Kashin, and S. Rossignol. Locomotion in lamprey and trout: the relative timing of activation and movement. J. Exp. Biol. 143: 559–566, 1989.
 2303. Williams, T. M. Locomotion in the North American mink, a semi‐aquatic mammal. I. Swimming energetics and body drag. J. Exp. Biol. 103: 155–168, 1983.
 2304. Williams, T. M., W. A. Friedl, M. L. Fong, R. M. Yamada, P. Sedivy, and J. E. Haun. Travel at low energetic cost by swimming and wave‐riding bottlenose dolphins. Nature 355: 821–823, 1992.
 2305. Williston, S. W. Are birds derived from dinosaurs?. Kans. City Rev. Sci. 3: 457–460, 1879.
 2306. Willoughby, D. P. Running and jumping. Nat. Hist. 83: 68–72, 1974.
 2307. Wilson, M. A., and R. E. Gatten, Jr. Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism of paired male lizards (Anolis carolinensis). Physiol. Behav. 46: 977–982, 1989.
 2308. Wilson, R. P., B. Culik, D. Adelung, N. R. Coria, and H. J. Spairani. To slide or stride: when should Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) toboggan?. Can. J. Zool. 69: 221–225, 1991.
 2309. Windsor, D. E., and A. I. Dagg. The gaits of the Macropodinae (Marsupialia). J. Zool. 163: 165–175, 1971.
 2310. Wine, R. N. Glycolytic support for locomotion in Anolis carolinensis and Rana pipiens: simultaneous effects of temperature and duration of exercise. Physiol. Zool. 65: 724–741, 1992.
 2311. Wine, R. N., and R. E. Gatten, Jr. Glycolysis and swimming performance in juvenile American alligators. Physiol. Zool. 65: 724–741, 1991.
 2312. Winter, D. A. Biomechanics of Human Movement. New York: Wiley, 1979.
 2313. Winter, D. A., and D.G.E. Robertson. Joint torque and energy patterns in normal gait. Biol. Cybern. 29: 137–142, 1978.
 2314. Witherington, B. E., and M. Salmon. Predation on loggerhead turtle hatchlings after entering the sea. J. Herpetol. 26: 226–228, 1992.
 2315. Withers, P. C. An aerodynamic analysis of bird wings as fixed aerofoils. J. Exp. Biol. 90: 143–162, 1981.
 2316. Withers, P. C. Physiological correlates of limblessness and fossoriality in scincid lizards. Copeia 1981: 197–204, 1981.
 2317. Withers, P. C., and P. L. Timcko. The significance of ground effect to the aerodynamic cost of flight and energetics of the black skimmer (Rhyncops nigra). J. Exp. Biol. 70: 13–26, 1977.
 2318. Witter, M. S., and I. C. Cuthill. The ecological costs of avian fat storage. Phil, Trans. R. Soc. Lond. [B] 340: 73–92, 1993.
 2319. Woledge, R. C., and N. A. Curtin. Locomotion; the price of being a snake. Nature 347: 619–620, 1990.
 2320. Woo, S. L‐Y., G. A. Johnson, and B. A. Smith. Mathematical modeling of ligaments and tendons. J. Biomech. Eng. 115: 468–473, 1993.
 2321. Wood, G. L. Book review: Animal Facts and Fezts. Sci. Am. 239: 48 1978.
 2322. Woodbury, A. M., and R. Hardy. Studies of the desert tortoises, Gopherus agassizii. Ecol. Monogr. 18: 145–200, 1948.
 2323. Woods, G. T. Rate of travel of the wood turtle. Copeia 1945: 49 1945.
 2324. Wu, T. Y. Swimming of a waving plate. J. Fluid Mech. 10: 321–344, 1961.
 2325. Wu, T. Y. Hydrodynamics of swimming propulsion. Part I. Swimming of a two‐dimensional flexible plate at variable forward speeds in an inviscid fluid. J. Fluid Mech. 46: 337–355, 1971.
 2326. Wu, T. Y. Hydrodynamics of swimming propulsion. Part 2. Some optimum shape problems. J. Fluid Mech. 46: 521–544, 1971.
 2327. Wu, T. Y. Hydrodynamics of swimming propulsion. Part 3. Swimming of slender fish with side fins. J. Fluid Mech. 46: 545–568, 1971.
 2328. Wu, T. Y. Introduction to scaling of aquatic animal locomotion. In: Scale Effects of Animal Locomotion, edited by T. J. Pedley. New York: Academic, 1977, p. 203–232.
 2329. Wu, T. Y.‐T., C. J. Brokaw, and C. Brennen. Swimming and Flying in Nature. New York: Plenum, 1975, 2 vols.
 2330. Wynne‐Edwards, V. C. Evolution Through Group Selection. Oxford: Blackwell, 1988.
 2331. Yalden, D. W. The anatomy of mole locomotion. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 149: 55–63, 1966.
 2332. Yalden, D. W. The functional morphology of the carpal bones in carnivores. Acta Anat. 77: 481–500, 1970.
 2333. Yalden, D. W. The functional morphology of the carpus in ungulate mammals. Acta Anat. 78: 461–487, 1971.
 2334. Yalden, D. W. The form and function of the carpal bones in some arboreally adapted mammals. Acta Anat. 82: 383–406, 1972.
 2335. Yamaguchi, N., and K. Fujisawa. Recent Advances in EEG and EMG Data Processing. New York: Elsevier, 1981.
 2336. Yamazaki, N., H. Ishida, T. Kimura, and M. Okada. Biomechanical analysis of primate bipedal walking by computer‐simulation. J. Hum. Evol. 8: 337 1979.
 2337. Yates, G. T. Hydromechanics of body and caudal fin propulsion. In: Fish Biomechanics, edited by P. W. Webb and D. Weihs. New York: Praeger, 1983, p. 177–213.
 2338. Yoo, J.H.K., J. M. Herring, and J. Yu. Power spectral changes of the vastus medialis electromyogram for graded isometric torques (I). Electromyogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19: 183–197, 1979.
 2339. Young, I. S., R. McN. Alexander, A. J. Woakes, P. J. Butler, and L. Anderson. The synchronization of ventilation and locomotion in horses (Equus caballus). J. Exp. Biol. 166: 19–31, 1992.
 2340. Young, I. S., R. McN. Alexander, A. J. Woakes, P. J. Butler, T. H. Quinn, and J. J. Baumel. Chiropteran tendon locking mechanisms. J. Morphol. 216: 197–208, 1993.
 2341. Young, I. S., R. D. Warren, and J. D. Altringham. Some properties of the mammalian locomotory and systems in relation to body mass. J. Exp. Biol. 164: 283–294, 1992.
 2342. Young, J. Z. The Life of Mammals. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1957.
 2343. Young, V. R. Metabolic and nutritional aspects of physical exercise. Federation Proc. 44: 341–342, 1985.
 2344. Zahalak, G. I. A comparison of the mechanical behavior of the cat soleus muscle with a distribution‐moment model. J. Biomech. 108: 131–140, 1986.
 2345. Zajak, F. E. Muscle coordination of movement: a perspective. J. Biomech. 26 (Suppl. 1): 109–124, 1993.
 2346. Zajac, F. E., M. R. Zomlefer, and W. S. Levine. Hindlimb muscular activity, kinetics and kinematics of cats jumping to their maximum achievable heights. J. Exp. Biol. 91: 73–86, 1981.
 2347. Zangerl, R. Contributions to the osteology of the postcranial skeleton of the Amphisbaenidae. Am. Midl. Nat. 33: 764–780, 1945.
 2348. Zangerl, R. The turtle shell. In: Biology of the Reptilia, edited by C. Gans, A. d'A. Bellairs, and T. S. Parsons. New York: Academic, 1969, vol. 1, p. 311–339.
 2349. Zani, P. A., and D. L. Claussen. Voluntary and forced terrestrial locomotion in juvenile and adult painted turtles, Chrysemis picta. Copeia 1994: 466–471, 1994.
 2350. Zannier‐Tanner, E. Vergleichende Verhaltensuntersuchung uber das Hinlegen und Aufstehen bei Huftieren. Z. Tierpsychol. 22: 696–723, 1946.
 2351. Zarrugh, M. Y. Power requirements and mechanical efficiency of treadmill walking. J. Biomech. 14: 157–165, 1981.
 2352. Zelazo, P. R., N. A. Zelazo, and S. Kolb. Walking in the newborn. Science 176: 314–315, 1972.
 2353. Zeveloff, S. I., and M. S. Boyce. Why human neonates are so altricial. Am. Nat. 120: 537–542, 1982.
 2354. Zienkiewicz, O. C., and D. W. Kelly. Finite elements. A unified problem solving and information transfer method. In: Finite Elements in Biomechanics, edited by R. H. Gallagher, B. R. Simon, P. C. Johnson, and J. F. Gross. New York: Wiley, 1982, p. 9–22.
 2355. Zimmer, K. Der Flug des Nektarvogels (Cinnyris). J. Ornithol. 83: 371–387, 1943.
 2356. Zomlefer, M. R., J. Provencher, G. Blanchette, and S. Rossignol. Electromyographic study of lumbar back muscles during locomotion in acute high decerebrate and low spinal cats. Brain Res. 290: 249–260, 1984.
 2357. Zomlefer, M. R., F. E. Zajaland, and W. S. Levine. Kinematics and muscular activity of cats during maximum height jumps. Brain Res. 2126: 563–566, 1977.
 2358. Zuckerman, S., E. H. Ashton, R. M. Flinn, C. E. Oxnard, and T. F. Spence. Locomotor adaptations in the primate pelvis. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 33: 71–165, 1973.
 2359. Zug, G. R. Buoyancy, locomotion, morphology of the pelvic girdle and hindlimb, and systematics of cryptodiran turtles. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. 142: 1–98, 1971.
 2360. Zug, G. R. Anuran locomotion—structure and function, I. Preliminary observations on relation between jumping and osteometrics of appendicular and postcranial skeleton. Copeia 1972: 613–624, 1972.
 2361. Zug, G. R. A critique of the walk pattern analysis of symmetrical quadrupedal gaits. Anim. Behav. 20: 436–438, 1973.
 2362. Zug, G. R. Walk pattern analysis of cryptodiran turtle gaits. Anim. Behav. 20: 439–443, 1973.
 2363. Zug, G. R. Crocodilian galloping: an unique gait for reptiles. Copeia 1974: 550–552, 1974.
 2364. Zug, G. R. Anuran locomotion—structure and function 2. Jumping performance of semiaquatic, terrestrial, and arboreal frogs. Smithson. Contrib. Zool. 276: 1–31, 1978.
 2365. Zug, G. R. Anuran locomotion: fatigue and jumping performance. Herpetologica 41: 188–194, 1985.
 2366. Zug, G. R., and R. Altig. Anuran locomotion—structure and function: the jumping forces of frogs. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 8: 144–147, 1978.
 2367. Zuurbier, C. J., and P. A. Huijing. Influence of muscle geometry on shortening speed of fibre, aponeurosis and muscle. J. Biomech. 25: 1017–1026, 1992.

Contact Editor

Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite

Carl Gans, Abbot S. Gaunt, Paul W. Webb. Vertebrate Locomotion. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 30: Handbook of Physiology, Comparative Physiology: 55-213. First published in print 1997. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp130103