Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Gaseous Mediators in Temperature Regulation

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

Deep body temperature (Tb) is kept relatively constant despite a wide range of ambient temperature variation. Nevertheless, in particular situations it is beneficial to decrease or to increase Tb in a regulated manner. Under hypoxia for instance a regulated drop in Tb (anapyrexia) is key to reduce oxygen demand of tissues when oxygen availability is diminished, leading to an increased survival rate in a number of species when experiencing low levels of inspired oxygen. On the other hand, a regulated rise in Tb (fever) assists the healing process. These regulated changes in Tb are mediated by the brain, where afferent signals converge and the most important regions for the control of Tb are found. The brain (particularly some hypothalamic structures located in the preoptic area) modulates efferent activities that cause changes in heat production (modulating brown adipose tissue activity and perfusion, for instance) and heat loss (modulating tail skin vasculature blood flow, for instance). This review highlights key advances about the role of the gaseous neuromodulators nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in thermoregulation, acting both on the brain and the periphery. © 2014 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 4:1301‐1338, 2014.

Comprehensive Physiology offers downloadable PowerPoint presentations of figures for non-profit, educational use, provided the content is not modified and full credit is given to the author and publication.

Download a PowerPoint presentation of all images


Figure 1. Figure 1. Relationship between ambient temperature and the activity of thermoeffectors in euthermia (A), fever (B), and anapyrexia (C). Values for temperature thresholds and preferred ambient temperatures are approximations based on the thermal biology of the laboratory rat (). Arrows indicate the possible direction (or directions) of the change in thermoeffector activity. TNZ, thermoneutral zone.
Figure 2. Figure 2. The nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the pharmacological tools available to study the NO signaling pathway. NO arises from the cleavage of L‐arginine by NOS and acts mainly through sGC, cGMP, and PKG. Abbreviations: NOS, nitric oxide synthase; NO, nitric oxide; sGC, soluble guanylate cyclase; cGMP, cyclic guanosine monophosphate; PKG, protein kinase G.
Figure 3. Figure 3. Nitric oxide (NO) activates soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), yielding increased levels of cyclic GMP (cGMP) and, consequently, vasodilation. Besides, NO may also cause vasodilation acting via potassium channels and hyperpolarization.
Figure 4. Figure 4. Role of NO in brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. NO has been postulated to facilitate BAT thermogenesis through different actions: facilitating norepinephrine release onto brown adipocytes; causing vasodilation in arteries/arterioles that irrigate BAT, increasing BAT blood flow. Moreover, it has been shown that NO favors glucose breakdown, mitochondrial activity, and fatty‐acid oxidation in brown adipocytes.
Figure 5. Figure 5. Role of NO in skeletal muscle contractility. Skeletal muscles are known to generate heat mainly during shivering, thus functioning as a powerful thermoeffector that helps to maintain Tb when the animal is exposed to cold and to increase Tb to mount the febrile response to pyrogens or psychological stresses. Increased intracellular Ca2+ levels are normally observed when nicotinic receptors are activated to produce contraction. It is well known in other tissues that the increase in Ca2+ activates NOS, leading to heightened production of NO. In skeletal muscles is not different. Interesting are the facts that increased levels of NO inhibit skeletal muscle contraction despite favoring glucose transport and increasing blood flow to the muscle.
Figure 6. Figure 6. Effects of central NO on euthermic control of deep body temperature (Tb). Microinjection of L‐NAME (a nonselective NOS inhibitor) into the lateral ventricle (LV) has led to the conclusion that central NO has either no effect on Tb or causes a slight reduction in Tb. Interestingly, NO does not affect Tb when its production is inhibited with L‐NMMA (another nonselective NOS inhibitor) in the most caudal brain ventricle, that is, the fourth ventricle (4V).
Figure 7. Figure 7. Effects of central NO on fever induced by LPS. Microinjection of inhibitors of iNOS or nNOS into the lateral ventricle (LV) has led to the conclusion that central NO favors the occurrence of fever. Conversely, microinjection of a nonselective inhibitor of NOS into the fourth ventricle (4V) has suggested that NO does not alter LPS fever when its production is inhibited predominantly in the most caudal brain ventricle.
Figure 8. Figure 8. Effects of NO within specific regions of the brain. Microinjection of L‐NMMA (a nonselective NOS inhibitor) within the AVPO has led to the conclusion that AVPO NO attenuates LPS fever. Conversely, it has been demonstrated that locus coeruleus (LC) NO exacerbates LPS fever.
Figure 9. Figure 9. Role of preoptic area of the hypothalamus (POA) nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐induced fever. Systemic LPS has been shown to reduce NOS activity, diminishing the levels of NO in the POA. It is believed that lowered levels of NO in the POA relieve (dashed arrow) the activity of the intracellular cascade (COX‐2/mPGES‐1/PGE2) classically known as the responsible for fever generation. Interestingly, besides inducing fever, this cascade appears to downmodulate a cascade known to downmodulates fever: AC/cAMP/PKA, thus further favoring the febrile response. Reduced levels of POA NO downmodulate its classical cascade, which in the POA is a cascade that attenuates fever: NO/sGC/cGMP/PKG, thus facilitating the regulated increase in deep body temperature (Tb), that is, fever. Abbreviations: COX‐2, cyclooxygenase‐2; mPGES‐1, inducible microsomal PGE synthase‐1; PGE2, prostaglandin E2; AC, adenylate cyclase; cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate; PKA, protein kinase A; NOS, nitric oxide synthase; NO, nitric oxide; sGC, soluble guanylate cyclase; cGMP, cyclic guanosine monophosphate; PKG, protein kinase G.
Figure 10. Figure 10. Effects of central NO on anapyrexia induced by hypoxia. Microinjection of L‐NAME (a nonselective NOS inhibitor) into the lateral ventricle (LV) has led to the conclusion that central NO seems to be essential to the occurrence of hypoxia‐induced anapyrexia.
Figure 11. Figure 11. Role of preoptic area of the hypothalamus (POA) nitric oxide (NO) in hypoxia‐induced anapyrexia. Reduced inspired levels of oxygen (hypoxia) stimulate the production of NO in the POA. Once the levels of NO are augmented in the POA, the intracellular cascade that favors the regulated drop in Tb (anapyrexia) is heightened. This intracellular cascade is composed basically of sGC, cGMP, and PKG. These molecules ultimately favor the occurrence of anapyrexia. Abbreviations: NOS, nitric oxide synthase; NO, nitric oxide; sGC, soluble guanylate cyclase; cGMP, cyclic guanosine monophosphate; PKG, protein kinase G.
Figure 12. Figure 12. The carbon monoxide (CO) pathway and the pharmacological tools available to study the CO signaling pathway. Metabolism of heme is catalyzed by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO). Heme catabolism by (HO) yields biliverdin, iron, and CO. CO may activate the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)‐synthesizing enzyme soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). Therefore, activation of sGC leads to elevated levels of cGMP, which in turn activates protein kinase G (PKG).
Figure 13. Figure 13. Role of central nervous system (CNS) carbon monoxide (CO) in febrile response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It is well known that systemic administration of a fever‐inducing dose of LPS induces in the CNS the following fever‐inducing signaling cascade: COX‐2/mPGES‐1/PGE2, which in the fever‐originating center of the brain, the preoptic area of the hypothalamus (POA), evokes appropriate thermoefferent signals that ultimately results in a regulated increase in deep body temperature (Tb), that is, fever. Systemic LPS seems to stimulate the enzyme heme oxygenase to increase the generation of CO in the CNS. Central CO, in region(s) other than the POA, has been suggested to act as a propyretic molecule. Abbreviations: COX‐2, cyclooxygenase‐2; mPGES‐1, inducible microsomal PGE synthase‐1; PGE2, prostaglandin E2.
Figure 14. Figure 14. Role of central carbon monoxide (CO) in hypoxia‐induced anapyrexia. Preoptic area of the hypothalamus (POA) CO has been shown not to participate in the control of anapyrexic response to hypoxia. Conversely, the results obtained from inhibition of heme oxygenase (HO), the CO‐synthesizing enzyme, in the cerebroventricular system suggests that central CO downmodulates hypoxia‐induced anapyrexia.
Figure 15. Figure 15. Biosynthesis of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Three enzymatic pathways are involved in the biosynthesis of H2S. Cystathionine β‐synthase (CBS) produces H2S via the generation of cystathionine from homocysteine and L‐cysteine from cystathione. Cystathionine γ‐lyase (CSE) produces H2S by producing L‐cysteine from cystathionine. 3‐mercaptopyruvate sulfur transferase (3MST) produces H2S via the production of 3‐mercaptopyruvate (3MP) from α‐ketoglutarate (α‐KG) by cysteine aminotransferase (CAT). H2S, endogenously produced in the donor cell, seems to act predominantly via adenylate cyclase (AC)/cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and/or modulating ATP‐dependent potassium (K+ATP) channels in the target cell.
Figure 16. Figure 16. Role of preoptic area of the hypothalamus (POA) hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in hypoxia‐induced anapyrexia. Exposure to hypoxia (7% oxygen in inspired air) is known to induce CBS activity, elevating H2S levels in the POA. Increased levels of POA H2S stimulates an intracellular cascade, composed of AC, cAMP, and PKA, which is believed to be essential to the occurrence of the anapyrexic response to hypoxia. Abbreviations: CBS, cystathionine β‐synthase; AC, adenylate cyclase; cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate; PKA, protein kinase A.
Figure 17. Figure 17. Role of preoptic area of the hypothalamus (POA) hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in fever induced by systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Systemic LPS has been shown to suppress CBS activity, reducing H2S levels in the POA. It is believed that reduced levels of H2S in the POA relieve (gray dashed arrow) the activity of the intracellular cascade (COX‐2/mPGES‐1/PGE2) responsible for fever generation. It is well known that this cascade induces fever. Interestingly, besides inducing fever, this cascade appears to downmodulate the cascade known to downmodulate fever: AC/cAMP/PKA. Reduced levels of POA H2S are believed to downmodulate the latter cascade as well (gray, curved dashed arrow). Abbreviations: Tb, deep body temperature; COX‐2, cyclooxygenase‐2; mPGES‐1, inducible microsomal PGE synthase‐1; PGE2, prostaglandin E2; AC, adenylate cyclase; cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate; PKA, protein kinase A.


Figure 1. Relationship between ambient temperature and the activity of thermoeffectors in euthermia (A), fever (B), and anapyrexia (C). Values for temperature thresholds and preferred ambient temperatures are approximations based on the thermal biology of the laboratory rat (). Arrows indicate the possible direction (or directions) of the change in thermoeffector activity. TNZ, thermoneutral zone.


Figure 2. The nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the pharmacological tools available to study the NO signaling pathway. NO arises from the cleavage of L‐arginine by NOS and acts mainly through sGC, cGMP, and PKG. Abbreviations: NOS, nitric oxide synthase; NO, nitric oxide; sGC, soluble guanylate cyclase; cGMP, cyclic guanosine monophosphate; PKG, protein kinase G.


Figure 3. Nitric oxide (NO) activates soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), yielding increased levels of cyclic GMP (cGMP) and, consequently, vasodilation. Besides, NO may also cause vasodilation acting via potassium channels and hyperpolarization.


Figure 4. Role of NO in brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. NO has been postulated to facilitate BAT thermogenesis through different actions: facilitating norepinephrine release onto brown adipocytes; causing vasodilation in arteries/arterioles that irrigate BAT, increasing BAT blood flow. Moreover, it has been shown that NO favors glucose breakdown, mitochondrial activity, and fatty‐acid oxidation in brown adipocytes.


Figure 5. Role of NO in skeletal muscle contractility. Skeletal muscles are known to generate heat mainly during shivering, thus functioning as a powerful thermoeffector that helps to maintain Tb when the animal is exposed to cold and to increase Tb to mount the febrile response to pyrogens or psychological stresses. Increased intracellular Ca2+ levels are normally observed when nicotinic receptors are activated to produce contraction. It is well known in other tissues that the increase in Ca2+ activates NOS, leading to heightened production of NO. In skeletal muscles is not different. Interesting are the facts that increased levels of NO inhibit skeletal muscle contraction despite favoring glucose transport and increasing blood flow to the muscle.


Figure 6. Effects of central NO on euthermic control of deep body temperature (Tb). Microinjection of L‐NAME (a nonselective NOS inhibitor) into the lateral ventricle (LV) has led to the conclusion that central NO has either no effect on Tb or causes a slight reduction in Tb. Interestingly, NO does not affect Tb when its production is inhibited with L‐NMMA (another nonselective NOS inhibitor) in the most caudal brain ventricle, that is, the fourth ventricle (4V).


Figure 7. Effects of central NO on fever induced by LPS. Microinjection of inhibitors of iNOS or nNOS into the lateral ventricle (LV) has led to the conclusion that central NO favors the occurrence of fever. Conversely, microinjection of a nonselective inhibitor of NOS into the fourth ventricle (4V) has suggested that NO does not alter LPS fever when its production is inhibited predominantly in the most caudal brain ventricle.


Figure 8. Effects of NO within specific regions of the brain. Microinjection of L‐NMMA (a nonselective NOS inhibitor) within the AVPO has led to the conclusion that AVPO NO attenuates LPS fever. Conversely, it has been demonstrated that locus coeruleus (LC) NO exacerbates LPS fever.


Figure 9. Role of preoptic area of the hypothalamus (POA) nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐induced fever. Systemic LPS has been shown to reduce NOS activity, diminishing the levels of NO in the POA. It is believed that lowered levels of NO in the POA relieve (dashed arrow) the activity of the intracellular cascade (COX‐2/mPGES‐1/PGE2) classically known as the responsible for fever generation. Interestingly, besides inducing fever, this cascade appears to downmodulate a cascade known to downmodulates fever: AC/cAMP/PKA, thus further favoring the febrile response. Reduced levels of POA NO downmodulate its classical cascade, which in the POA is a cascade that attenuates fever: NO/sGC/cGMP/PKG, thus facilitating the regulated increase in deep body temperature (Tb), that is, fever. Abbreviations: COX‐2, cyclooxygenase‐2; mPGES‐1, inducible microsomal PGE synthase‐1; PGE2, prostaglandin E2; AC, adenylate cyclase; cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate; PKA, protein kinase A; NOS, nitric oxide synthase; NO, nitric oxide; sGC, soluble guanylate cyclase; cGMP, cyclic guanosine monophosphate; PKG, protein kinase G.


Figure 10. Effects of central NO on anapyrexia induced by hypoxia. Microinjection of L‐NAME (a nonselective NOS inhibitor) into the lateral ventricle (LV) has led to the conclusion that central NO seems to be essential to the occurrence of hypoxia‐induced anapyrexia.


Figure 11. Role of preoptic area of the hypothalamus (POA) nitric oxide (NO) in hypoxia‐induced anapyrexia. Reduced inspired levels of oxygen (hypoxia) stimulate the production of NO in the POA. Once the levels of NO are augmented in the POA, the intracellular cascade that favors the regulated drop in Tb (anapyrexia) is heightened. This intracellular cascade is composed basically of sGC, cGMP, and PKG. These molecules ultimately favor the occurrence of anapyrexia. Abbreviations: NOS, nitric oxide synthase; NO, nitric oxide; sGC, soluble guanylate cyclase; cGMP, cyclic guanosine monophosphate; PKG, protein kinase G.


Figure 12. The carbon monoxide (CO) pathway and the pharmacological tools available to study the CO signaling pathway. Metabolism of heme is catalyzed by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO). Heme catabolism by (HO) yields biliverdin, iron, and CO. CO may activate the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)‐synthesizing enzyme soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). Therefore, activation of sGC leads to elevated levels of cGMP, which in turn activates protein kinase G (PKG).


Figure 13. Role of central nervous system (CNS) carbon monoxide (CO) in febrile response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It is well known that systemic administration of a fever‐inducing dose of LPS induces in the CNS the following fever‐inducing signaling cascade: COX‐2/mPGES‐1/PGE2, which in the fever‐originating center of the brain, the preoptic area of the hypothalamus (POA), evokes appropriate thermoefferent signals that ultimately results in a regulated increase in deep body temperature (Tb), that is, fever. Systemic LPS seems to stimulate the enzyme heme oxygenase to increase the generation of CO in the CNS. Central CO, in region(s) other than the POA, has been suggested to act as a propyretic molecule. Abbreviations: COX‐2, cyclooxygenase‐2; mPGES‐1, inducible microsomal PGE synthase‐1; PGE2, prostaglandin E2.


Figure 14. Role of central carbon monoxide (CO) in hypoxia‐induced anapyrexia. Preoptic area of the hypothalamus (POA) CO has been shown not to participate in the control of anapyrexic response to hypoxia. Conversely, the results obtained from inhibition of heme oxygenase (HO), the CO‐synthesizing enzyme, in the cerebroventricular system suggests that central CO downmodulates hypoxia‐induced anapyrexia.


Figure 15. Biosynthesis of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Three enzymatic pathways are involved in the biosynthesis of H2S. Cystathionine β‐synthase (CBS) produces H2S via the generation of cystathionine from homocysteine and L‐cysteine from cystathione. Cystathionine γ‐lyase (CSE) produces H2S by producing L‐cysteine from cystathionine. 3‐mercaptopyruvate sulfur transferase (3MST) produces H2S via the production of 3‐mercaptopyruvate (3MP) from α‐ketoglutarate (α‐KG) by cysteine aminotransferase (CAT). H2S, endogenously produced in the donor cell, seems to act predominantly via adenylate cyclase (AC)/cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and/or modulating ATP‐dependent potassium (K+ATP) channels in the target cell.


Figure 16. Role of preoptic area of the hypothalamus (POA) hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in hypoxia‐induced anapyrexia. Exposure to hypoxia (7% oxygen in inspired air) is known to induce CBS activity, elevating H2S levels in the POA. Increased levels of POA H2S stimulates an intracellular cascade, composed of AC, cAMP, and PKA, which is believed to be essential to the occurrence of the anapyrexic response to hypoxia. Abbreviations: CBS, cystathionine β‐synthase; AC, adenylate cyclase; cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate; PKA, protein kinase A.


Figure 17. Role of preoptic area of the hypothalamus (POA) hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in fever induced by systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Systemic LPS has been shown to suppress CBS activity, reducing H2S levels in the POA. It is believed that reduced levels of H2S in the POA relieve (gray dashed arrow) the activity of the intracellular cascade (COX‐2/mPGES‐1/PGE2) responsible for fever generation. It is well known that this cascade induces fever. Interestingly, besides inducing fever, this cascade appears to downmodulate the cascade known to downmodulate fever: AC/cAMP/PKA. Reduced levels of POA H2S are believed to downmodulate the latter cascade as well (gray, curved dashed arrow). Abbreviations: Tb, deep body temperature; COX‐2, cyclooxygenase‐2; mPGES‐1, inducible microsomal PGE synthase‐1; PGE2, prostaglandin E2; AC, adenylate cyclase; cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate; PKA, protein kinase A.
References
 1.Adams H, Adams R, Del Zoppo G, Goldstein LB, Stroke Council of the American Heart A, American Stroke A. Guidelines for the early management of patients with ischemic stroke: 2005 guidelines update a scientific statement from the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 36: 916‐923, 2005.
 2.Ahkee S, Srinath L, Ramirez J. Community‐acquired pneumonia in the elderly: Association of mortality with lack of fever and leukocytosis. South Med J 90: 296‐298, 1997.
 3.Alderton WK, Cooper CE, Knowles RG. Nitric oxide synthases: Structure, function and inhibition. Biochem J 357: 593‐615, 2001.
 4.Alexander HR, Sheppard BC, Jensen JC, Langstein HN, Buresh CM, Venzon D, Walker EC, Fraker DL, Stovroff MC, Norton JA. Treatment with recombinant human tumor necrosis factor‐alpha protects rats against the lethality, hypotension, and hypothermia of gram‐negative sepsis. J Clin Invest 88: 34‐39, 1991.
 5.Almeida MC, Branco LG. Role of nitric oxide in insulin‐induced hypothermia in rats. Brain Res Bull 54: 49‐53, 2001.
 6.Almeida MC, Hew‐Butler T, Soriano RN, Rao S, Wang W, Wang J, Tamayo N, Oliveira DL, Nucci TB, Aryal P, Garami A, Bautista D, Gavva NR, Romanovsky AA. Pharmacological blockade of the cold receptor TRPM8 attenuates autonomic and behavioral cold defenses and decreases deep body temperature. J Neurosci 32: 2086‐2099, 2012.
 7.Almeida MC, Pela IR, Branco LG. Fever induced by platelet‐derived growth factor, in contrast to fever induced by lipopolysaccharide, depends only on nitric oxide, but not on carbon monoxide pathway. Eur J Pharmacol 467: 133‐140, 2003.
 8.Almeida MC, Steiner AA, Branco LG, Romanovsky AA. Cold‐seeking behavior as a thermoregulatory strategy in systemic inflammation. Eur J Neurosci 23: 3359‐3367, 2006a.
 9.Almeida MC, Steiner AA, Branco LG, Romanovsky AA. Neural substrate of cold‐seeking behavior in endotoxin shock. PLoS ONE 1: e1, 2006b.
 10.Almeida MC, Steiner AA, Coimbra NC, Branco LG. Thermoeffector neuronal pathways in fever: A study in rats showing a new role of the locus coeruleus. J Physiol 558: 283‐294, 2004.
 11.Annadata R, Sessler DI, Tayefeh F, Kurz A, Dechert M. Desflurane slightly increases the sweating threshold but produces marked, nonlinear decreases in the vasoconstriction and shivering thresholds. Anesthesiology 83: 1205‐1211, 1995.
 12.Arnold WP, Mittal CK, Katsuki S, Murad F. Nitric oxide activates guanylate cyclase and increases guanosine 3′:5′‐cyclic monophosphate levels in various tissue preparations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 74: 3203‐3207, 1977.
 13.Arons MM, Wheeler AP, Bernard GR, Christman BW, Russell JA, Schein R, Summer WR, Steinberg KP, Fulkerson W, Wright P, Dupont WD, Swindell BB. Effects of ibuprofen on the physiology and survival of hypothermic sepsis. Crit Care Med 27: 699‐707, 1999.
 14.Badjatia N. Fever control in the neuro‐ICU: Why, who, and when? Curr Opin Crit Care 15: 79‐82, 2009.
 15.Balon TW, Nadler JL. Evidence that nitric oxide increases glucose transport in skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol 82: 359‐363, 1997.
 16.Barros RC, Branco LG. Effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibition on hypercapnia‐induced hypothermia and hyperventilation. J Appl Physiol 85: 967‐972, 1998.
 17.Barros RC, Oliveira ES, Rocha PL, Branco LG. Respiratory and metabolic responses of the spiny rats Proechimys yonenagae and P. iheringi to CO2. Respir Physiol 111: 223‐231, 1998.
 18.Barros RC, Zimmer ME, Branco LG, Milsom WK. Hypoxic metabolic response of the golden‐mantled ground squirrel. J Appl Physiol 91: 603‐612, 2001.
 19.Beauchamp RO, Jr., Bus JS, Popp JA, Boreiko CJ, Andjelkovich DA. A critical review of the literature on hydrogen sulfide toxicity. Crit Rev Toxicol 13: 25‐97, 1984.
 20.Beavo JA, Conti M, Heaslip RJ. Multiple cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. Mol Pharmacol 46: 399‐405, 1994.
 21.Begg DP, Mathai ML, McKinley MJ, Frappell PB, Kent S. Central nitric oxide synthase inhibition restores behaviorally mediated lipopolysaccharide induced fever in near‐term rats. Physiol Behav 94: 630‐634, 2008.
 22.Bellamy TC, Garthwaite J. The receptor‐like properties of nitric oxide‐activated soluble guanylyl cyclase in intact cells. Mol Cell Biochem 230: 165‐176, 2002.
 23.Berendsen HH, Weekers AH, Kloosterboer HJ. Effect of tibolone and raloxifene on the tail temperature of oestrogen‐deficient rats. Eur J Pharmacol 419: 47‐54, 2001.
 24.Berridge CW, Waterhouse BD. The locus coeruleus‐noradrenergic system: Modulation of behavioral state and state‐dependent cognitive processes. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 42: 33‐84, 2003.
 25.Bian K, Gao Z, Weisbrodt N, Murad F. The nature of heme/iron‐induced protein tyrosine nitration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100: 5712‐5717, 2003.
 26.Bicego KC, Barros RC, Branco LG. Physiology of temperature regulation: Comparative aspects. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 147: 616‐639, 2007.
 27.Bicego KC, Branco LG. Discrete electrolytic lesion of the preoptic area prevents LPS‐induced behavioral fever in toads. J Exp Biol 205: 3513‐3518, 2002.
 28.Bishop B, Silva G, Krasney J, Nakano H, Roberts A, Farkas G, Rifkin D, Shucard D. Ambient temperature modulates hypoxic‐induced changes in rat body temperature and activity differentially. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 280: R1190‐R1196, 2001.
 29.Blackstone E, Morrison M, Roth MB. H2S induces a suspended animation‐like state in mice. Science 308: 518, 2005.
 30.Blatteis CM. Fever: Exchange of shivering by nonshivering pyrogenesis in cold‐acclimated guinea pigs. J Appl Physiol 40: 29‐34, 1976.
 31.Blatteis CM. Endotoxic fever: New concepts of its regulation suggest new approaches to its management. Pharmacol Ther 111: 194‐223, 2006.
 32.Blatteis CM, Sehic E, Li S. Pyrogen sensing and signaling: Old views and new concepts. Clin Infect Dis 31 Suppl 5: S168‐S177, 2000.
 33.Blaxter KL, Grahama NM, Wainman FW. Environmental temperature, energy metabolism and heat regulation in sheep. III. The metabolism and thermal exchanges of sheep with fleeces. J Agric Sci 52: 41‐49, 1959.
 34.Bligh J. A theoretical consideration of the means whereby the mammalian core temperature is defended at a null zone. J Appl Physiol 100: 1332‐1337, 2006.
 35.Bodurka M, Caputa M, Bodurka J. A comparison of febrile responses induced by LPS from E. coli and S. abortus in unrestrained rats placed in a thermal gradient. J Physiol Pharmacol 48: 81‐88, 1997.
 36.Boehning D, Moon C, Sharma S, Hurt KJ, Hester LD, Ronnett GV, Shugar D, Snyder SH. Carbon monoxide neurotransmission activated by CK2 phosphorylation of heme oxygenase‐2. Neuron 40: 129‐137, 2003.
 37.Bonora M, Gautier H. Effects of hypoxia on thermal polypnea in intact and carotid body‐denervated conscious cats. J Appl Physiol 67: 578‐583, 1989.
 38.Botros FT, Navar LG. Interaction between endogenously produced carbon monoxide and nitric oxide in regulation of renal afferent arterioles. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 291: H2772‐H2778, 2006.
 39.Boulant JA. Hypothalamic neurons. Mechanisms of sensitivity to temperature. Ann N Y Acad Sci 856: 108‐115, 1998.
 40.Boulant JA. Neuronal basis of Hammel's model for set‐point thermoregulation. J Appl Physiol 100: 1347‐1354, 2006.
 41.Boulant JA, Hardy JD. The effect of spinal and skin temperatures on the firing rate and thermosensitivity of preoptic neurones. J Physiol 240: 639‐660, 1974.
 42.Bouton C, Demple B. Nitric oxide‐inducible expression of heme oxygenase‐1 in human cells. Translation‐independent stabilization of the mRNA and evidence for direct action of nitric oxide. J Biol Chem 275: 32688‐32693, 2000.
 43.Braga VA, Soriano RN, Braccialli AL, de Paula PM, Bonagamba LG, Paton JF, Machado BH. Involvement of L‐glutamate and ATP in the neurotransmission of the sympathoexcitatory component of the chemoreflex in the commissural nucleus tractus solitarii of awake rats and in the working heart‐brainstem preparation. J Physiol 581: 1129‐1145, 2007.
 44.Braga VA, Soriano RN, Machado BH. Sympathoexcitatory response to peripheral chemoreflex activation is enhanced in juvenile rats exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia. Exp Physiol 91: 1025‐1031, 2006.
 45.Braga VA, Zoccal DB, Soriano RN, Antunes VR, Paton JF, Machado BH, Nalivaiko E. Activation of peripheral chemoreceptors causes positive inotropic effects in a working heart‐brainstem preparation of the rat. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 34: 1156‐1159, 2007.
 46.Branco LG, Carnio EC, Barros RC. Role of the nitric oxide pathway in hypoxia‐induced hypothermia of rats. Am J Physiol 273: R967‐R971, 1997.
 47.Branco LG, Malvin GM. Thermoregulatory effects of cyanide and azide in the toad, Bufo marinus. Am J Physiol 270: R169‐R173, 1996.
 48.Branco LG, Portner HO, Wood SC. Interaction between temperature and hypoxia in the alligator. Am J Physiol 265: R1339‐R1343, 1993.
 49.Branco LG, Wood SC. Role of central chemoreceptors in behavioral thermoregulation of the toad, Bufo marinus. Am J Physiol 266: R1483‐R1487, 1994.
 50.Briese E. Selected temperature correlates with intensity of fever in rats. Physiol Behav 61: 659‐660, 1997.
 51.Brown JW, Whitehurst ME, Gordon CJ, Carroll RG. Thermoregulatory set point decreases after hemorrhage in rats. Shock 23: 239‐242, 2005.
 52.Bryant RE, Hood AF, Hood CE, Koenig MG. Factors affecting mortality of gram‐negative rod bacteremia. Arch Intern Med 127: 120‐128, 1971.
 53.Bucci M, Papapetropoulos A, Vellecco V, Zhou Z, Pyriochou A, Roussos C, Roviezzo F, Brancaleone V, Cirino G. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous inhibitor of phosphodiesterase activity. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 30: 1998‐2004, 2010.
 54.Buchanan TA, Cane P, Eng CC, Sipos GF, Lee C. Hypothermia is critical for survival during prolonged insulin‐induced hypoglycemia in rats. Metabolism 40: 330‐334, 1991.
 55.Cannon B, Nedergaard J. Brown adipose tissue: Function and physiological significance. Physiol Rev 84: 277‐359, 2004.
 56.Cao C, Matsumura K, Yamagata K, Watanabe Y. Endothelial cells of the rat brain vasculature express cyclooxygenase‐2 mRNA in response to systemic interleukin‐1 beta: A possible site of prostaglandin synthesis responsible for fever. Brain Res 733: 263‐272, 1996.
 57.Cardenas GA, Ventura HO, Francis JE. Osborn waves in sepsis. South Med J 99: 1302‐1303, 2006.
 58.Carpenter AW, Schoenfisch MH. Nitric oxide release: Part II. Therapeutic applications. Chem Soc Rev 41: 3742‐3752, 2012.
 59.Cauwels A, Brouckaert P. Nitrite regulation of shock. Cardiovasc Res 89: 553‐559, 2011.
 60.Cauwels A, Buys ES, Thoonen R, Geary L, Delanghe J, Shiva S, Brouckaert P. Nitrite protects against morbidity and mortality associated with TNF‐ or LPS‐induced shock in a soluble guanylate cyclase‐dependent manner. J Exp Med 206: 2915‐2924, 2009.
 61.Chen K, Pittman RN, Popel AS. Nitric oxide in the vasculature: Where does it come from and where does it go? A quantitative perspective. Antioxid Redox Signal 10: 1185‐1198, 2008.
 62.Chen KY, Brychta RJ, Linderman JD, Smith S, Courville A, Dieckmann W, Herscovitch P, Millo CM, Remaley A, Lee P, Celi FS. Brown fat activation mediates cold‐induced thermogenesis in adult humans in response to a mild decrease in ambient temperature. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98: E1218‐E1223, 2013.
 63.Clemmer TP, Fisher CJ, Jr., Bone RC, Slotman GJ, Metz CA, Thomas FO. Hypothermia in the sepsis syndrome and clinical outcome. Crit Care Med 20: 1395‐1401, 1992.
 64.Connor AJ, Chen LC, Joseph LB, Laskin JD, Laskin DL. Distinct responses of lung and liver macrophages to acute endotoxemia: Role of toll‐like receptor 4. Exp Mol Pathol 94: 216‐227, 2013.
 65.Covert JB, Reynolds WW. Survival value of fever in fish. Nature 267: 43‐45, 1977.
 66.Cowles RB. Semantics in biothermal studies. Science 135: 670, 1962.
 67.Crawshaw LI. Temperature regulation in vertebrates. Annu Rev Physiol 42: 473‐491, 1980.
 68.Crawshaw LI, Stitt JT. Behavioural and autonomic induction of prostaglandin E‐1 fever in squirrel monkeys. J Physiol 244: 197‐206, 1975.
 69.Crocetti M, Moghbeli N, Serwint J. Fever phobia revisited: Have parental misconceptions about fever changed in 20 years? Pediatrics 107: 1241‐1246, 2001.
 70.Cross KW, Tizard JP, Trythall DA. The gaseous metabolism of the newborn infant breathing 15% oxygen. Acta Paediatr 47: 217‐237, 1958.
 71.Csiszar A. Structural and functional diversity of adaptor proteins involved in tyrosine kinase signalling. Bioessays 28: 465‐479, 2006.
 72.Cuellar B, Fernandez AP, Lizasoain I, Moro MA, Lorenzo P, Bentura ML, Rodrigo J, Leza JC. Up‐regulation of neuronal NO synthase immunoreactivity in opiate dependence and withdrawal. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 148: 66‐73, 2000.
 73.Cuevasanta E, Denicola A, Alvarez B, Moller MN. Solubility and permeation of hydrogen sulfide in lipid membranes. PLoS One 7: e34562, 2012.
 74.Currie DA, de Vente J, Moody WJ. Developmental appearance of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production and nitric oxide responsiveness in embryonic mouse cortex and striatum. Dev Dyn 235: 1668‐1677, 2006.
 75.Cypess AM, Lehman S, Williams G, Tal I, Rodman D, Goldfine AB, Kuo FC, Palmer EL, Tseng YH, Doria A, Kolodny GM, Kahn CR. Identification and importance of brown adipose tissue in adult humans. N Engl J Med 360: 1509‐1517, 2009.
 76.Dawe GS, Han SP, Bian JS, Moore PK. Hydrogen sulphide in the hypothalamus causes an ATP‐sensitive K +channel‐dependent decrease in blood pressure in freely moving rats. Neuroscience 152: 169‐177, 2008.
 77.Dawson TM, Snyder SH. Gases as biological messengers: Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in the brain. J Neurosci 14: 5147‐5159, 1994.
 78.De Luca B, Monda M, Sullo A. Changes in eating behavior and thermogenic activity following inhibition of nitric oxide formation. Am J Physiol 268: R1533‐R1538, 1995.
 79.De Paula D, Steiner AA, Branco LG. The nitric oxide pathway is an important modulator of stress‐induced fever in rats. Physiol Behav 70: 505‐511, 2000.
 80.de Paula PM, Branco LG. Nitric oxide in the rostral ventrolateral medulla modulates hyperpnea but not anapyrexia induced by hypoxia. Brain Res 977: 231‐238, 2003.
 81.Deniz T, Agalar C, Ozdogan M, Edremitlioglu M, Eryilmaz M, Devay SD, Deveci O, Agalar F. Mild hypothermia improves survival during hemorrhagic shock without affecting bacterial translocation. J Invest Surg 22: 22‐28, 2009.
 82.Dias MB, Almeida MC, Carnio EC, Branco LG. Role of nitric oxide in tolerance to lipopolysaccharide in mice. J Appl Physiol 98: 1322‐1327, 2005.
 83.Ding Z, Gomez T, Werkheiser JL, Cowan A, Rawls SM. Icilin induces a hyperthermia in rats that is dependent on nitric oxide production and NMDA receptor activation. Eur J Pharmacol 578: 201‐208, 2008.
 84.Duchamp C, Barre H, Delage D, Rouanet JL, Cohen‐Adad F, Minaire Y. Nonshivering thermogenesis and adaptation to fasting in king penguin chicks. Am J Physiol 257: R744‐R751, 1989.
 85.el‐Husseini AE, Bladen C, Vincent SR. Molecular characterization of a type II cyclic GMP‐dependent protein kinase expressed in the rat brain. J Neurochem 64: 2814‐2817, 1995.
 86.Elmquist JK, Breder CD, Sherin JE, Scammell TE, Hickey WF, Dewitt D, Saper CB. Intravenous lipopolysaccharide induces cyclooxygenase 2‐like immunoreactivity in rat brain perivascular microglia and meningeal macrophages. J Comp Neurol 381: 119‐129, 1997.
 87.Elrod JW, Calvert JW, Morrison J, Doeller JE, Kraus DW, Tao L, Jiao X, Scalia R, Kiss L, Szabo C, Kimura H, Chow CW, Lefer DJ. Hydrogen sulfide attenuates myocardial ischemia‐reperfusion injury by preservation of mitochondrial function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104: 15560‐15565, 2007.
 88.Engblom D, Ek M, Saha S, Ericsson‐Dahlstrand A, Jakobsson PJ, Blomqvist A. Prostaglandins as inflammatory messengers across the blood‐brain barrier. J Mol Med 80: 5‐15, 2002.
 89.Erusalimsky JD, Moncada S. Nitric oxide and mitochondrial signaling: From physiology to pathophysiology. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 27: 2524‐2531, 2007.
 90.Fabris G, Anselmo‐Franci JA, Branco LG. Role of nitric oxide in hypoxia‐induced hyperventilation and hypothermia: Participation of the locus coeruleus. Braz J Med Biol Res 32: 1389‐1398, 1999.
 91.Feleder C, Perlik V, Blatteis CM. Preoptic norepinephrine mediates the febrile response of guinea pigs to lipopolysaccharide. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 293: R1135‐R1143, 2007.
 92.Fiorucci S, Santucci L, Distrutti E. NSAIDs, coxibs, CINOD and H2S‐releasing NSAIDs: What lies beyond the horizon. Dig Liver Dis 39: 1043‐1051, 2007.
 93.Florez‐Duquet M, Peloso E, Satinoff E. Fever and behavioral thermoregulation in young and old rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 280: R1457‐R1461, 2001.
 94.Frappell P, Saiki C, Mortola JP. Metabolism during normoxia, hypoxia and recovery in the newborn kitten. Respir Physiol 86: 115‐124, 1991.
 95.Friebe A, Schultz G, Koesling D. Sensitizing soluble guanylyl cyclase to become a highly CO‐sensitive enzyme. EMBO J 15: 6863‐6868, 1996.
 96.Frosini M, Sesti C, Valoti M, Palmi M, Fusi F, Parente L, Sgaragli G. Rectal temperature and prostaglandin E2 increase in cerebrospinal fluid of conscious rabbits after intracerebroventricular injection of hemoglobin. Exp Brain Res 126: 252‐258, 1999.
 97.Fuller A, Dawson T, Helmuth B, Hetem RS, Mitchell D, Maloney SK. Physiological mechanisms in coping with climate change. Physiol Biochem Zool 83: 713‐720, 2010.
 98.Furchgott RF, Zawadzki JV. The obligatory role of endothelial cells in the relaxation of arterial smooth muscle by acetylcholine. Nature 288: 373‐376, 1980.
 99.Furuyama F, Murakami M, Tanaka E, Hida H, Miyazawa D, Oiwa T, Isobe Y, Nishino H. Regulation mode of evaporative cooling underlying a strategy of the heat‐tolerant FOK rat for enduring ambient heat. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 285: R1439‐R1445, 2003.
 100.Furuyashiki T, Narumiya S. Roles of prostaglandin E receptors in stress responses. Curr Opin Pharmacol 9: 31‐38, 2009.
 101.Fusco F, di Villa Bianca R, Mitidieri E, Cirino G, Sorrentino R, Mirone V. Sildenafil effect on the human bladder involves the L‐cysteine/hydrogen sulfide pathway: A novel mechanism of action of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. Eur Urol 62: 1174‐1180, 2012.
 102.Galler S, Hilber K, Gobesberger A. Effects of nitric oxide on force‐generating proteins of skeletal muscle. Pflugers Arch 434: 242‐245, 1997.
 103.Garami A, Shimansky YP, Pakai E, Oliveira DL, Gavva NR, Romanovsky AA. Contributions of different modes of TRPV1 activation to TRPV1 antagonist‐induced hyperthermia. J Neurosci 30: 1435‐1440, 2010.
 104.Garthwaite J. Concepts of neural nitric oxide‐mediated transmission. Eur J Neurosci 27: 2783‐2802, 2008.
 105.Garthwaite J, Charles SL, Chess‐Williams R. Endothelium‐derived relaxing factor release on activation of NMDA receptors suggests role as intercellular messenger in the brain. Nature 336: 385‐388, 1988.
 106.Gaston B. Nitric oxide and thiol groups. Biochim Biophys Acta 1411: 323‐333, 1999.
 107.Gautier H. Interactions among metabolic rate, hypoxia, and control of breathing. J Appl Physiol 81: 521‐527, 1996.
 108.Gavva NR, Treanor JJ, Garami A, Fang L, Surapaneni S, Akrami A, Alvarez F, Bak A, Darling M, Gore A, Jang GR, Kesslak JP, Ni L, Norman MH, Palluconi G, Rose MJ, Salfi M, Tan E, Romanovsky AA, Banfield C, Davar G. Pharmacological blockade of the vanilloid receptor TRPV1 elicits marked hyperthermia in humans. Pain 136: 202‐210, 2008.
 109.Geor RJ, McCutcheon LJ. Thermoregulatory adaptations associated with training and heat acclimation. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 14: 97‐120, 1998.
 110.George ME, Mulier KE, Beilman GJ. Hypothermia is associated with improved outcomes in a porcine model of hemorrhagic shock. The Journal of trauma 68: 662‐668, 2010.
 111.Gibb BJ, Garthwaite J. Subunits of the nitric oxide receptor, soluble guanylyl cyclase, expressed in rat brain. Eur J Neurosci 13: 539‐544, 2001.
 112.Gillooly JF, Brown JH, West GB, Savage VM, Charnov EL. Effects of size and temperature on metabolic rate. Science 293: 2248‐2251, 2001.
 113.Giusti‐Paiva A, Branco LG, de Castro M, Antunes‐Rodrigues J, Carnio EC. Role of nitric oxide in thermoregulation during septic shock: Involvement of vasopressin. Pflugers Arch 447: 175‐180, 2003.
 114.Giusti‐Paiva A, De Castro M, Antunes‐Rodrigues J, Carnio EC. Inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway in the central nervous system and vasopressin release during experimental septic shock. Crit Care Med 30: 1306‐1310, 2002.
 115.Golozoubova V, Hohtola E, Matthias A, Jacobsson A, Cannon B, Nedergaard J. Only UCP1 can mediate adaptive nonshivering thermogenesis in the cold. FASEB J 15: 2048‐2050, 2001.
 116.Gonzalez D, Drapier JC, Bouton C. Endogenous nitration of iron regulatory protein‐1 (IRP‐1) in nitric oxide‐producing murine macrophages: Further insight into the mechanism of nitration in vivo and its impact on IRP‐1 functions. J Biol Chem 279: 43345‐43351, 2004.
 117.Gordge MP, Hothersall JS, Neild GH, Dutra AA. Role of a copper (I)‐dependent enzyme in the anti‐platelet action of S‐nitrosoglutathione. Br J Pharmacol 119: 533‐538, 1996.
 118.Gordon CJ. A review of terms for regulated vs. forced, neurochemical‐induced changes in body temperature. Life Sci 32: 1285‐1295, 1983.
 119.Gordon CJ. Relationship between autonomic and behavioral thermoregulation in the mouse. Physiol Behav 34: 687‐690, 1985.
 120.Gordon CJ. Relationship between behavioral and autonomic thermoregulation in the guinea pig. Physiol Behav 38: 827‐831, 1986.
 121.Gordon CJ. Relationship between preferred ambient temperature and autonomic thermoregulatory function in rat. Am J Physiol 252: R1130‐R1137, 1987.
 122.Gordon CJ. Temperature Regulation in Laboratory Rodents. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
 123.Gordon CJ. Twenty‐four hour rhythms of selected ambient temperature in rat and hamster. Physiol Behav 53: 257‐263, 1993.
 124.Gordon CJ. The therapeutic potential of regulated hypothermia. Emerg Med J 18: 81‐89, 2001.
 125.Gordon CJ. Response of the thermoregulatory system to toxic insults. Frontiers in bioscience 2: 293‐311, 2010.
 126.Gordon CJ, Fehlner KS, Long MD. Relationship between autonomic and behavioral thermoregulation in the golden hamster. Am J Physiol 251: R320‐R324, 1986.
 127.Gordon CJ, Fogelson L. Comparative effects of hypoxia on behavioral thermoregulation in rats, hamsters, and mice. Am J Physiol 260: R120‐R125, 1991.
 128.Gordon CJ, Long MD, Fehlner KS, Dyer RS. Sulfolane‐induced hypothermia enhances survivability in mice. Environ Res 40: 92‐97, 1986.
 129.Gordon CJ, Puckett E, Padnos B. Rat tail skin temperature monitored noninvasively by radiotelemetry: Characterization by examination of vasomotor responses to thermomodulatory agents. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 47: 107‐114, 2002.
 130.Graham NM, Burrell CJ, Douglas RM, Debelle P, Davies L. Adverse effects of aspirin, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen on immune function, viral shedding, and clinical status in rhinovirus‐infected volunteers. J Infect Dis 162: 1277‐1282, 1990.
 131.Greenblatt EP, Loeb AL, Longnecker DE. Endothelium‐dependent circulatory control–a mechanism for the differing peripheral vascular effects of isoflurane versus halothane. Anesthesiology 77: 1178‐1185, 1992.
 132.Greenblatt EP, Loeb AL, Longnecker DE. Marked regional heterogeneity in the magnitude of EDRF/NO‐mediated vascular tone in awake rats. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 21: 235‐240, 1993.
 133.Grigg GC, Beard LA, Augee ML. The evolution of endothermy and its diversity in mammals and birds. Physiol Biochem Zool 77: 982‐997, 2004.
 134.Grion N, Repetto EM, Pomeraniec Y, Calejman CM, Astort F, Sanchez R, Pignataro OP, Arias P, Cymeryng CB. Induction of nitric oxide synthase and heme oxygenase activities by endotoxin in the rat adrenal cortex: Involvement of both signaling systems in the modulation of ACTH‐dependent steroid production. J Endocrinol 194: 11‐20, 2007.
 135.Guerra AR, Gargaglioni LH, Noronha‐De‐Souza CR, Abe AS, Branco LG, Bicego KC. Role of central nitric oxide in behavioral thermoregulation of toads during hypoxia. Physiol Behav 95: 101‐107, 2008.
 136.Hammel HT, Jackson DC, Stolwijk JA, Hardy JD, Stromme SB. Temperature Regulation by Hypothalamic Proportional Control with an Adjustable Set Point. J Appl Physiol 18: 1146‐1154, 1963.
 137.Haouzi P, Notet V, Chenuel B, Chalon B, Sponne I, Ogier V, Bihain B. H2S induced hypometabolism in mice is missing in sedated sheep. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 160: 109‐115, 2008.
 138.Hashimoto M, Nagai M, Iriki M. Comparison of the action of prostaglandin with endotoxin on thermoregulatory response thresholds. Pflugers Arch 405: 1‐4, 1985.
 139.Hoedemaekers CW, Ezzahti M, Gerritsen A, van der Hoeven JG. Comparison of cooling methods to induce and maintain normo‐ and hypothermia in intensive care unit patients: A prospective intervention study. Crit Care 11: R91, 2007.
 140.Hofmann F, Biel M, Kaupp UB. International Union of Pharmacology. XLII. Compendium of voltage‐gated ion channels: Cyclic nucleotide‐modulated channels. Pharmacol Rev 55: 587‐589, 2003.
 141.Hogg N. The biochemistry and physiology of S‐nitrosothiols. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 42: 585‐600, 2002.
 142.Horwitz BA, Hanes GE. Propranolol and pyrogen effects of shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis in rats. Am J Physiol 230: 637‐642, 1976.
 143.Houstek J, Vizek K, Pavelka S, Kopecky J, Krejcova E, Hermanska J, Cermakova M. Type II iodothyronine 5′‐deiodinase and uncoupling protein in brown adipose tissue of human newborns. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 77: 382‐387, 1993.
 144.Ichinose F, Roberts JD, Jr., Zapol WM. Inhaled nitric oxide: A selective pulmonary vasodilator: Current uses and therapeutic potential. Circulation 109: 3106‐3111, 2004.
 145.Ilagan RP, Tiso M, Konas DW, Hemann C, Durra D, Hille R, Stuehr DJ. Differences in a conformational equilibrium distinguish catalysis by the endothelial and neuronal nitric‐oxide synthase flavoproteins. J Biol Chem 283: 19603‐19615, 2008.
 146.Iriki M, Hashimoto M, Saigusa T. Threshold dissociation of thermoregulatory effector responses in febrile rabbits. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 65: 1304‐1311, 1987.
 147.IUPS‐Thermal‐Commission. Glossary of terms for thermal physiology. Jpn J Physiol 51: 245‐280, 2001.
 148.Ivanov AI, Romanovsky AA. Prostaglandin E2 as a mediator of fever: Synthesis and catabolism. Front Biosci 9: 1977‐1993, 2004.
 149.Jian K, Chen M, Cao X, Zhu XH, Fung ML, Gao TM. Nitric oxide modulation of voltage‐gated calcium current by S‐nitrosylation and cGMP pathway in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 359: 481‐485, 2007.
 150.Jiang Q, Cross AS, Singh IS, Chen TT, Viscardi RM, Hasday JD. Febrile core temperature is essential for optimal host defense in bacterial peritonitis. Infect Immun 68: 1265‐1270, 2000.
 151.Jourd'heuil D, Hallen K, Feelisch M, Grisham MB. Dynamic state of S‐nitrosothiols in human plasma and whole blood. Free Radic Biol Med 28: 409‐417, 2000.
 152.Jurado S, Sanchez‐Prieto J, Torres M. Differential expression of NO‐sensitive guanylyl cyclase subunits during the development of rat cerebellar granule cells: Regulation via N‐methyl‐D‐aspartate receptors. J Cell Sci 116: 3165‐3175, 2003.
 153.Kabil O, Banerjee R. Redox biochemistry of hydrogen sulfide. J Biol Chem 285: 21903‐21907, 2010.
 154.Kamoun P. Endogenous production of hydrogen sulfide in mammals. Amino Acids 26: 243‐254, 2004.
 155.Kandasamy SB, Williams BA. Central effects of dibutyryl cyclic AMP and GMP on the temperature in conscious rabbits. Brain Res 277: 311‐320, 1983.
 156.Kanosue K, Crawshaw LI, Nagashima K, Yoda T. Concepts to utilize in describing thermoregulation and neurophysiological evidence for how the system works. Eur J Appl Physiol 109: 5‐11, 2010.
 157.Kanosue K, Yanase‐Fujiwara M, Hosono T. Hypothalamic network for thermoregulatory vasomotor control. Am J Physiol 267: R283‐R288, 1994.
 158.Kanosue K, Zhang YH, Yanase‐Fujiwara M, Hosono T. Hypothalamic network for thermoregulatory shivering. Am J Physiol 267: R275‐R282, 1994.
 159.Kellogg DL, Jr. In vivo mechanisms of cutaneous vasodilation and vasoconstriction in humans during thermoregulatory challenges. J Appl Physiol 100: 1709‐1718, 2006.
 160.Kellogg DL, Jr., Crandall CG, Liu Y, Charkoudian N, Johnson JM. Nitric oxide and cutaneous active vasodilation during heat stress in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985) 85: 824‐829, 1998.
 161.Kellogg DL, Jr., Zhao JL, Wu Y. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase control mechanisms in the cutaneous vasculature of humans in vivo. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 295: H123‐H129, 2008a.
 162.Kellogg DL, Jr., Zhao JL, Wu Y. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase control mechanisms in the cutaneous vasculature of humans in vivo. J Physiol 586: 847‐857, 2008b.
 163.Kellogg DL, Jr., Zhao JL, Wu Y, Johnson JM. Nitric oxide and receptors for VIP and PACAP in cutaneous active vasodilation during heat stress in humans. J Appl Physiol 113: 1512‐1518, 2012.
 164.Khan F, Palacino JJ, Coffman JD, Cohen RA. Chronic inhibition of nitric oxide production augments skin vasoconstriction in the rabbit ear. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 22: 280‐286, 1993.
 165.Kikuchi‐Utsumi K, Gao B, Ohinata H, Hashimoto M, Yamamoto N, Kuroshima A. Enhanced gene expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in brown adipose tissue during cold exposure. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 282: R623‐R626, 2002.
 166.Kimura H, Nagai Y, Umemura K, Kimura Y. Physiological roles of hydrogen sulfide: Synaptic modulation, neuroprotection, and smooth muscle relaxation. Antioxid Redox Signal 7: 795‐803, 2005.
 167.Kimura H, Shibuya N, Kimura Y. Hydrogen sulfide is a signaling molecule and a cytoprotectant. Antioxid Redox Signal 17: 45‐57, 2012.
 168.Kloss S, Srivastava R, Mulsch A. Down‐regulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase expression by cyclic AMP is mediated by mRNA‐stabilizing protein HuR. Mol Pharmacol 65: 1440‐1451, 2004.
 169.Kluger MJ. Fever vs. hyperthermia. N Engl J Med 299: 555, 1978.
 170.Kluger MJ. Fever: Role of pyrogens and cryogens. Physiol Rev 71: 93‐127, 1991.
 171.Kluger MJ, O'Reilly B, Shope TR, Vander AJ. Further evidence that stress hyperthermia is a fever. Physiol Behav 39: 763‐766, 1987.
 172.Kluger MJ, Ringler DH, Anver MR. Fever and survival. Science 188: 166‐168, 1975.
 173.Kobzik L, Reid MB, Bredt DS, Stamler JS. Nitric oxide in skeletal muscle. Nature 372: 546‐548, 1994.
 174.Kolluru GK, Shen X, Kevil CG. A tale of two gases: NO and HS, foes or friends for life? Redox Biol 1: 313‐318, 2013.
 175.Kopterides P, Synetos A, Theodorakopoulou M, Armaganidis A, Lerakis S. Osborn waves in sepsis‐induced hypothermia. Int J Cardiol 129: 297‐299, 2008.
 176.Koteja P. The evolution of concepts on the evolution of endothermy in birds and mammals. Physiol Biochem Zool 77: 1043‐1050, 2004.
 177.Kottke FJ, Phalen JS, et al. Effect of hypoxia upon temperature regulation of mice, dogs, and man. Am J Physiol 153: 10‐15, 1948.
 178.Kozak W, Fraifeld V. Non‐prostaglandin eicosanoids in fever and anapyrexia. Front Biosci 9: 3339‐3355, 2004.
 179.Kozak W, Kozak A. Genetic models in Applied Physiology. Differential role of nitric oxide synthase isoforms in fever of different etiologies: studies using Nos gene‐deficient mice. J Appl Physiol 94: 2534‐2544, 2003.
 180.Krall CM, Yao X, Hass MA, Feleder C, Steiner AA. Food deprivation alters thermoregulatory responses to lipopolysaccharide by enhancing cryogenic inflammatory signaling via prostaglandin D2. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 298: R1512‐R1521, 2010.
 181.Krogh A. The rate of diffusion of gases through animal tissues, with some remarks on the coefficient of invasion. J Physiol 52: 391‐408, 1919.
 182.Kukreja RC, Salloum F, Das A, Ockaili R, Yin C, Bremer YA, Fisher PW, Wittkamp M, Hawkins J, Chou E, Kukreja AK, Wang X, Marwaha VR, Xi L. Pharmacological preconditioning with sildenafil: Basic mechanisms and clinical implications. Vascul Pharmacol 42: 219‐232, 2005.
 183.Kurauchi Y, Hisatsune A, Isohama Y, Katsuki H. Nitric oxide‐cyclic GMP signaling pathway limits inflammatory degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons: Cell type‐specific regulation of heme oxygenase‐1 expression. Neuroscience 158: 856‐866, 2009.
 184.Kurosawa S, Kobune F, Okuyama K, Sugiura A. Effects of antipyretics in rinderpest virus infection in rabbits. J Infect Dis 155: 991‐997, 1987.
 185.Kwiatkoski M, Soriano RN, Araujo RM, Azevedo LU, Batalhao ME, Francescato HD, Coimbra TM, Carnio EC, Branco LG. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits preoptic prostaglandin E2 production during endotoxemia. Exp Neurol 240: 88‐95, 2013.
 186.Kwiatkoski M, Soriano RN, Francescato HD, Batalhao ME, Coimbra TM, Carnio EC, Branco LG. Hydrogen sulfide as a cryogenic mediator of hypoxia‐induced anapyrexia. Neuroscience 201: 146‐156, 2012.
 187.Ladyman M, Bradshaw D. The influence of dehydration on the thermal preferences of the Western tiger snake, Notechis scutatus. J Comp Physiol B 173: 239‐246, 2003.
 188.Lai YL, Lamm JE, Hildebrandt J. Ventilation during prolonged hypercapnia in the rat. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol 51: 78‐83, 1981.
 189.Lang CH, Bagby GJ, Spitzer JJ. Glucose kinetics and body temperature after lethal and nonlethal doses of endotoxin. Am J Physiol 248: R471‐R478, 1985.
 190.Lee BH, Inui D, Suh GY, Kim JY, Kwon JY, Park J, Tada K, Tanaka K, Ietsugu K, Uehara K, Dote K, Tajimi K, Morita K, Matsuo K, Hoshino K, Hosokawa K, Lee KH, Lee KM, Takatori M, Nishimura M, Sanui M, Ito M, Egi M, Honda N, Okayama N, Shime N, Tsuruta R, Nogami S, Yoon SH, Fujitani S, Koh SO, Takeda S, Saito S, Hong SJ, Yamamoto T, Yokoyama T, Yamaguchi T, Nishiyama T, Igarashi T, Kakihana Y, Koh Y, Fever, Antipyretic in Critically ill patients Evaluation Study G. Association of body temperature and antipyretic treatments with mortality of critically ill patients with and without sepsis: Multi‐centered prospective observational study. Crit Care 16: R33, 2012.
 191.Lee CT, Zhong L, Mace TA, Repasky EA. Elevation in body temperature to fever range enhances and prolongs subsequent responsiveness of macrophages to endotoxin challenge. PLoS One 7: e30077, 2012.
 192.Lee KR, Chung SP, Park IC, Kim SH. Effect of induced and spontaneous hypothermia on survival time of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock rat model. Yonsei Med J 43: 511‐517, 2002.
 193.Lee M, Schwab C, Yu S, McGeer E, McGeer PL. Astrocytes produce the antiinflammatory and neuroprotective agent hydrogen sulfide. Neurobiol Aging 30: 1523‐1534, 2009.
 194.Leite LH, Zheng H, Coimbra CC, Patel KP. Contribution of the paraventricular nucleus in autonomic adjustments to heat stress. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 237: 570‐577, 2012.
 195.LeMay LG, Vander AJ, Kluger MJ. The effects of psychological stress on plasma interleukin‐6 activity in rats. Physiol Behav 47: 957‐961, 1990.
 196.Leon LR. Cytokine regulation of fever: Studies using gene knockout mice. J Appl Physiol 92: 2648‐2655, 2002.
 197.Leon LR. Thermoregulatory responses to environmental toxicants: The interaction of thermal stress and toxicant exposure. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 233: 146‐161, 2008.
 198.Li L, Rose P, Moore PK. Hydrogen sulfide and cell signaling. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 51: 169‐187, 2011.
 199.Li L, Salto‐Tellez M, Tan CH, Whiteman M, Moore PK. GYY4137, a novel hydrogen sulfide‐releasing molecule, protects against endotoxic shock in the rat. Free Radic Biol Med 47: 103‐113, 2009.
 200.Liu E, Lewis K, Al‐Saffar H, Krall CM, Singh A, Kulchitsky VA, Corrigan JJ, Simons CT, Petersen SR, Musteata FM, Bakshi CS, Romanovsky AA, Sellati TJ, Steiner AA. Naturally occurring hypothermia is more advantageous than fever in severe forms of lipopolysaccharide‐ and E. coli‐induced systemic inflammation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 302: R1372‐R1383, 2012.
 201.Liu J, Hughes TE, Sessa WC. The first 35 amino acids and fatty acylation sites determine the molecular targeting of endothelial nitric oxide synthase into the Golgi region of cells: A green fluorescent protein study. J Cell Biol 137: 1525‐1535, 1997.
 202.Liu YH, Lu M, Hu LF, Wong PT, Webb GD, Bian JS. Hydrogen sulfide in the mammalian cardiovascular system. Antioxid Redox Signal 17: 141‐185, 2012.
 203.Lkhagvasuren B, Nakamura Y, Oka T, Sudo N, Nakamura K. Social defeat stress induces hyperthermia through activation of thermoregulatory sympathetic premotor neurons in the medullary raphe region. Eur J Neurosci 34: 1442‐1452, 2011.
 204.Lo Martire V, Silvani A, Bastianini S, Berteotti C, Zoccoli G. Effects of ambient temperature on sleep and cardiovascular regulation in mice: The role of hypocretin/orexin neurons. PLoS One 7: e47032, 2012.
 205.Loeb AL, Longnecker DE. Inhibition of endothelium‐derived relaxing factor‐dependent circulatory control in intact rats. Am J Physiol 262: H1494‐H1500, 1992.
 206.Long NC, Vander AJ, Kunkel SL, Kluger MJ. Antiserum against tumor necrosis factor increases stress hyperthermia in rats. Am J Physiol 258: R591‐R595, 1990.
 207.Louis C, Jourdan M, Cabanac M. Behavioral fever and therapy in a rickettsia‐infected Orthoptera. Am J Physiol 250: R991‐R995, 1986.
 208.Mackowiak PA, Browne RH, Southern PM, Jr., Smith JW. Polymicrobial sepsis: An analysis of 184 cases using log linear models. Am J Med Sci 280: 73‐80, 1980.
 209.Maines MD. The heme oxygenase system: A regulator of second messenger gases. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 37: 517‐554, 1997.
 210.Malik SS, Fewell JE. Thermoregulation in rats during early postnatal maturation: Importance of nitric oxide. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 285: R1366‐R1372, 2003.
 211.Malvin GM, Wood SC. Behavioral thermoregulation of the toad, Bufo marinus: Effects of air humidity. J Exp Zool 258: 322‐326, 1991.
 212.Malvin GM, Wood SC. Behavioral hypothermia and survival of hypoxic protozoans Paramecium caudatum. Science 255: 1423‐1425, 1992.
 213.Mancardi D, Penna C, Merlino A, Del Soldato P, Wink DA, Pagliaro P. Physiological and pharmacological features of the novel gasotransmitter: Hydrogen sulfide. Biochim Biophys Acta 1787: 864‐872, 2009.
 214.Martelli A, Testai L, Breschi MC, Blandizzi C, Virdis A, Taddei S, Calderone V. Hydrogen sulphide: Novel opportunity for drug discovery. Med Res Rev 32: 1093‐1130, 2012.
 215.Mathai ML, Hjelmqvist H, Keil R, Gerstberger R. Nitric oxide increases cutaneous and respiratory heat dissipation in conscious rabbits. Am J Physiol 272: R1691‐R1697, 1997.
 216.Matsumura K, Kobayashi S. Signaling the brain in inflammation: The role of endothelial cells. Front Biosci 9: 2819‐2826, 2004.
 217.McAllen RM, Tanaka M, Ootsuka Y, McKinley MJ. Multiple thermoregulatory effectors with independent central controls. Eur J Appl Physiol 109: 27‐33, 2010.
 218.Miguel TT, Nunes‐de‐Souza RL. Anxiogenic‐like effects induced by NMDA receptor activation are prevented by inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the periaqueductal gray in mice. Brain Res 1240: 39‐46, 2008.
 219.Min KJ, Yang MS, Kim SU, Jou I, Joe EH. Astrocytes induce hemeoxygenase‐1 expression in microglia: A feasible mechanism for preventing excessive brain inflammation. J Neurosci 26: 1880‐1887, 2006.
 220.Minami M, Kuraishi Y, Yamaguchi T, Nakai S, Hirai Y, Satoh M. Immobilization stress induces interleukin‐1 beta mRNA in the rat hypothalamus. Neurosci Lett 123: 254‐256, 1991.
 221.Minamishima S, Kida K, Tokuda K, Wang H, Sips PY, Kosugi S, Mandeville JB, Buys ES, Brouckaert P, Liu PK, Liu CH, Bloch KD, Ichinose F. Inhaled nitric oxide improves outcomes after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation in mice. Circulation 124: 1645‐1653, 2011.
 222.Minamiyama Y, Takemura S, Inoue M. Albumin is an important vascular tonus regulator as a reservoir of nitric oxide. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 225: 112‐115, 1996.
 223.Minson CT, Berry LT, Joyner MJ. Nitric oxide and neurally mediated regulation of skin blood flow during local heating. J Appl Physiol 91: 1619‐1626, 2001.
 224.Modis K, Bos EM, Calzia E, van Goor H, Coletta C, Papapetropoulos A, Hellmich MR, Radermacher P, Bouillaud F, Szabo C. Regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetic function by hydrogen sulfide. Part II. Pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects. Br J Pharmacol 171: 2123‐2146, 2013.
 225.Monda M, Amaro S, Sullo A, De Luca B. Nitric oxide reduces body temperature and sympathetic input to brown adipose tissue during PGE1‐hyperthermia. Brain Res Bull 38: 489‐493, 1995.
 226.Morimoto A, Watanabe T, Morimoto K, Nakamori T, Murakami N. Possible involvement of prostaglandins in psychological stress‐induced responses in rats. J Physiol 443: 421‐429, 1991.
 227.Morishita T, Tsutsui M, Shimokawa H, Sabanai K, Tasaki H, Suda O, Nakata S, Tanimoto A, Wang KY, Ueta Y, Sasaguri Y, Nakashima Y, Yanagihara N. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in mice lacking all nitric oxide synthase isoforms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102: 10616‐10621, 2005.
 228.Morrison SF, Nakamura K. Central neural pathways for thermoregulation. Front Biosci 16: 74‐104, 2011.
 229.Mortola JP, Frappell PB. Ventilatory responses to changes in temperature in mammals and other vertebrates. Annu Rev Physiol 62: 847‐874, 2000.
 230.Mortola JP, Maskrey M. Ventilatory response to asphyxia in conscious rats: Effect of ambient and body temperatures. Respir Physiol 111: 233‐246, 1998.
 231.Mount PF, Kemp BE, Power DA. Regulation of endothelial and myocardial NO synthesis by multi‐site eNOS phosphorylation. J Mol Cell Cardiol 42: 271‐279, 2007.
 232.Murad F. Shattuck Lecture. Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP in cell signaling and drug development. N Engl J Med 355: 2003‐2011, 2006.
 233.Muzaffar S, Jeremy JY, Sparatore A, Del Soldato P, Angelini GD, Shukla N. H2S‐donating sildenafil (ACS6) inhibits superoxide formation and gp91phox expression in arterial endothelial cells: Role of protein kinases A and G. Br J Pharmacol 155: 984‐994, 2008.
 234.Nagashima K, Nakai S, Tanaka M, Kanosue K. Neuronal circuitries involved in thermoregulation. Auton Neurosci 85: 18‐25, 2000.
 235.Nagashima T, Ohinata H, Kuroshima A. Involvement of nitric oxide in noradrenaline‐induced increase in blood flow through brown adipose tissue. Life Sci 54: 17‐25, 1994.
 236.Nakamura K. Central circuitries for body temperature regulation and fever. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 301: R1207‐R1228, 2011.
 237.Nakamura K, Morrison SF. A thermosensory pathway that controls body temperature. Nat Neurosci 11: 62‐71, 2008.
 238.Nakamura K, Morrison SF. A thermosensory pathway mediating heat‐defense responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107: 8848‐8853, 2010.
 239.Nedergaard J, Bengtsson T, Cannon B. Unexpected evidence for active brown adipose tissue in adult humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293: E444‐E452, 2007.
 240.Nisoli E, Tonello C, Briscini L, Carruba MO. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in rat brown adipocytes: Implications for blood flow to brown adipose tissue. Endocrinology 138: 676‐682, 1997.
 241.Noback CR, Tinker JH. Hypothermia after cardiopulmonary bypass in man: Amelioration by nitroprusside‐induced vasodilation during rewarming. Anesthesiology 53: 277‐280, 1980.
 242.Nystul TG, Roth MB. Carbon monoxide‐induced suspended animation protects against hypoxic damage in Caenorhabditis elegans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101: 9133‐9136, 2004.
 243.Oka T, Oka K, Hori T. Mechanisms and mediators of psychological stress‐induced rise in core temperature. Psychosom Med 63: 476‐486, 2001.
 244.Oka T, Oka K, Kobayashi T, Sugimoto Y, Ichikawa A, Ushikubi F, Narumiya S, Saper CB. Characteristics of thermoregulatory and febrile responses in mice deficient in prostaglandin EP1 and EP3 receptors. J Physiol 551: 945‐954, 2003.
 245.Oliveira‐Pelegrin GR, Branco LG, Rocha MJ. Central NO‐cGMP pathway in thermoregulation and survival rate during polymicrobial sepsis. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 88: 113‐120, 2010.
 246.Olson KR, Donald JA, Dombkowski RA, Perry SF. Evolutionary and comparative aspects of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 184: 117‐129, 2012.
 247.Ootsuka Y, McAllen RM. Comparison between two rat sympathetic pathways activated in cold defense. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 291: R589‐E595, 2006.
 248.Ortiz PA, Garvin JL. Trafficking and activation of eNOS in epithelial cells. Acta Physiol Scand 179: 107‐114, 2003.
 249.Osaka T. Cold‐induced thermogenesis mediated by GABA in the preoptic area of anesthetized rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 287: R306‐R313, 2004.
 250.Osaka T. Hypoxia‐induced hypothermia mediated by noradrenaline and nitric oxide in the rostromedial preoptic area. Neuroscience 179: 170‐178, 2011.
 251.Otasevic V, Korac A, Buzadzic B, Stancic A, Jankovic A, Korac B. Nitric oxide and thermogenesis–challenge in molecular cell physiology. Front Biosci (Schol Ed) 3: 1180‐1195, 2011.
 252.Ovadia H, Abramsky O, Weidenfeld J. Evidence for the involvement of the central adrenergic system in the febrile response induced by interleukin‐1 in rats. J Neuroimmunol 25: 109‐116, 1989.
 253.Pacher P, Beckman JS, Liaudet L. Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in health and disease. Physiol Rev 87: 315‐424, 2007.
 254.Pae HO, Lee YC, Chung HT. Heme oxygenase‐1 and carbon monoxide: Emerging therapeutic targets in inflammation and allergy. Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov 2: 159‐165, 2008.
 255.Parent A, Schrader K, Munger SD, Reed RR, Linden DJ, Ronnett GV. Synaptic transmission and hippocampal long‐term potentiation in olfactory cyclic nucleotide‐gated channel type 1 null mouse. J Neurophysiol 79: 3295‐3301, 1998.
 256.Paro FM, Steiner AA, Branco LGS. Thermoregulatory response to hypoxia after inhibition of the central heme oxygenase‐carbon monoxide pathway. Journal of Thermal Biology 26: 339‐343, 2001.
 257.Paro FM, Steiner AA, De Paula PM, Branco LG. Central heme oxygenase‐carbon monoxide pathway in the control of breathing under normoxia and hypoxia. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 130: 151‐160, 2002.
 258.Partridge LD. The good enough calculi of evolving control systems: Evolution is not engineering. Am J Physiol 242: R173‐R177, 1982.
 259.Paul BD, Snyder SH. H(2)S signalling through protein sulfhydration and beyond. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 13: 499‐507, 2012.
 260.Peberdy MA, Callaway CW, Neumar RW, Geocadin RG, Zimmerman JL, Donnino M, Gabrielli A, Silvers SM, Zaritsky AL, Merchant R, Vanden Hoek TL, Kronick SL, American Heart A. Part 9: post‐cardiac arrest care: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation 122: S768‐S786, 2010.
 261.Peers C, Bauer CC, Boyle JP, Scragg JL, Dallas ML. Modulation of ion channels by hydrogen sulfide. Antioxid Redox Signal 17: 95‐105, 2012.
 262.Peres Bota D, Lopes Ferreira F, Melot C, Vincent JL. Body temperature alterations in the critically ill. Intensive Care Med 30: 811‐816, 2004.
 263.Perotti CA, Nogueira MS, Antunes‐Rodrigues J, Carnio EC. Effects of a neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor on lipopolysaccharide‐induced fever. Braz J Med Biol Res 32: 1381‐1387, 1999.
 264.Pineda J, Kogan JH, Aghajanian GK. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide activate locus coeruleus neurons through a cGMP‐dependent protein kinase: Involvement of a nonselective cationic channel. J Neurosci 16: 1389‐1399, 1996.
 265.Plaisance KI, Kudaravalli S, Wasserman SS, Levine MM, Mackowiak PA. Effect of antipyretic therapy on the duration of illness in experimental influenza A, Shigella sonnei, and Rickettsia rickettsii infections. Pharmacotherapy 20: 1417‐1422, 2000.
 266.Polte T, Abate A, Dennery PA, Schroder H. Heme oxygenase‐1 is a cGMP‐inducible endothelial protein and mediates the cytoprotective action of nitric oxide. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 20: 1209‐1215, 2000.
 267.Prast H, Philippu A. Nitric oxide releases acetylcholine in the basal forebrain. Eur J Pharmacol 216: 139‐140, 1992.
 268.Predmore BL, Lefer DJ, Gojon G. Hydrogen sulfide in biochemistry and medicine. Antioxid Redox Signal 17: 119‐140, 2012.
 269.Pritchard MT, Li Z, Repasky EA. Nitric oxide production is regulated by fever‐range thermal stimulation of murine macrophages. J Leukoc Biol 78: 630‐638, 2005.
 270.Ravanelli MI, Almeida MC, Branco LG. Role of the locus coeruleus carbon monoxide pathway in endotoxin fever in rats. Pflugers Arch 453: 471‐476, 2007.
 271.Ravanelli MI, Branco LG. Role of locus coeruleus heme oxygenase‐carbon monoxide‐cGMP pathway during hypothermic response to restraint. Brain Res Bull 75: 526‐532, 2008.
 272.Reaven NL, Lovett JE, Funk SE. Brain injury and fever: Hospital length of stay and cost outcomes. J Intensive Care Med 24: 131‐139, 2009.
 273.Riccio A, Alvania RS, Lonze BE, Ramanan N, Kim T, Huang Y, Dawson TM, Snyder SH, Ginty DD. A nitric oxide signaling pathway controls CREB‐mediated gene expression in neurons. Mol Cell 21: 283‐294, 2006.
 274.Rice P, Martin E, He JR, Frank M, DeTolla L, Hester L, O'Neill T, Manka C, Benjamin I, Nagarsekar A, Singh I, Hasday JD. Febrile‐range hyperthermia augments neutrophil accumulation and enhances lung injury in experimental gram‐negative bacterial pneumonia. J Immunol 174: 3676‐3685, 2005.
 275.Roberts WW. Differential thermosensor control of thermoregulatory grooming, locomotion, and relaxed postural extension. Ann N Y Acad Sci 525: 363‐374, 1988.
 276.Robertshaw D. Mechanisms for the control of respiratory evaporative heat loss in panting animals. J Appl Physiol 101: 664‐668, 2006.
 277.Romanovsky AA. Do fever and anapyrexia exist? Analysis of set point‐based definitions. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 287: R992‐R995, 2004.
 278.Romanovsky AA. Signaling the brain in the early sickness syndrome: Are sensory nerves involved? Front Biosci 9: 494‐504, 2004.
 279.Romanovsky AA. Thermoregulation: Some concepts have changed. Functional architecture of the thermoregulatory system. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 292: R37‐R46, 2007.
 280.Romanovsky AA, Almeida MC, Aronoff DM, Ivanov AI, Konsman JP, Steiner AA, Turek VF. Fever and hypothermia in systemic inflammation: Recent discoveries and revisions. Front Biosci 10: 2193‐2216, 2005.
 281.Romanovsky AA, Almeida MC, Aronoff DM, Ivanov AI, Konsman JP, Steiner AA, Turek VF. Fever and hypothermia in systemic inflammation: Recent discoveries and revisions. Front Biosci 10: 2193‐2216, 2005.
 282.Romanovsky AA, Blatteis CM. Heat defense control in an experimental heat disorder. Int J Biometeorol 43: 172‐175, 2000.
 283.Romanovsky AA, Ivanov AI, Shimansky YP. Selected contribution: Ambient temperature for experiments in rats: A new method for determining the zone of thermal neutrality. J Appl Physiol 92: 2667‐2679, 2002.
 284.Romanovsky AA, Kulchitsky VA, Simons CT, Sugimoto N. Methodology of fever research: Why are polyphasic fevers often thought to be biphasic? Am J Physiol 275: R332‐R338, 1998.
 285.Romanovsky AA, Shido O, Sakurada S, Sugimoto N, Nagasaka T. Endotoxin shock: Thermoregulatory mechanisms. Am J Physiol 270: R693‐R703, 1996.
 286.Roth J, Harre EM, Rummel C, Gerstberger R, Hubschle T. Signaling the brain in systemic inflammation: Role of sensory circumventricular organs. Front Biosci 9: 290‐300, 2004.
 287.Roth J, Storr B, Voigt K, Zeisberger E. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase attenuates lipopolysaccharide‐induced fever without reduction of circulating cytokines in guinea‐pigs. Pflugers Arch 436: 858‐862, 1998.
 288.Roth J, Zeisberger E, Vybiral S, Jansky L. Endogenous antipyretics: Neuropeptides and glucocorticoids. Front Biosci 9: 816‐826, 2004.
 289.Rudaya AY, Steiner AA, Robbins JR, Dragic AS, Romanovsky AA. Thermoregulatory responses to lipopolysaccharide in the mouse: Dependence on the dose and ambient temperature. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 289: R1244‐R1252, 2005.
 290.Russwurm M, Wittau N, Koesling D. Guanylyl cyclase/PSD‐95 interaction: Targeting of the nitric oxide‐sensitive alpha2beta1 guanylyl cyclase to synaptic membranes. J Biol Chem 276: 44647‐44652, 2001.
 291.Ryter SW, Alam J, Choi AM. Heme oxygenase‐1/carbon monoxide: From basic science to therapeutic applications. Physiol Rev 86: 583‐650, 2006.
 292.Saha SK, Kuroshima A. Nitric oxide and thermogenic function of brown adipose tissue in rats. Jpn J Physiol 50: 337‐342, 2000.
 293.Saha SK, Ohinata H, Kuroshima A. Effects of acute and chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthase on brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. Jpn J Physiol 46: 375‐382, 1996.
 294.Saia RS, Carnio EC. Thermoregulatory role of inducible nitric oxide synthase in lipopolysaccharide‐induced hypothermia. Life Sci 79: 1473‐1478, 2006.
 295.Saiki C, Mortola JP. Effect of 2,4‐dinitrophenol on the hypometabolic response to hypoxia of conscious adult rats. J Appl Physiol 83: 537‐542, 1997.
 296.Sakurada S, Shido O. Shivering and nonshivering thermogenic responses of rats subjected to different patterns of heat acclimation. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 71: 576‐581, 1993.
 297.Sakurada S, Shido O, Sugimoto N, Hiratsuka Y, Yoda T, Kanosue K. Autonomic and behavioural thermoregulation in starved rats. J Physiol 526: 417‐424, 2000.
 298.Salter M, Duffy C, Garthwaite J, Strijbos PJ. Substantial regional and hemispheric differences in brain nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition following intracerebroventricular administration of N omega‐nitro‐L‐arginine (L‐NA) and its methyl ester (L‐NAME). Neuropharmacology 34: 639‐649, 1995.
 299.Sanches DB, Steiner AA, Branco LG. Involvement of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in restraint stress‐induced fever in rats. Physiol Behav 75: 261‐266, 2002.
 300.Saper CB, Romanovsky AA, Scammell TE. Neural circuitry engaged by prostaglandins during the sickness syndrome. Nat Neurosci 15: 1088‐1095, 2012.
 301.Satinoff E, Rutstein J. Behavioral thermoregulation in rats with anterior hypothalamic lesions. J Comp Physiol Psychol 71: 77‐82, 1970.
 302.Scammell TE, Elmquist JK, Saper CB. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase produces hypothermia and depresses lipopolysaccharide fever. Am J Physiol 271: R333‐R338, 1996.
 303.Scharfstein JS, Keaney JF, Jr., Slivka A, Welch GN, Vita JA, Stamler JS, Loscalzo J. In vivo transfer of nitric oxide between a plasma protein‐bound reservoir and low molecular weight thiols. J Clin Invest 94: 1432‐1439, 1994.
 304.Scheele JS, Kharitonov VG, Martasek P, Roman LJ, Sharma VS, Masters BS, Magde D. Kinetics of CO ligation with nitric‐oxide synthase by flash photolysis and stopped‐flow spectrophotometry. J Biol Chem 272: 12523‐12528, 1997.
 305.Schiltz JC, Sawchenko PE. Signaling the brain in systemic inflammation: The role of perivascular cells. Front Biosci 8: s1321‐s1329, 2003.
 306.Schmidt‐Nielsen K, Crawford EC, Jr., Newsome AE, Rawson KS, Hammel HT. Metabolic rate of camels: Effect of body temperature and dehydration. Am J Physiol 212: 341‐346, 1967.
 307.Schortgen F, Clabault K, Katsahian S, Devaquet J, Mercat A, Deye N, Dellamonica J, Bouadma L, Cook F, Beji O, Brun‐Buisson C, Lemaire F, Brochard L. Fever control using external cooling in septic shock: A randomized controlled trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 185: 1088‐1095, 2012.
 308.Schuman EM, Madison DV. Nitric oxide and synaptic function. Annu Rev Neurosci 17: 153‐183, 1994.
 309.Schwimmer H, Gerstberger R, Horowitz M. Nitric oxide and angiotensin II: Neuromodulation of thermoregulation during combined heat and hypohydration stress. Brain Res 1006: 177‐189, 2004.
 310.Sejima H, Tominaga K, Egawa T, Ikeda M, Shibuya K, Kameyama N, Yamauchi A, Shuto H, Kataoka Y. Gender differences in tail‐skin flushing induced by nitrates and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors in a climacteric mouse model. Eur J Pharmacol 624: 66‐70, 2009.
 311.Shao JL, Wan XH, Chen Y, Bi C, Chen HM, Zhong Y, Heng XH, Qian JQ. H2S protects hippocampal neurons from anoxia‐reoxygenation through cAMP‐mediated PI3K/Akt/p70S6K cell‐survival signaling pathways. J Mol Neurosci 43: 453‐460, 2011.
 312.Shastry S, Dietz NM, Halliwill JR, Reed AS, Joyner MJ. Effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibition on cutaneous vasodilation during body heating in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985) 85: 830‐834, 1998.
 313.Shibasaki M, Crandall CG. Mechanisms and controllers of eccrine sweating in humans. Front Biosci (Schol Ed) 2: 685‐696, 2010.
 314.Shido O, Sugimoto N. Possible human endogenous cryogens. Curr Protein Pept Sci 12: 288‐292, 2011.
 315.Shih RH, Yang CM. Induction of heme oxygenase‐1 attenuates lipopolysaccharide‐induced cyclooxygenase‐2 expression in mouse brain endothelial cells. J Neuroinflammation 7: 86, 2010.
 316.Silva JE. Thermogenic mechanisms and their hormonal regulation. Physiol Rev 86: 435‐464, 2006.
 317.Simon E. Nitric oxide as a peripheral and central mediator in temperature regulation. Amino Acids 14: 87‐93, 1998.
 318.Singh V, Aballay A. Heat‐shock transcription factor (HSF)‐1 pathway required for Caenorhabditis elegans immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103: 13092‐13097, 2006.
 319.Soriano RN, Branco LG. Reduced stress fever is accompanied by increased glucocorticoids and reduced PGE2 in adult rats exposed to endotoxin as neonates. J Neuroimmunol 225: 77‐81, 2010.
 320.Soriano RN, Kwiatkoski M, Batalhao ME, Branco LG, Carnio EC. Interaction between the carbon monoxide and nitric oxide pathways in the locus coeruleus during fever. Neuroscience 206: 69‐80, 2012.
 321.Soriano RN, Nicoli LG, Carnio EC, Branco LG. Exogenous ghrelin attenuates endotoxin fever in rats. Peptides 32: 2372‐2376, 2011.
 322.Soriano RN, Ravanelli MI, Batalhao ME, Carnio EC, Branco LG. Glucocorticoids downregulate systemic nitric oxide synthesis and counteract overexpression of hepatic heme oxygenase‐1 during endotoxin tolerance. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 91: 861‐865, 2013.
 323.Soriano RN, Ravanelli MI, Batalhao ME, Carnio EC, Branco LG. Propyretic role of the locus coeruleus nitric oxide pathway. Exp Physiol 95: 669‐677, 2010.
 324.Soszynski D, Chelminiak M. Intracerebroventricular injection of neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors attenuates fever due to LPS in rats. J Physiol Pharmacol 58: 551‐561, 2007.
 325.Spinella PC, Holcomb JB. Resuscitation and transfusion principles for traumatic hemorrhagic shock. Blood reviews 23: 231‐240, 2009.
 326.Stamler JS, Toone EJ, Lipton SA, Sucher NJ. (S)NO signals: Translocation, regulation, and a consensus motif. Neuron 18: 691‐696, 1997.
 327.Stefano F, Distrutti E. Cyclo‐oxygenase (COX) inhibiting nitric oxide donating (CINODs) drugs: A review of their current status. Curr Top Med Chem 7: 277‐282, 2007.
 328.Steiner AA, Antunes‐Rodrigues J, Branco LG. Role of preoptic second messenger systems (cAMP and cGMP) in the febrile response. Brain Res 944: 135‐145, 2002.
 329.Steiner AA, Antunes‐Rodrigues J, McCann SM, Branco LG. Antipyretic role of the NO‐cGMP pathway in the anteroventral preoptic region of the rat brain. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 282: R584‐R593, 2002.
 330.Steiner AA, Branco LG. Central CO‐heme oxygenase pathway raises body temperature by a prostaglandin‐independent way. J Appl Physiol 88: 1607‐1613, 2000.
 331.Steiner AA, Branco LG. Carbon monoxide is the heme oxygenase product with a pyretic action: Evidence for a cGMP signaling pathway. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 280: R448‐R457, 2001.
 332.Steiner AA, Branco LG. Hypoxia‐induced anapyrexia: Implications and putative mediators. Annu Rev Physiol 64: 263‐288, 2002.
 333.Steiner AA, Branco LG. Role of the preoptic carbon monoxide pathway in endotoxin fever in rats. Brain Res 927: 27‐34, 2002.
 334.Steiner AA, Branco LG. Fever and anapyrexia in systemic inflammation: Intracellular signaling by cyclic nucleotides. Front Biosci 8: s1398‐s1408, 2003.
 335.Steiner AA, Carnio EC, Antunes‐Rodrigues J, Branco LG. Role of nitric oxide in systemic vasopressin‐induced hypothermia. Am J Physiol 275: R937‐R941, 1998.
 336.Steiner AA, Carnio EC, Branco LG. Role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in hypoxia‐induced anapyrexia in rats. J Appl Physiol 89: 1131‐1136, 2000.
 337.Steiner AA, Colombari E, Branco LG. Carbon monoxide as a novel mediator of the febrile response in the central nervous system. Am J Physiol 277: R499‐R507, 1999.
 338.Steiner AA, Hunter JC, Phipps SM, Nucci TB, Oliveira DL, Roberts JL, Scheck AC, Simmons DL, Romanovsky AA. Cyclooxygenase‐1 or ‐2–which one mediates lipopolysaccharide‐induced hypothermia? Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 297: R485‐R494, 2009.
 339.Steiner AA, Ivanov AI, Serrats J, Hosokawa H, Phayre AN, Robbins JR, Roberts JL, Kobayashi S, Matsumura K, Sawchenko PE, Romanovsky AA. Cellular and molecular bases of the initiation of fever. PLoS Biol 4: e284, 2006.
 340.Steiner AA, Reste G, Branco LG. Role of the brain heme oxygenase‐carbon monoxide pathway in stress fever in rats. Neurosci Lett 341: 193‐196, 2003.
 341.Steiner AA, Rocha MJ, Branco LG. A neurochemical mechanism for hypoxia‐induced anapyrexia. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 283: R1412‐R1422, 2002.
 342.Steiner AA, Romanovsky AA. Leptin: At the crossroads of energy balance and systemic inflammation. Prog Lipid Res 46: 89‐107, 2007.
 343.Steiner AA, Rudaya AY, Ivanov AI, Romanovsky AA. Febrigenic signaling to the brain does not involve nitric oxide. Br J Pharmacol 141: 1204‐1213, 2004.
 344.Steiner AA, Turek VF, Almeida MC, Burmeister JJ, Oliveira DL, Roberts JL, Bannon AW, Norman MH, Louis JC, Treanor JJ, Gavva NR, Romanovsky AA. Nonthermal activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid‐1 channels in abdominal viscera tonically inhibits autonomic cold‐defense effectors. J Neurosci 27: 7459‐7468, 2007.
 345.Stitt JT. Fever versus hyperthermia. Fed Proc 38: 39‐43, 1979.
 346.Stone JR, Marletta MA. Soluble guanylate cyclase from bovine lung: Activation with nitric oxide and carbon monoxide and spectral characterization of the ferrous and ferric states. Biochemistry 33: 5636‐5640, 1994.
 347.Streeter E, Hart J, Badoer E. An investigation of the mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide‐induced vasorelaxation in rat middle cerebral arteries. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 385: 991‐1002, 2012.
 348.Sugimoto N, Shido O, Sakurada S, Nagasaka T. Day‐night variations of behavioral and autonomic thermoregulatory responses to lipopolysaccharide in rats. Jpn J Physiol 46: 451‐456, 1996.
 349.Sulakhe PV, Sulakhe SJ, Leung NL, St Louis PJ, Hickie RA. Guanylate cyclase. Subcellular distribution in cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, cerebral cortex and liver. Biochem J 157: 705‐712, 1976.
 350.Sullivan BM, Wong S, Schuman EM. Modification of hippocampal synaptic proteins by nitric oxide‐stimulated ADP ribosylation. Learn Mem 3: 414‐424, 1997.
 351.Sulter G, Elting JW, Maurits N, Luijckx GJ, De Keyser J. Acetylsalicylic acid and acetaminophen to combat elevated body temperature in acute ischemic stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis 17: 118‐122, 2004.
 352.Swoap SJ, Li C, Wess J, Parsons AD, Williams TD, Overton JM. Vagal tone dominates autonomic control of mouse heart rate at thermoneutrality. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 294: H1581‐H1588, 2008.
 353.Szabo C. Hydrogen sulphide and its therapeutic potential. Nat Rev Drug Disc 6: 917‐935, 2007.
 354.Szekely M, Romanovsky AA. Pyretic and antipyretic signals within and without fever: A possible interplay. Med Hypotheses 50: 213‐218, 1998.
 355.Szekely M, Szelenyi Z. Endotoxin fever in the rat. Acta Physiol Acad Sci Hung 53: 265‐277, 1979.
 356.Takahashi Y, Smith P, Ferguson A, Pittman QJ. Circumventricular organs and fever. Am J Physiol 273: R1690‐R1695, 1997.
 357.Tamaki Y, Nakayama T. Effects of air constituents on thermosensitivities of preoptic neurons: Hypoxia versus hypercapnia. Pflugers Arch 409: 1‐6, 1987.
 358.Tattersall GJ, Cadena V, Skinner MC. Respiratory cooling and thermoregulatory coupling in reptiles. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 154: 302‐318, 2006.
 359.Tattersall GJ, Gerlach RM. Hypoxia progressively lowers thermal gaping thresholds in bearded dragons, Pogona vitticeps. J Exp Biol 208: 3321‐3330, 2005.
 360.Tattersall GJ, Luebbert JP, LePine OK, Ormerod KG, Mercier AJ. Thermal games in crayfish depend on establishment of social hierarchies. J Exp Biol 215: 1892‐1904, 2012.
 361.Tattersall GJ, Milsom WK. Transient peripheral warming accompanies the hypoxic metabolic response in the golden‐mantled ground squirrel. J Exp Biol 206: 33‐42, 2003.
 362.Tattersall GJ, Milsom WK. Hypoxia reduces the hypothalamic thermogenic threshold and thermosensitivity. J Physiol 587: 5259‐5274, 2009.
 363.Tegeder I, Del Turco D, Schmidtko A, Sausbier M, Feil R, Hofmann F, Deller T, Ruth P, Geisslinger G. Reduced inflammatory hyperalgesia with preservation of acute thermal nociception in mice lacking cGMP‐dependent protein kinase I. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101: 3253‐3257, 2004.
 364.Terlouw EM, Kent S, Cremona S, Dantzer R. Effect of intracerebroventricular administration of vasopressin on stress‐induced hyperthermia in rats. Physiol Behav 60: 417‐424, 1996.
 365.Tilders FJ, DeRijk RH, Van Dam AM, Vincent VA, Schotanus K, Persoons JH. Activation of the hypothalamus‐pituitary‐adrenal axis by bacterial endotoxins: Routes and intermediate signals. Psychoneuroendocrinology 19: 209‐232, 1994.
 366.Toien O, Mercer JB. Poly I:C‐induced fever elevates threshold for shivering but reduces thermosensitivity in rabbits. Am J Physiol 268: R1266‐R1272, 1995.
 367.Toien O, Mercer JB. Thermosensitivity is reduced during fever induced by Staphylococcus aureus cells walls in rabbits. Pflugers Arch 432: 66‐74, 1996.
 368.Tran C, Gariani K, Herrmann FR, Juan L, Philippe J, Rutschmann OT, Vischer UM. Hypothermia is a frequent sign of severe hypoglycaemia in patients with diabetes. Diabetes Metab 38: 370‐372, 2012.
 369.Tsikas D, Sandmann J, Luessen P, Savva A, Rossa S, Stichtenoth DO, Frolich JC. S‐Transnitrosylation of albumin in human plasma and blood in vitro and in vivo in the rat. Biochim Biophys Acta 1546: 422‐434, 2001.
 370.Tulapurkar ME, Almutairy EA, Shah NG, He JR, Puche AC, Shapiro P, Singh IS, Hasday JD. Febrile‐range hyperthermia modifies endothelial and neutrophilic functions to promote extravasation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 46: 807‐814, 2012.
 371.Turek VF, Olster DH, Ettenberg A, Carlisle HJ. The behavioral thermoregulatory response of febrile female rats is not attenuated by vagotomy. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 80: 115‐121, 2005.
 372.Uhler MD. Cloning and expression of a novel cyclic GMP‐dependent protein kinase from mouse brain. J Biol Chem 268: 13586‐13591, 1993.
 373.Ushikubi F, Segi E, Sugimoto Y, Murata T, Matsuoka T, Kobayashi T, Hizaki H, Tuboi K, Katsuyama M, Ichikawa A, Tanaka T, Yoshida N, Narumiya S. Impaired febrile response in mice lacking the prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP3. Nature 395: 281‐284, 1998.
 374.van Marken Lichtenbelt WD, Schrauwen P. Implications of nonshivering thermogenesis for energy balance regulation in humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 301: R285‐R296, 2011.
 375.van Marken Lichtenbelt WD, Vanhommerig JW, Smulders NM, Drossaerts JM, Kemerink GJ, Bouvy ND, Schrauwen P, Teule GJ. Cold‐activated brown adipose tissue in healthy men. N Engl J Med 360: 1500‐1508, 2009.
 376.Vaughn LK, Veale WL, Cooper KE. Antipyresis: Its effect on mortality rate of bacterially infected rabbits. Brain Res Bull 5: 69‐73, 1980.
 377.Verma A, Hirsch DJ, Glatt CE, Ronnett GV, Snyder SH. Carbon monoxide: A putative neural messenger. Science 259: 381‐384, 1993.
 378.Villar J, Slutsky AS. Effects of induced hypothermia in patients with septic adult respiratory distress syndrome. Resuscitation 26: 183‐192, 1993.
 379.Vybiral S, Cerny L, Jansky L. Mode of ACTH antipyretic action. Brain Res Bull 21: 557‐562, 1988.
 380.Vybiral S, Szekely M, Jansky L, Cerny L. Thermoregulation of the rabbit during the late phase of endotoxin fever. Pflugers Arch 410: 220‐222, 1987.
 381.Wagner EL, Scholnick DA, Gleeson TT. The roles of acidosis and lactate in the behavioral hypothermia of exhausted lizards. J Exp Biol 202: 325‐331, 1999.
 382.Wagner KR, Dwyer BE. Hematoma removal, heme, and heme oxygenase following hemorrhagic stroke. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1012: 237‐251, 2004.
 383.Walentynowicz K, Szefer M, Wojtal B, Terlecki P, Wrotek S, Kozak W. Role of prostaglandins in heme‐induced fever. J Physiol Pharmacol 57(Suppl 8): 73‐82, 2006.
 384.Wallace JL, Caliendo G, Santagada V, Cirino G, Fiorucci S. Gastrointestinal safety and anti‐inflammatory effects of a hydrogen sulfide‐releasing diclofenac derivative in the rat. Gastroenterology 132: 261‐271, 2007.
 385.Wan J, Gong X, Jiang R, Zhang Z, Zhang L. Antipyretic and Anti‐inflammatory Effects of Asiaticoside in Lipopolysaccharide‐treated Rat through Up‐regulation of Heme Oxygenase‐1. Phytother Res 27: 1136‐1142, 2012.
 386.Wang J, Lu S, Moenne‐Loccoz P, Ortiz de Montellano PR. Interaction of nitric oxide with human heme oxygenase‐1. J Biol Chem 278: 2341‐2347, 2003.
 387.Wang R. Physiological implications of hydrogen sulfide: A whiff exploration that blossomed. Physiol Rev 92: 791‐896, 2012.
 388.Wang YF, Mainali P, Tang CS, Shi L, Zhang CY, Yan H, Liu XQ, Du JB. Effects of nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide on the relaxation of pulmonary arteries in rats. Chin Med J (Engl) 121: 420‐423, 2008.
 389.Weight FF, Petzold G, Greengard P. Guanosine 3′,5′‐monophosphate in sympathetic ganglia: Increase assoicated with synaptic transmission. Science 186: 942‐944, 1974.
 390.White KA, Marletta MA. Nitric oxide synthase is a cytochrome P‐450 type hemoprotein. Biochemistry 31: 6627‐6631, 1992.
 391.Wickelgren I. Society for Neuroscience meeting. CO gas joins brain signaling team. Science 302: 1320‐1323, 2003.
 392.Williams TD, Chambers JB, Roberts LM, Henderson RP, Overton JM. Diet‐induced obesity and cardiovascular regulation in C57BL/6J mice. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 30: 769‐778, 2003.
 393.Wood SC. Interactions between hypoxia and hypothermia. Annu Rev Physiol 53: 71‐85, 1991.
 394.Wright BE, Katovich MJ. Effect of restraint on drug‐induced changes in skin and core temperature in biotelemetered rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 55: 219‐225, 1996.
 395.Wright CL, Burgoon PW, Bishop GA, Boulant JA. Cyclic GMP alters the firing rate and thermosensitivity of hypothalamic neurons. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 294: R1704‐R1715, 2008.
 396.Wu J, Hua Y, Keep RF, Nakamura T, Hoff JT, Xi G. Iron and iron‐handling proteins in the brain after intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke 34: 2964‐2969, 2003.
 397.Xu ZQ, Pieribone VA, Zhang X, Grillner S, Hokfelt T. A functional role for nitric oxide in locus coeruleus: Immunohistochemical and electrophysiological studies. Exp Brain Res 98: 75‐83, 1994.
 398.Yanase M, Kanosue K, Yasuda H, Tanaka H. Salivary secretion and grooming behaviour during heat exposure in freely moving rats. J Physiol 432: 585‐592, 1991.
 399.Ye S, Nosrati S, Campese VM. Nitric oxide (NO) modulates the neurogenic control of blood pressure in rats with chronic renal failure (CRF). J Clin Invest 99: 540‐548, 1997.
 400.Yoshida K, Li X, Cano G, Lazarus M, Saper CB. Parallel preoptic pathways for thermoregulation. J Neurosci 29: 11954‐11964, 2009.
 401.Zamboni G, Jones CA, Amici R, Perez E, Parmeggiani PL. The capacity to accumulate cyclic AMP in the preoptic‐anterior hypothalamic area of the rat is affected by the exposition to low ambient temperature and the subsequent recovery. Exp Brain Res 109: 164‐168, 1996.
 402.Zhang Y, Richardson D, McCray A. Role of nitric oxide in the response of capillary blood flow in the rat tail to body heating. Microvasc Res 47: 177‐187, 1994.
 403.Zhuo M, Small SA, Kandel ER, Hawkins RD. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide produce activity‐dependent long‐term synaptic enhancement in hippocampus. Science 260: 1946‐1950, 1993.

Related Articles:

Metabolism, Temperature, and Ventilation
Causes of and Compensations for Hypoxemia and Hypercapnia
Nitric Oxide Transport in Blood: A Third Gas in the Respiratory Cycle
Regulation of Cellular Gas Exchange, Oxygen Sensing, and Metabolic Control
Hibernation and Gas Exchange

Contact Editor

Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite

Luiz G.S. Branco, Renato N. Soriano, Alexandre A. Steiner. Gaseous Mediators in Temperature Regulation. Compr Physiol 2014, 4: 1301-1338. doi: 10.1002/cphy.c130053