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Catecholamines in the Brain and Responses to Environmental Challenges

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The sections in this article are:

1 Neuroanatomy of Central Catecholamine Systems
1.1 Norepinephrine
1.2 Dopamine
1.3 Epinephrine
2 Stress‐Responsive Catecholamine Centers in the Brain
2.1 Nucleus of the Solitary Tract
2.2 Right Ventrolateral Medulla
2.3 Caudal Ventrolateral Medulla
2.4 Dorsal Medulla
2.5 Medial Medulla
2.6 Locus Ceruleus
2.7 Hypothalamus
2.8 Paraventricular Nucleus
2.9 Amygdala
3 Central Catecholamine Responses to Stressors
3.1 Hypoglycemia
3.2 Hemorrhage
3.3 Hypoxia
3.4 Exercise
3.5 Altered Environmental Temperature
3.6 Pain
3.7 Immobilization
4 Conclusions
Figure 1. Figure 1.

A: Microdialysate norepinephrine (NE) levels (means ± SEM) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in SHAM, adrenalectomized (ADX), and ADX rats after 7–10 days of glucocorticoid (hydrocortisone hemisuccinate) treatment (ADX + CORT), * indicates a significant difference (p > 0.001, analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measurements) between SHAM or ADX + CORT and ADX groups.

Figure 2. Figure 2.

Microdialysate NE levels in the PVN in control rats and in rats after 7 days of glucocorticoid (hydrocortisone hemisuccinate) treatments. * indicates a significant difference between control and CORT‐treated groups (p > 0.01, ANOVA for repeated measurements). Same abbreviations as for Figure 1.

Figure 1.

A: Microdialysate norepinephrine (NE) levels (means ± SEM) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in SHAM, adrenalectomized (ADX), and ADX rats after 7–10 days of glucocorticoid (hydrocortisone hemisuccinate) treatment (ADX + CORT), * indicates a significant difference (p > 0.001, analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measurements) between SHAM or ADX + CORT and ADX groups.

Figure 2.

Microdialysate NE levels in the PVN in control rats and in rats after 7 days of glucocorticoid (hydrocortisone hemisuccinate) treatments. * indicates a significant difference between control and CORT‐treated groups (p > 0.01, ANOVA for repeated measurements). Same abbreviations as for Figure 1.

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David S. Goldstein, Karel Pacak. Catecholamines in the Brain and Responses to Environmental Challenges. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 23: Handbook of Physiology, The Endocrine System, Coping with the Environment: Neural and Endocrine Mechanisms: 45-60. First published in print 2001. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp070403