Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Proopiomelanocortin Synthesis and Cell‐Specific Processing

Full Article on Wiley Online Library


The sections in this article are:

1 The Common Precursor to Corticotropin β‐Endorphin, Melanotropins
1.1 A Short History of the Discovery of Corticotropin and Proopiomelanocortin
1.2 The Structure of the Proopiomelanocortin Precursor Molecule
1.3 Steps in Biosynthesis and Processing of Proopiomelanocortin in Anterior Pituitary
1.4 Additional Biosynthetic Steps in the Intermediate Pituitary
1.5 Proopiomelanocortin biosynthesis in Central Nervous System Neurons
1.6 Developmental Changes in the Pattern of Expression of Proopiomelanocortin
1.7 Tools to Study Proopiomelanocortin Biosynthesis
2 Enzymes Responsible for Proopiomelanocortin Biosynthetic Processing
2.1 Endoproteases
2.2 Carboxypeptidases
2.3 Peptidylglycine α‐amidating monooxygenase (PAM)
2.4 Cytochrome b561
2.5 α‐N‐acetyltransferase
2.6 Phosphorylation of Serine Residues
2.7 Glycosylation of Asparagine and Threonine
2.8 Cell Biological Aspects of Proopiomelanocortin Biosynthesis
3 Regulation of Proopiomelanocortin Synthesis, Processing, and Secretion
3.1 Responses to Environmental Stimuli
3.2 Responses to Hormones and Pharmacological Agents
4 Conclusion
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Proopiomelanocortin‐structure and biosynthetic processing.

Figure 2. Figure 2.

Constituents of secretory granules.

Figure 3. Figure 3.

Intracellular aspects of peptide processing.

Figure 1.

Proopiomelanocortin‐structure and biosynthetic processing.

Figure 2.

Constituents of secretory granules.

Figure 3.

Intracellular aspects of peptide processing.

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Richard E. Mains, Betty A. Eipper. Proopiomelanocortin Synthesis and Cell‐Specific Processing. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 23: Handbook of Physiology, The Endocrine System, Coping with the Environment: Neural and Endocrine Mechanisms: 85-101. First published in print 2001. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp070405