Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Social Ordering and Health

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Evidence for the Socioeconomic Status and Health Gradient
1.1 Socioeconomic Status and Mortality
1.2 Socioeconomic Status and Morbidity
2 Biopsychosocial Model of Socioeconomic Status and Disease
2.1 Environmental Factors
2.2 Psychological Factors
2.3 Differential Exposure to Stress
3 Psycho‐Neuroendocrine‐Immune Pathways
4 Summary and Conclusions
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Standardized mortality ratio (observed to expected deaths) for males (a) and females (b) . Standardized mortality ratio (observed to expected deaths) for males (c) and females (d) . Annual death rate per 1000 men (e) and per 1000 women (f) . Infant mortality per 1000 live births, male (g) and female (h) .

Figure 2. Figure 2.

Percent diagnosed osteoarthritis . Relative prevalence of chronic disease . Prevalence of hypertension . Rate of cervical cancer per 100,000 .

Figure 3. Figure 3.

Biological pathways linking socioeconomic status (SES) to health and disease. CNS, central nervous system; SAM, sympathetic‐adrenal‐medullary axis; HPA, hypothalamic‐pituitary‐adrenal axis; HPT, hypothalamic‐pituitary‐thyroid axis.



Figure 1.

Standardized mortality ratio (observed to expected deaths) for males (a) and females (b) . Standardized mortality ratio (observed to expected deaths) for males (c) and females (d) . Annual death rate per 1000 men (e) and per 1000 women (f) . Infant mortality per 1000 live births, male (g) and female (h) .



Figure 2.

Percent diagnosed osteoarthritis . Relative prevalence of chronic disease . Prevalence of hypertension . Rate of cervical cancer per 100,000 .



Figure 3.

Biological pathways linking socioeconomic status (SES) to health and disease. CNS, central nervous system; SAM, sympathetic‐adrenal‐medullary axis; HPA, hypothalamic‐pituitary‐adrenal axis; HPT, hypothalamic‐pituitary‐thyroid axis.

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Marilee Coriell, Nancy E. Adler. Social Ordering and Health. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 23: Handbook of Physiology, The Endocrine System, Coping with the Environment: Neural and Endocrine Mechanisms: 533-546. First published in print 2001. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp070424