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Social Ordering and Health

Full Article on Wiley Online Library


The sections in this article are:

1 Evidence for the Socioeconomic Status and Health Gradient
1.1 Socioeconomic Status and Mortality
1.2 Socioeconomic Status and Morbidity
2 Biopsychosocial Model of Socioeconomic Status and Disease
2.1 Environmental Factors
2.2 Psychological Factors
2.3 Differential Exposure to Stress
3 Psycho‐Neuroendocrine‐Immune Pathways
4 Summary and Conclusions
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Standardized mortality ratio (observed to expected deaths) for males (a) and females (b) 61. Standardized mortality ratio (observed to expected deaths) for males (c) and females (d) 1. Annual death rate per 1000 men (e) and per 1000 women (f) 37. Infant mortality per 1000 live births, male (g) and female (h) 120.

Figure 2. Figure 2.

Percent diagnosed osteoarthritis 28. Relative prevalence of chronic disease 122. Prevalence of hypertension 63. Rate of cervical cancer per 100,000 30.

Figure 3. Figure 3.

Biological pathways linking socioeconomic status (SES) to health and disease. CNS, central nervous system; SAM, sympathetic‐adrenal‐medullary axis; HPA, hypothalamic‐pituitary‐adrenal axis; HPT, hypothalamic‐pituitary‐thyroid axis.

Figure 1.

Standardized mortality ratio (observed to expected deaths) for males (a) and females (b) 61. Standardized mortality ratio (observed to expected deaths) for males (c) and females (d) 1. Annual death rate per 1000 men (e) and per 1000 women (f) 37. Infant mortality per 1000 live births, male (g) and female (h) 120.

Figure 2.

Percent diagnosed osteoarthritis 28. Relative prevalence of chronic disease 122. Prevalence of hypertension 63. Rate of cervical cancer per 100,000 30.

Figure 3.

Biological pathways linking socioeconomic status (SES) to health and disease. CNS, central nervous system; SAM, sympathetic‐adrenal‐medullary axis; HPA, hypothalamic‐pituitary‐adrenal axis; HPT, hypothalamic‐pituitary‐thyroid axis.

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Marilee Coriell, Nancy E. Adler. Social Ordering and Health. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 23: Handbook of Physiology, The Endocrine System, Coping with the Environment: Neural and Endocrine Mechanisms: 533-546. First published in print 2001. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp070424