Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Hormonal Regulation of Growth and Development of Nonmammalian Vertebrates

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 The Growth Hormone–Prolactin Family of Hormones
1.1 Prolactin
1.2 Growth Hormone
2 Insulin and Insulin‐Like Growth Factors
2.1 Insulin
2.2 Growth Hormone/Insulin‐Like Growth Factor System
2.3 Insulin‐Like Growth Factor‐Binding Proteins
2.4 The Insulin‐Like Growth Factor–Binding Protein/lnsulin‐Like Growth Factor
3 Thyroid Hormones
3.1 Metamorphosis
3.2 Smoltification
4 Catabolic Hormones
5 Influence of Maternal Factors
6 Conclusions
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Effects of thyroxine (T4) and growth hormone (GH) replacement on skeletal growth (that is, tail length increase) and bodyweight gain in hypophysectomized (HX) rat pups. Animals were hypophysectomized on day 6 postpartum and treated with hormone or saline from day 7 to day 15. Growth hormone was given at a dose of 4μg/ g body weight/day and T4 was given at 100 ng/g/day for 4 days and then at 8 ng/g/day for the next 4‐day period. Data are expressed as the change in measured value from the HX saline‐treated control values as a percent of the growth of intact control animals.

From Glasscock and Nicoll
Figure 2. Figure 2.

Developmental changes and serum thyroxine (T4) concentration in bullfrog tadpoles. The decrease in tail length during metamorphic climax is a quantitative measure of the regression of larval structures during metamorphosis, and the growth of the hindleg reflects the development of an adult structure. Note that the “surge” in T4 is followed soon by rapid regression of the tail. The developmental stages are shown in Arabic, rather than Roman, numerals.

See White and Nicoll for the original sources of these data
Figure 3. Figure 3.

As in Figure but changes in serum concentrations of prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone (B) are also shown. Note that the rise in serum B concentration coincides with that of thyroxine (T4), and that PRL rises after the animal has made significant progress through climax.

See Dickhoff and White and Nicoll for original sources of these data
Figure 4. Figure 4.

Changes in plasma concentrations of thyroxine (T4), growth hormone (GM), and cortisol (F) during the parr to smolt transformation of coho salmon.

See Dickhoff for original sources of these data


Figure 1.

Effects of thyroxine (T4) and growth hormone (GH) replacement on skeletal growth (that is, tail length increase) and bodyweight gain in hypophysectomized (HX) rat pups. Animals were hypophysectomized on day 6 postpartum and treated with hormone or saline from day 7 to day 15. Growth hormone was given at a dose of 4μg/ g body weight/day and T4 was given at 100 ng/g/day for 4 days and then at 8 ng/g/day for the next 4‐day period. Data are expressed as the change in measured value from the HX saline‐treated control values as a percent of the growth of intact control animals.

From Glasscock and Nicoll


Figure 2.

Developmental changes and serum thyroxine (T4) concentration in bullfrog tadpoles. The decrease in tail length during metamorphic climax is a quantitative measure of the regression of larval structures during metamorphosis, and the growth of the hindleg reflects the development of an adult structure. Note that the “surge” in T4 is followed soon by rapid regression of the tail. The developmental stages are shown in Arabic, rather than Roman, numerals.

See White and Nicoll for the original sources of these data


Figure 3.

As in Figure but changes in serum concentrations of prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone (B) are also shown. Note that the rise in serum B concentration coincides with that of thyroxine (T4), and that PRL rises after the animal has made significant progress through climax.

See Dickhoff and White and Nicoll for original sources of these data


Figure 4.

Changes in plasma concentrations of thyroxine (T4), growth hormone (GM), and cortisol (F) during the parr to smolt transformation of coho salmon.

See Dickhoff for original sources of these data
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Charles S. Nicoll, Buel D. Rodgers, Kevin M. Kelley. Hormonal Regulation of Growth and Development of Nonmammalian Vertebrates. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 24: Handbook of Physiology, The Endocrine System, Hormonal Control of Growth: 73-98. First published in print 1999. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp070503