Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Hormones and Growth in Domestic Animals

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Requirement of Growth Hormone for Growth of Domestic Animals: Hypophysectomy/Growth Hormone‐Replacement Therapy Studies
1.1 General Considerations
1.2 Hypophysectomy and Postnatal Growth in Domestic Animals (Mammals)
1.3 Hypophysectomy and Posthatching Growth of Poultry
1.4 Hypophysectomy and Fetal Growth in Domestic Animals (Mammals)
1.5 Hypophysectomy and Embryonic Growth of Poultry
2 Effects of Growth Hormone on Growth and Performance of Livestock and Poultry
2.1 General Considerations
2.2 Growth Hormone and Growth in Pigs
2.3 Growth Hormone and Growth in Horses
2.4 Growth Hormone and Growth in Ruminants (Cattle and Sheep)
2.5 Growth Hormone and Growth in Poultry
3 Physiological Mechanisms of Growth Hormone Action on Growth
3.1 Roles of Insulin‐Like Growth Factor and Insulin‐Like Growth Factor‐Binding Proteins as Mediators of Growth Hormone Action
3.2 Growlh Hormone and Growth of Adipose Tissue (Accumulation or Accretion of Fat)
3.3 Growth Hormone and Growth of Muscle (Accretion of Protein)
3.4 Chronic Administration of Growth Hormone and Carbohydrate Metabolism
4 Other Hormones Influencing Growth in Livestock and Poultry
4.1 General Considerations
4.2 Glucocorticoids and Growth
4.3 Insulin and Growth
4.4 Sex Steroids and Growth
4.5 Thyroid Hormones and Growth
5 Conclusions
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Effect of hypophysectomy on growth of chickens (based on results of 36, 134, 180, 212). Hypophysectomy was performed at either 20–22 days of age (left panels) or 61 days of age (right panels). Control animals are shown with solid lines and hypophysectomized animals with dashed lines. A: Effects on body weight. B: Effects on shank–toe length. C Effects on average body weight gain shown as a percentage of the weight gain of controls. D: Effects on shank–toe length as a percentage of that of controls. The mean growth rate (body weight gain) for hypophysectomized chicks was 54% that of intact controls between 46 and 78 days of age. Thus, 46% of body growth is pituitary hormone‐dependent. Replacement therapy with thyroid hormones restored approximately 60% of body growth [triiodothyronine (T3), 60%, thyroxine (T4) 62% of restoration]. Replacement therapy with growth hormone (GH) restored 36% of body growth. Similarly, hypophysectomy reduced skeletal growth by 59% between 46 and 78 days of age. Thus, 41% of skeletal growth is pituitary‐independent and 59% is dependent on pituitary hormones. Of the pituitary‐dependent growth, approximately 60% is thyroid hormone‐dependent (T3 restoring 62% and T4 58% of skeletal growth rate). Replacement therapy with GH restored 21% of skeletal growth rate . It should be noted that the adult or near adult hypophysectomized chickens which showed only small or no differences in body weight compared to controls had major increases in adipose tissue stores.

Figure 2. Figure 2.

Comparison of a hypophysectomized and an intact chick. The chick on the left was hypophysectomized at 3 weeks of age and photographed at day 40 of age. The chick on the right is an intact control. (From D. King, and C. G. Scanes, unpublished data.)

Figure 3. Figure 3.

Summary of the hormonal control of preadipocyte differentiation and proliferation. GH, growth hormone; IGF‐I, insulin‐like growth factor‐I; T 3 triiodothyronine; T 4, thyroxine.



Figure 1.

Effect of hypophysectomy on growth of chickens (based on results of 36, 134, 180, 212). Hypophysectomy was performed at either 20–22 days of age (left panels) or 61 days of age (right panels). Control animals are shown with solid lines and hypophysectomized animals with dashed lines. A: Effects on body weight. B: Effects on shank–toe length. C Effects on average body weight gain shown as a percentage of the weight gain of controls. D: Effects on shank–toe length as a percentage of that of controls. The mean growth rate (body weight gain) for hypophysectomized chicks was 54% that of intact controls between 46 and 78 days of age. Thus, 46% of body growth is pituitary hormone‐dependent. Replacement therapy with thyroid hormones restored approximately 60% of body growth [triiodothyronine (T3), 60%, thyroxine (T4) 62% of restoration]. Replacement therapy with growth hormone (GH) restored 36% of body growth. Similarly, hypophysectomy reduced skeletal growth by 59% between 46 and 78 days of age. Thus, 41% of skeletal growth is pituitary‐independent and 59% is dependent on pituitary hormones. Of the pituitary‐dependent growth, approximately 60% is thyroid hormone‐dependent (T3 restoring 62% and T4 58% of skeletal growth rate). Replacement therapy with GH restored 21% of skeletal growth rate . It should be noted that the adult or near adult hypophysectomized chickens which showed only small or no differences in body weight compared to controls had major increases in adipose tissue stores.



Figure 2.

Comparison of a hypophysectomized and an intact chick. The chick on the left was hypophysectomized at 3 weeks of age and photographed at day 40 of age. The chick on the right is an intact control. (From D. King, and C. G. Scanes, unpublished data.)



Figure 3.

Summary of the hormonal control of preadipocyte differentiation and proliferation. GH, growth hormone; IGF‐I, insulin‐like growth factor‐I; T 3 triiodothyronine; T 4, thyroxine.

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Colin G. Scanes. Hormones and Growth in Domestic Animals. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 24: Handbook of Physiology, The Endocrine System, Hormonal Control of Growth: 99-127. First published in print 1999. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp070504