Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins

Full Article on Wiley Online Library



Abstract

The sections in this article are:

1 Gene Structures
1.1 Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1
1.2 Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2
1.3 Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3
1.4 Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 4
1.5 Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 5
1.6 Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 6
1.7 Acid Labile Subunit
2 Protein Structures
2.1 Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1
2.2 Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2
2.3 Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3
2.4 Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 4
2.5 Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 5
2.6 Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 6
2.7 Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Binding Protein‐Related Proteins
3 Control of Gene Expression, Synthesis, and Secretion of Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins by Cells and Tissues
3.1 Tissue Expression
3.2 Secretion by Cells In Vitro
4 Variables that Regulate Pericellular Abundanbce of Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins
4.1 Proteolysis
4.2 Phosphorylation of Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins
4.3 Binding to Cell Surfaces and to Extracellular Matrix
5 Regulation of Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Actions in vitro and in vivo
5.1 Regulation of Half‐Life
5.2 Modulation of Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Actions
5.3 Specific Functions of Each Form of Binding Protein
5.4 A Unified Theory of the Mechanism of Action of Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins in Connective Tissue Cells
5.5 Use of Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Analogs
5.6 Related Proteins
6 Control of Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Binding Protein Concentrations in Physiologic Fluids
6.1 Methodologic Considerations
6.2 Detection of Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins in Physiologic Fluids Other than Blood
6.3 Regulation of Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins in Serum
6.4 Regulation of Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins by Hormones
7 Summary
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Amino acid sequences of the human IGFBPs. Asterisks indicate the conserved cysteines.

Figure 2. Figure 2.

Amino acid sequence of IGF‐I. The B‐domain that contains the amino acid residues (, and ) important for the binding of IGF‐I to IGFBPs is indicated at the top of the figure.



Figure 1.

Amino acid sequences of the human IGFBPs. Asterisks indicate the conserved cysteines.



Figure 2.

Amino acid sequence of IGF‐I. The B‐domain that contains the amino acid residues (, and ) important for the binding of IGF‐I to IGFBPs is indicated at the top of the figure.

References
 1. Adamo, M. L., Z. M. Shao, F. Lanau, J. C. Chen, D. R. Clemmons, C. T. Roberts, D. Le Roith, and J. A. Fontana. Insulin like growth factor I (IGF‐I) and retinoic acid modulation of IGF binding proteins (IGFBP's). IGFBP‐2, 3 and 4 gene expression and protein secretion in a breast cancer cell line. Endocrinology 131: 1858–1866, 1992.
 2. Adesanya, O. O., J. Zhou, and C. A. Bondy. Cellular localization and sex steroid regulation of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein messenger ribonucleic acids in the primate myometrium. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81: 2495–2501, 1996.
 3. Akaogi, K., Y. Okabe, and K. Funahashi. Cell adhesion activity of a 30 kD major secreted protein from human bladder carcinoma cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 198: 1046–1053, 1994.
 4. Albiston, A. L., and A. C. Herington. Cloning and characterization of the growth hormone‐dependent insulin‐like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP‐3) in the rat. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 166: 892–897, 1990.
 5. Albiston, A. L., and A. C. Herington. Tissue distribution and regulation of insulin‐like growth factor (IGF)‐binding protein‐3 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in the rat: comparison with IGF‐I mRNA expression. Endocrinology 130: 497–502, 1992.
 6. Albiston, A. L., R. G. Taylor, A. C. Herington, D. J. Beveridge, and P. J. Fuller. Divergent ileal IGF‐I and IGFBP‐3 gene expression after small bowel resection: a novel mechanism to amplify IGF action? Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 83: R17–R20, 1992.
 7. Allander, S. V., C. Larrson, E. Ehrenborg, A. Swanichkul, G. Weber, S. L. Morris, S. Bajalica, M. C. Keifer, H. Luthan, and D. R. Powell. Characterization of the chromosomal gene and promoter for human insulin like growth factor binding protein‐5. J. Biol. Chem. 269: 10891–10898, 1994.
 8. Andress, D. L. Heparin modulates the binding of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐5 to a membrane protein in osteoblast cells. J. Biol. Chem. 270: 28289–28297, 1995.
 9. Andress, D. L., and R. S. Birnbaum. A novel human insulinlike growth factor binding protein secreted by osteoblast cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 176: 213–218, 1991.
 10. Andress, D. L., and R. S. Birnbaum, Human osteoblast‐derived insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) binding protein‐5 stimulates osteoblast mitogenesis and potentiates IGF action. J. Biol. Chem. 267: 22467–22472, 1992.
 11. Angelloz‐Nicoud, P., and M. Binoux. Autocrine regulation of cell proliferation by the insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) and IGF binding protein‐3 protease system in a human prostate carcinoma cell line. Endocrinology 136: 5485–5492, 1995.
 12. Angervo, M., R. Koistinen, A. M. Suikari, and M. Seppala. Insulin like growth factor binding protein‐1 inhibits DNA amplification induced by insulin like growth factor I in human granulosa cells. Hum. Reprod. 6: 770–773, 1991.
 13. Angervo, M., P. Leinonen, R. Koistinen, M. Julkunen, and M. Seppala. Tri‐iodothyronine and cycloheximide enhance insulinlike growth factor‐binding protein‐1 gene expression in human hepatoma cells. J. Mol. Endocrinol. 10: 7–13, 1993.
 14. Angervo, M., M. Tiihonen, P. Leinonen, M. Valimaki, and M. Seppala. Thyroxine treatment increases circulating levels of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1: a placebo controlled study. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf.) 38: 547–551, 1993.
 15. Angervo, M., J. Toivonen, P. Leinonen, M. Valimaki, and M. Seppala. Thyroxine withdrawal is accompanied by decreasing circulating levels of insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐1 in thyroidectomized patients. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 76: 1199–1201, 1993.
 16. Ankrapp, D. P., J. I. Jones, and D. R. Clemmons. Characterization of insulin like growth factor binding protein‐1 kinases from human hepatoma cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 60: 387–399, 1996.
 17. Arai, T., A. Arai, W. H. Busby, and D. R. Clemmons. Glycos‐aminoglycans inhibit degradation of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐5. Endocrinology 135: 2358–2363, 1994.
 18. Arai, T., J. B. Clarke, A. Parker, W. Busby, Jr., T. J. Nam, and D. R. Clemmons. Substitution of specific amino acids in insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐5 alters heparin binding and its change in affinity for IGF‐I in response to heparin. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 6099–6106, 1996.
 19. Arai, T., A. J. Parker, W. H. Busby, and D. R. Clemmons. Heparin, heparan sulfate, and dermatan sulfate regulate formation of the insulin‐like growth factor‐I and insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein complexes. J. Biol. Chem. 269: 20388–20393, 1994.
 20. Arany, E., A. J. Strain, M. J. Hube, I. D. Phillips, and D. J. Hill. Interactive effects of nutrients and hormones on the expression of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1 (IGFBP‐1) mRNA and peptide, and IGF I release from isolated adult rat hepatocytes. J. Cell. Physiol. 155: 426–435, 1993.
 21. Argawal, N., C. L. Hsieh, D. Sills, M. Swaroop, B. Desai, V. Franke, and A. Swaroop. Sequence analysis expression and chromosomal localization of a gene isolated from a substraction library from human retinoic DNA library, that encodes insulin like growth factor binding protein‐2. Exp. Cell Res. 52: 549–561, 1991.
 22. Armstrong, D. G., C. O. Hogg, B. K. Campbell, and R. Webb. Insulin‐like growth factor (IGF)‐binding protein production by primary cultures of ovine granulosa and theca cells. The effects of IGF‐I, gonadotropin, and follicle size. Biol. Reprod. 55: 1163–1171, 1996.
 23. Ashton, W. S., B. M. Degnan, A. Daniel, and G. L. Francis. Testosterone increases insulin‐like growth factor‐1 and insulinlike growth factor binding protein. Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci. 25: 381–388, 1995.
 24. Babajko, S., and M. Binoux. Modulation by retinoic acid of insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) and IGF binding protein expression in human SK‐N‐SH neuroblastoma cells. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 134: 474–480, 1996.
 25. Babajko, S., and A. Groyer. Interplay of the liver‐enriched trans‐acting factors DBP and HNF1 in the transactivation of human IGFBP‐1 promoter. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 196: 480–486, 1993.
 26. Babajko, S., P. Leneuve, C. Loret, and M. Binoux. IGF‐binding protein‐6 is involved in growth inhibition in SH‐SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells: its production is both IGF‐and cell density‐dependent. J. Endocrinol. 152: 221–227, 1997.
 27. Bach, L. A., S. Hsieh, K. Sakano, H. Fujiwara, J. F. Perdue, and Rechler, M. M. Rechler Binding of mutants of human insulin‐like growth factor II to insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins 1–6. J. Biol. Chem. 268: 9246–9254, 1993.
 28. Bach, L. A., N. R. Thotakura, and M. M. Rechler. Human IGFBP‐6 is O‐glycosylated. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 186: 301–337, 1992.
 29. Bagi, C. M., R. Brommage, S. O. Adams, D. M. Rosen, and A. Sommer. Benefit of systemically administered rh IGF‐I and rh IGF‐I/IGBP‐3 on cancellous bone in oophorectomized rats. J. Bone Miner. Res. 9: 1301–1312, 1994.
 30. Bale, L. K., and C. A. Conover. Regulation of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐3 messenger ribonucleic acid expression by insulin‐like growth factor I. Endocrinology 131: 608–614, 1992.
 31. Bang, P. Serum proteolysis of IGFBP‐3. Prog. Growth Factor Res. 6: 285–292, 1995.
 32. Bar, R. S., M. Boes, D. R. Clemmons, W. H. Busby, A. Sandra, B. L. Dake, and B. A. Booth. Insulin differentially alters trans‐capillary movement of intravascular IGFBP‐1, IGFBP‐2 and endothelial cell IGF binding proteins in rat heart. Endocrinology 127: 497–499, 1990.
 33. Bar, R. S., B. A. Booth, M. Bowes, and B. L. Dake. Insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins from cultured endothelial cells: purification, characterization, and intrinsic biologic activities. Endocrinology 125: 1910–1920, 1989.
 34. Bar, R. S., D. R. Clemmons, M. Boes, W. H. Busby, B. A. Booth, B. L. Dake, and A. Sandra. Transcapillary permeability and subendothelial distribution of endothelial and amniotic fluid IGF‐binding proteins in rat heart. Endocrinology 127: 1078–1086, 1990.
 35. Barreca, A., P. Ponzani, M. Arvigo, G. Giordano, and F. Minuto. Effect of the acid labile subunit on the binding of insulin like growth factor (IGF) binding protein‐3 and 125I‐IGF‐I. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80: 138–1324, 1995.
 36. Bautista, C. M., D. J. Baylink, and S. Mohan. Isolation of a novel insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) binding protein from human bone: a potential candidate for fixing IGF‐II in human bone. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 176: 756–763, 1991.
 37. Baxter, R. C. Glycosaminoglycans inhibit formation of the 140kDa insulin like growth factor binding protein complex. Biochem. J. 271: 773–777, 1990.
 38. Baxter, R. C., M. L. Bayne, and M. A. Cascieri. Structural determinants for binary and ternary complex formation between insulin‐like growth factor I (IGF‐I) and IGF binding protein‐3. J. Biol. Chem. 267: 60–65, 1992.
 39. Baxter, R. C., and J. L. Martin. Radioimmunoassay of growth hormone dependent insulin‐like growth factor binding protein in human plasma. J. Clin. Invest. 78: 1504–1512, 1986.
 40. Baxter, R. C., and J. L. Martin. Binding proteins for insulinlike growth factors: structure, regulation and function. Prog. Growth Factor Res. 1: 49–68, 1989.
 41. Baxter, R. C., and J. L. Martin. Structure of the Mr 140,000 growth hormone‐dependent insulin‐like growth factor binding protein complex: determination by reconstitution and affinity labeling. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 6898–6902, 1989.
 42. Baxter, R. C. and H. Saunders. Radioimmunoassay of insulinlike growth factor binding protein‐6 in human serum and other body fluids. J. Endocrinol. 134: 133–139, 1992.
 43. Bayne, M. L., J. Applebaum, G. G. Chicchi, N. S. Hayes, B. G. Green, and M. A. Cascieri. Structural analogues of human insulin‐like growth factor‐I with reduced affinity for serum binding protein and the type II insulin‐like growth factor receptor. J. Biol. Chem. 263: 6233–6239, 1988.
 44. Beilharz, E. J., N. D. Klempt, M. Klempt, E. Sirimanne, M. Dragunow, and P. D. Gluckman. Differential expression of insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP) 4 and 5 mRNA in the rat brain after transient hypoxic‐ischemic injury. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 18: 209–215, 1993.
 45. Bell, S. C., J. A. Jackson, J. Ashmone, H. H. Zhu, and L. Tseng. Regulation of insulin like growth factor binding protein‐1 synthesis and secretion by progestin and relaxin in long term cultures of human endometrial stromal cells. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 72: 1014–1024, 1991.
 46. Bellantoni, M. F., J. Vittone, A. T. Campfield, K. M. Bass, S. M. Harman, and M. R. Blackman. Effects of oral versus transdermal estrogen on the growth hormone/insulin‐like growth factor I axis in younger and older postmenopausal women: a clinical research center study. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81: 2848–2853, 1996.
 47. Bereket, A., C. H. Lang, S. L. Blethen, J. Fan, R. A. Frost, and T. A. Wilson. Insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐3 proteolysis in children with insulin‐dependent diabetes mellitus: a possible role for insulin in the regulation of IGFBP‐3 protease activity. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80: 2282–2288, 1995.
 48. Bereket, A., C. H. Lang, S. L. Blethen, M. C. Gelato, J. Fan, R. A. Frost, and T. A. Wilson. Effect of insulin on the insulinlike growth factor system in children with new onset insulin‐dependent diabetes mellitus. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80: 1312–1317, 1995.
 49. Besnard, N., C. Pisselet, D. Monniaux, A. Locatelli, F. Benne, F. Gasser, F. Hatey, and P. Monget. Expression of messenger ribonucleic acids of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐2, ‐4, and ‐5 in the ovine ovary: localization and changes during growth and atresia of antral follicles. Biol. Reprod. 55: 1356–1367, 1996.
 50. Besnard, N., C. Pisselet, J. Zapf, W. Hornebeck, D. Monniaux, and P. Monget. Proteolytic activity is involved in changes in intrafollicular insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein levels during growth and atresia of ovine ovarian follicles. Endocrinology 137: 1599–1607, 1996.
 51. Besset, V., B. Le Magueresse‐Battistoni, J. Collette, and M. Benahmed. Tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulates insulin‐like growth factor binding protein 3 expression in cultured porcine Sertoli cells. Endocrinology 137: 296–303, 1996.
 52. Bicsak, T. A., M. Shimonaka, M. Malkowski, and N. Ling. Insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐3 inhibition of granulosa cell function effect on cycle 3′5′ monophosphate, deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis and comparison of effect of IGF‐I antibody. Endocrinology 126: 2184–2189, 1990.
 53. Binkert, C., J. Landwehr, J.‐L. Mary, J. Schwander, and G. Heinrich. Cloning sequence analysis and expression of a cDNA encoding a novel insulin‐like growth factor binding protein (IGF‐BP‐2). EMBO J. 8: 2497–2502, 1989.
 54. Binkert, C., J. B. Margot, J. Handwehr, G. Heinrich, and J. Schwander. Structure of the human insulin like growth factor binding protein‐2 gene. Mol. Endocrinol. 6: 826–836, 1992.
 55. Binoux, M., and P. Hossenlopp. Insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) and IGF‐binding proteins: comparison of human serum and lymph. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 67: 509–514, 1988.
 56. Binoux, M., C. Lalou, C. Lassarre, and B. Segovia. Regulation of IGF availability by IGFBP proteases. In: The Insulin‐like Growth Factors and Their Regulatory Proteins, edited by R. C. Baxter, P. D. Gluckman, and R. G. Rosenfeld. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, 1994, p. 217–226.
 57. Binoux, M., M. Roghani, P. Hassenlopp, S. Hardoudin, and M. Gourmelen. Molecular forms of human IGF binding proteins: physiological implications. Acta Endocrinol. (Copenh.) 124 (Suppl. 2): 41–17, 1991.
 58. Binoux, M., M. Roghani, P. Hossenlopp, and O. Whitechurch. Cerebrospinal IGF binding proteins: isolation and characterization. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 293: 161–170, 1991.
 59. Birnbaum, R. S., J. L. Ware, and S. R. Plymate. Insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐3 expression and secretion by cultures of human prostate epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts. J. Endocrinol. 141: 535–540, 1994.
 60. Blat, C., J. Delbe, J. Villaudy, P. G. Chatelain, A. Golde, and L. Harel. Inhibitory diffusible factor‐45 bifunctional activity as a cell growth inhibitor and as an insulin‐like growth factor I‐binding protein. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 12449–12454, 1989.
 61. Blum, W. F., K. Albertsson‐Wikland, S. Rosberg, and M. B. Ranke. Serum levels of insulin‐like growth factor I (IGF‐I) and IGF binding protein 3 reflect spontaneous growth hormone secretion. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 76: 1610–1616, 1993.
 62. Blum, W. F., E. W. Jenne, F. Reppin, K. Kietzmann, M. B. Ranke, and J. R. Bierich. Insulin‐like growth factor I (IGF‐I) binding protein complex is a better mitogen than free IGF‐I. Endocrinology 125: 766–772, 1989.
 63. Boes, M., B. A. Booth, B. L. Dake, Moser, D. R., and Bar, R. S. Insulin‐like growth factor binding protein production by bovine and human vascular smooth muscle cells: production of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐6 by human smooth muscle. Endocrinology 137: 5357–5363, 1996.
 64. Boisclair, Y. R., A. L. Brown, S. Casola, and M. M. Rechler. Three clustered Sp1 sites are required for efficient transcription of the TATA‐less promoter of the gene for insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐2 from the rat. J. Biol. Chem. 268: 24892–24901, 1993.
 65. Booth, B. A., M. Boes, D. L. Andress, B. L. Dake, M. C. Keifer, C. Maack, T. Linkhard, R. Bar, F. E. Caldwell, and J. Weiler. IGFBP‐3 and IGFBP‐5 association with endothelial cells: role of c‐terminal heparin binding domain. Growth Regul. 5: 1–17, 1995.
 66. Bourner, M. J., W. H. Busby, N. R. Siegel, G. G. Krivi, R. H. McCusker, and D. R. Clemmons. Cloning and sequence determination of bovine insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐2 (IGFBP‐2): comparison of its structural and functional properties with IGFBP‐1. J. Cell. Biochem. 48: 215–226, 1992.
 67. Bradshaw, S. L., C. C. Naus, D. Zhu, G. M. Kidder, and V. K. Han. Insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐4 gene expression is induced by transfection of gap junction connexin43 gene in a C6 glioma cell line. Growth Regul. 3: 26–29, 1993.
 68. Breese, C. R., A. D'Costa, Y. D. Rollins, C. Adams, R. M. Booze, W. E. Sonntag, and S. Leonard. Expression of insulinlike growth factor‐1 (IGF‐1) and IGF‐binding protein 2 (IGF‐BP2) in the hippocampus following cytotoxic lesion of the dentate gyrus. J. Comp. Neurol. 369: 388–404, 1996.
 69. Brewer, M. T., G. L. Stetler, C. H. Squires, R. C. Thompson, W. H. Busby, and D. R. Clemmons. Cloning, characterization and expression of a human insulin‐like growth factor binding protein. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 152: 1289–1297, 1988.
 70. Brinkman, A., C. A. H. Groffen, D. J. Kortleve, and S. L. S. Drop. Organization of the gene encoding the insulin‐like growth factor binding protein IGF‐BP‐1. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 157: 898–907, 1988.
 71. Brinkman, A., D.J. Korfleve, E. C. Zwarthoff, and S. L. S. Drop. Mutation in the c‐terminal part of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1 results in diminished function and loss of binding capacity. Mol. Endocrinol. 5: 987–994, 1991.
 72. Brown, A. L., L. Chiariotti, C. C. Orlowski, T. Mehlman, W. H. Burgess, E. J. Ackerman, C. B. Bruni, and M. M. Rechler. Nucleotide sequence and expression of a cDNA clone encoding a fetal rat binding protein for insulin‐like growth factors. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 5148–5154, 1989.
 73. Brown, A. L., and M. M. Rechler. Cloning of the rat insulin like growth factor binding protein‐2 gene and identification of a promoter lacking a TATA box. Mol. Endocrinol. 4: 2039–2051, 1990.
 74. Buckbinder, L., R. Talbott, S. Velasco‐Miguel, I. Takenaka, B. Faha, B. R. Seizinger, and N. Kley. Induction of the growth inhibitor IGF‐binding protein 3 by p53. Nature 377: 646–649, 1995.
 75. Burch, W. W., J. Correa, J. E. Shaveley, and D. R. Powell. The 25 k dalton insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) binding protein inhibits both basal and IGF mediated growth in chick embryonic pelvic cartilage in vitro. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 70: 173–180, 1990.
 76. Busby, W. H., D. G. Klapper, and D. R. Clemmons, Purification of a 31000 dalton insulin‐like growth factor binding protein from human amniotic fluid. J. Biol. Chem. 263: 14203–14210, 1988.
 77. Busby, W. H., D. K. Snyder, and D. R. Clemmons. Radioimmunoassay of a 26,000 dalton plasma insulin like growth factor binding protein: control by nutritional variables. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 61: 1225–1230, 1988.
 78. Camacho‐Hubner, C., W. H. Busby, R. H. McCusker, G. Wright, and D. R. Clemmons. Identification of the forms of insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins produced by human fibroblasts and the mechanisms that regulate their secretion. J. Biol. Chem. 267: 11949–11956, 1992.
 79. Camacho‐Hubner, C., D. R. Clemmons, and A. J. D'Ercole. Regulation of insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins in transgenic mice with altered expression of growth hormone and IGF‐I. Endocrinology 129: 1201–1206, 1991.
 80. Camacho‐Hubner, C., R. H. McCusker, and D. R. Clemmons. Secretion and biologic actions of the insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins in two human tumor derived cell lines in vitro. J. Cell. Physiol. 148: 281–289, 1991.
 81. Cambell, P. G., and J. F. Novack, Insulin like growth factor binding protein inhibits IGF action in human osteosarcoma cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 149: 293–300, 1991.
 82. Cappon, J., J. A. Brasel, S. Mohan, and D. M. Cooper. Effect of brief exercise on circulating insulin‐like growth factor I. J. Appl. Physiol. 76: 2490–2496, 1994.
 83. Cascieri, M. A., and M. L. Bayne. Biological activity of IGF‐I analogs with reduced affinity for soluble IGF binding proteins. In: Insulin‐like Growth Factor Binding Proteins. Excerpta Medica International Congress Series 881, edited by S. L. S. Drop and R. L. Hintz. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, 1989, p. 207–215.
 84. Cascieri, M. A., G. C. Chicchi, J. Applebaum, N. S. Haynes, B. G. Given, and M. L. Bayne, Mutants of human insulin like growth factor I with reduced affinity for the type I insulin like growth factor receptor. Biochemistry 27: 3229–3233, 1988.
 85. Cataldo, N. A., and L. C. Giudice. Follicular fluid insulin‐like growth factor binding protein profiles in polycystic ovary syndrome. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 74: 695–697, 1992.
 86. Cataldo, N. A., and L. C. Giudice. Insulin‐like growth factor binding protein profiles in human ovarian follicular fluid correlates with functional status. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 74: 821–829, 1992.
 87. Cataldo, N. A., T. K. Woodruff, and L. C. Giudice. Regulation of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein production by human luteinizing granulosa cells cultured in defined medium. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 16: 207–215, 1993.
 88. Chandrasekher, Y., H. J. H. M. T. Van Dessel, B. C. J. M. Fauser, and L. C. Giudice. Estrogen‐but not androgen‐dominant human ovarian follicular fluid contains an insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐4 protease. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80: 2734–2739, 1995.
 89. Chatelain, P. G., J. J. Van Wyk, and K. C. Copeland. Effect of in vitro action of serum proteases or exposure to acid on measurable immunoreactive somatomedin‐C in serum. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 56: 373–383, 1983.
 90. Chen, N. X., G. J. Hausman, and J. T. Wright. Hormonal regulation of insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins and insulin‐like growth factor I (IGF‐I) secretion in porcine stromal‐vascular cultures. J. Anim. Sci. 74: 2369–2375, 1996.
 91. Chen, Y., B. Gustafsson, and H. J. Arnqvist. IGF‐binding protein‐2 is induced during development of urinary bladder hypertrophy in the diabetic rat. Am. J. Physiol. 272 (Endocrinol. Metab. 35): E297–E303, 1997.
 92. Cheng, H. L., and E. L. Feldman. Insulin‐like growth factor‐I (IGF‐I) and IGF binding protein‐5 in Schwann cell differentiation. J. Cell. Physiol. 171: 161–167, 1997.
 93. Cheng, H. L., K. A. Sullivan, and E. L. Feldman. Immunohis‐tochemical localization of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐5 in the developing rat nervous system. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. 92: 211–218, 1996.
 94. Chernausek, S. D., C. E. Smith, K. L. Duffin, W. H. Busby, G. Wright, and D. R. Clemmons. Proteolytic cleavage of insulin like growth factor binding protein‐4 (IGFBP‐4). J. Biol. Chem. 270: 11377–11382, 1995.
 95. Cheung, P. T., E. P. Smith, S. Shimasaki, N. Ling, and S. Chernausek. Characterization of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP‐4) produced by B104 rat neuronal cell line: chemical and biologic properties and differential synthesis by sublines. Endocrinology 129: 1006–1015, 1991.
 96. Cheung, P. T., J. Wu, W. Banach, and S. Chernausek. Glucocorticoid regulation of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐4 protease by a rat neural cell line. Endocrinology 135: 798–806, 1994.
 97. Chevalier, X., and J. A. Tyler. Production of binding proteins and role of the insulin‐like growth factor I binding protein 3 in human articular cartilage explants. Br. J. Rheum. 35: 515–522, 1996.
 98. Chin, E., and C. A. Bondy. Insulin like growth factor system gene expression in human kidney. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 75: 962–968, 1992.
 99. Chin, E., J. Zhou, and C. A. Bondy. Anatomical relationships in the patterns of insulin‐like growth factor (IGF)‐I, IGF binding protein‐1, and IGF‐I receptor gene expression in the rat kidney. Endocrinology 130: 3237–3245, 1992.
 100. Choi, D., L. T. Putowski, P. J. Fielder, R. G. Rosenfeld, R. M. Rohan, and E. Y. Adashi. Characterization and hormonal regulation of granulosa cell‐derived insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐4. J. Soc. Gynecol. Invest. 3: 145–151, 1996.
 101. Cicrolo, A., H. Welgus, G. Pierce, J. Kramer, and R. Strunk. Differential regulation of the expression of proteases and antiproteases in fibroblasts. J. Biol. Chem. 266: 12283–12288, 1991.
 102. Clark, R. G., D. Mortensen, D. Reigsupreder, M. Mohler, T. Etchevery, and V. Mukkev. Recominant human insulin like growth factor binding protein 3: effects on the glycine and growth promotions activities of rh IGF‐I in the rat. Growth Regul. 3: 46–50, 1993.
 103. Claussen, M., J. Zapf, and T. Braulke. Proteolysis of insulinlike growth factor binding protein‐5 by pregnancy serum and amniotic fluid. Endocrinology 134: 1964–1966, 1994.
 104. Clemmons, D. R., W. H. Busby, and D. K. Snyder. Variables controlling the secretion of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐2 in normal human subjects. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 73: 727–733, 1991.
 105. Clemmons, D. R., C. Camacho‐Hubner, E. B. Coronado, and C. K. Osborne. Insulin‐like growth factor binding protein secretion by breast carcinoma cell lines: correlation with estrogen receptor status. Endocrinology 127: 2679–2686, 1990.
 106. Clemmons, D. R., M. A. Cascieri, C. Camacho‐Hubner, R. H. McCusker, and M. L. Bayne. Discrete alterations of the IGF‐I molecule that alter its affinity for IGF binding proteins result in changes in bioactivity. J. Biol. Chem. 265: 12210–12216, 1990.
 107. Clemmons, D. R., R. G. Elgin, V. K. M. Han, S. J. Casella, A. J. D'Ercole, and J. J. Van Wyk. Cultured fibroblast monolayers secrete a protein that alters the cellular binding of somatomedin‐C/insulin‐like growth factor I. J. Clin. Invest. 77: 1548–1556, 1986.
 108. Clemmons, D. R., L. E. Underwood, and E. G. Ridgway. Evaluation of acromegaly by radioimmunoassay of somatomedin‐C. N. Engl. J. Med. 301: 1138–1142, 1979.
 109. Cohen, P., H. C. Graves, D. M. Peehl, M. Kamarei, L. C. Giudice, and R. G. Rosenfeld. Prostate‐specific antigen (PSA) is an insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐3 protease found in seminal plasma. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 75: 1046–1053, 1992.
 110. Cohen, P., G. Hanson, T. Okajama, and R. G. Rosenfeld. Transfection of human IGFBP‐3 gene into balb/c fibroblasts a model for the cellular functions of IGFBPs. Growth Regul. 3: 23–26, 1993.
 111. Cohen, P., J. P. Noveral, A. Bhala, S. E. Nunn, D. J. Herrick, and M. M. Grunstein. Leukotriene D4 facilitates airway smooth muscle cell proliferation via modulation of the IGF axis. Am. J. Physiol. 269: E151–E157, 1995.
 112. Cohen, P., D. M. Peehl, B. Baker, F. Liu, R. L. Hintz, and R. G. Rosenfeld. Insulin‐like growth factor axis abnormalities in prostatic stromal cells from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 79: 1410–1415, 1994.
 113. Cohen, P., D. M. Peehl, and R. G. Rosenfeld. The IGF axis in the prostate. Horm. Metab. Res. 26: 81–84, 1994.
 114. Cohick, W. S., J. D. Armstrong, M. D. Whitacre, M. C. Lucy, R. W. Harvey, and R. M. Campbell. Ovarian expression of insulin‐like growth factor‐I (IGF‐I), IGF binding proteins, and growth hormone (GH) receptor in heifers actively immunized against GH–releasing factors. Endocrinology 137: 1670–1677, 1996.
 115. Cohick, W. S., and D. R. Clemmons. Regulation of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein synthesis and secretion in a bovine epithelial cell line. Endocrinology 129: 1347–1354, 1991.
 116. Cohick, W. S., A. Gockerman, and D. R. Clemmons. Vascular smooth muscle cells synthesize two forms of insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins which are regulated differently by the insulin like growth factors. J. Cell. Physiol. 157: 52–60, 1993.
 117. Cohick, W. S., A. Gockerman, and D. R. Clemmons. Regulation of insulin like growth factor (IGF) binding protein‐2 synthesis and degradation by platelet derived growth factor and IGFs is enhanced by serum deprivation in vascular growth muscle cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 164: 187–196, 1995.
 118. Conover, C. A. Glycosylation of insulin like growth factor binding protein‐3 (IGFBP‐3) is not required for potentiation of IGF‐I action: evidence for processing of cell bound IGFBP‐3. Endocrinology 129: 3259–3268, 1991.
 119. Conover, C. A. Potentiation of insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) action by IGF‐binding protein‐3: studies of underlying mechanism. Endocrinology 130: 3191–3199, 1992.
 120. Conover, C. A., J. T. Clarkson, and L. K. Bale. Effect of glucocorticoid on insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) regulation of IGF‐binding protein expression in fibroblasts. Endocrinology 136: 1403–1410, 1995.
 121. Conover, C. A., S. K. Durham, J. Zapf, F. R. Masiarz, and M. C. Keifer. Cleavage analysis of insulin‐like growth factor (IGF)‐dependent IGF‐binding protein‐4 proteolysis and expression of protease‐resistant IGF‐binding protein‐4 mutants. J. Biol. Chem. 270: 4395–4400, 1995.
 122. Conover, C. A., S. K. Durham, J. Zapf, F. R. Masiarz, and M. C. Kiefer. (IGF)‐dependent IGF‐binding protein‐4 proteolysis and expression of protease‐resistant IGF‐binding protein‐4 mutants. J. Biol. Chem. 270: 4395–4400, 1995.
 123. Conover, C. A. and M. C. Keifer. Regulation and biological effect of endoporous insulin like growth factor binding protein‐5 in human osteoblast cells. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 76: 1153–1159, 1996.
 124. Conover, C. A., P. D. K. Lee, B. L. Riggs, and D. R. Powell. Insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐1 expression in cultured human bone cells: regulation by insulin and glucocorticoid. Endocrinology 137: 3295–3301, 1996.
 125. Conover, C. A., J. E. Perry, and D. J. Tindall. Endogenous cathepsin D‐mediated hydrolysis of insulin‐like growth factor‐binding proteins in cultured human prostatic carcinoma cells. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80: 987–993, 1995.
 126. Conover, C. A., and D. R. Powell. Insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) binding protein‐3 blocks IGF‐I‐induced receptor down‐regulation and cell densitization in cultured bovine fibroblasts. Endocrinology 129: 710–716, 1991.
 127. Conover, C. A., M. Ronk, F. Lombana, and D. R. Powell. Structural and biological characterization of bovine insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐3. Endocrinology 127: 2795–2803, 1990.
 128. Corkins, M. R., J. A. Vanderhoof, D. H. Slentz, R. G. MacDonald, and J. H. Park. Growth stimulation by transfection of intestinal epithelial cells with an antisense insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐2 construct. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 211: 707–713, 1995.
 129. Cornell, H. J., G. Embery, and A. C. Herington. Association of insulin like growth factors with metabolically inactive and active carrier bound complexes in sera. J. Endocrinol. 241: 744–749, 1986.
 130. Corpas, E., S. M. Harman, and M. R. Blackman. Serum IGF‐binding protein‐3 is related to IGF‐I, but not to spontaneous GH release, in healthy old men. Horm. Metab. Res. 24: 543–545, 1992.
 131. Coulouscou, J. M., and M. Shoyab. Purification of a colon cancer cell growth inhibitor and its identification as insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐4. Cancer Res. 51: 2813–2819, 1991.
 132. Coulter, C. L., and V. K. Han. The pattern of expression of insulin‐like growth factor (IGF). IGF‐I receptor and IGF binding protein (IGFBP) mRNAs in the rhesus monkey placenta suggests a paracrine mode of IGF‐IGFBP interaction in placental development. Placenta 17: 451–460, 1996.
 133. Counts, D. R., H. Gwitsman, L. M. S. Carlsson, M. Lesem, and G. B. Cutler. The effect of anorexia nervosa and re‐feeding on growth hormone‐binding protein, the insulin‐like growth factors (IGFs) and the IGF binding proteins. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 75: 762–767, 1992.
 134. Coverley, J. A., and R. C. Baxter. Regulation of insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) binding protein‐3 phosphorylation by IGF‐I. Endocrinology 136: 5778–5781, 1995.
 135. Cox, G. N., M. J. McDermott, E. Merkel, C. S. Stroh, S. C. Ko, C. H. Squires, T. Gleason, and D. Russell. Recombinant human insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1 inhibits growth stimulated by IGF‐I and growth hormone in hypophysectomized rats. Endocrinology 135: 1913–1920, 1994.
 136. Crawford, B. A., and D. J. Handelsman. Androgens regulate circulating levels of insulin‐like growth factor (IGF)‐I and IGF binding protein‐3 during puberty in male baboons. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81: 65–72, 1996.
 137. Cubbage, M. L., A. Suwanichkul, and D. R. Powell. Structure of the human chromosomal gene for the 25 kilodalton insulinlike growth factor binding protein. Mol. Endocrinol. 3: 846–851, 1989.
 138. Dai, A., Y. Xing, C. M. Boney, D. R. Clemmons, and A.J. D'Ercole. Human insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1 (hIGFBP‐1) transgenic mice: characterization and insights into the regulation of IGFBP‐1 expression. Endocrinology 135: 1316–1327, 1994.
 139. Dai, J., and R. C. Baxter. Regulation of acid labile subunit of the rat serum insulin‐like growth factor binding protein complex. Endocrinology 135: 1066–1072, 1994.
 140. Dai, J., and R. C. Baxter. Regulation in vivo of acid labile subunit of the rat serum insulin like growth factor binding protein complex. Endocrinology 135: 2335–2341, 1994.
 141. Daughaday, W. H., and C. Reeder. Synchronous activation of DNA synthesis in hypophysectomized rat cartilage by growth hormone. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 68: 357–368, 1966.
 142. Davenport, M. L., D. R. Clemmons, M. V. Miles, C. Camacho‐Hubner, A. J. D'Ercole, and L. E. Underwood. Regulation of serum insulin‐like growth factor I (IGF‐I) and IGF binding proteins during rat pregnancy. Endocrinology 127: 1278–1286, 1990.
 143. Davenport, M. L., W. L. Isley, J. Pucilowska, B. Penberton, B. Lyman, L. E. Underwood, and D. R. Clemmons. Insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐3 proteolysis is induced following elective surgery. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 130: 2505–2512, 1992.
 144. Davies, S. C., J. A. H. Wass, R. J. M. Ross, A. M. Cotterill, C. R. Buchanan, V. J. Coulson, and J. M. P. Holly. Induction of a specific protease for insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐3 in the circulation during severe illness. J. Endocrinol. 130: 469–473, 1991.
 145. De, W., P. Czernichow, and M. Asfari. Discordant regulation of insulin‐like growth factor‐II and insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐2 gene expression in a rat beta‐cell line. Growth Regul. 6: 83–87, 1996.
 146. De Boer, H., G. J. Blok, C. Popp‐Snijders, L. Stuurman, R. C. Baxter, and E. Van der Veen. Monitoring of growth hormone replacement therapy in adults, based on measurements of serum markers. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81: 1371–1377, 1996.
 147. Delhanty, P. J. D., and R. C. Baxter. Characterisation of the rat acid‐labile subunit gene. Prog. Growth Factor Res. 6: 141–149, 1995.
 148. De Mellow, J. S. M., and R. C. Baxter. Growth hormone dependent insulin‐like growth factor binding protein both inhibits and potentiates IGF‐I stimulated DNA synthesis in skin fibroblasts. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 156: 199–204, 1988.
 149. D'Ercole, A. J., Z. Dai, Y. Xing, C. Boney, M. B. Wilkie, J. M. Lauder, V. K. M. Han, and D. R. Clemmons. Brain growth retardation due to the expression of human insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1 (IGFBP‐1) in transgenic mice an in vivo model for the analysis of IGF function in the brain. Dev. Brain Res. 82: 213–222, 1994.
 150. De Vroede, M. A., L. Y.‐H. Tseng, P. G. Katsoyannis, S. P. Nissley, and M. M. Rechler. Modulation of insulinlike growth factor I binding to human fibroblast monolayer cultures by insulin‐like growth factor carrier proteins released to the incubation media. J. Clin. Invest. 77: 602–613, 1986.
 151. Dheen, S. T., K. Rajkumar, and L. J. Murphy. Effects of insulin‐like growth factors (IGF) on pancreatic islet function in IGF binding protein‐1 transgenic mice. Diabetologia 39: 1249–1254, 1996.
 152. Di Battista, J. A., S. Dore, N. Morin, and T. Abribat. Prostaglandin E2 up‐regulates insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐3 expression and synthesis in human articular chondrocytes by a c‐AMP‐independent pathway: role of calcium and protein kinase A and C. J. Cell. Biochem. 63: 320–333, 1996.
 153. Di Battista, J. A., S. Dore, N. Morin, Y. He, J. P. Pelletier, and J. Martel‐Pelletier. Prostaglandin E2 stimulates insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐4 expression and synthesis in cultured human articular chondrocytes: possible mediation by Ca(++)‐calmodulin regulated processes. J. Cell. Biochem. 65: 408–419, 1997.
 154. Diel, P., A. Walter, K. H. Fritzemeier, C. Hegele‐Hartung, and R. Knauthe. Identification of estrogen regulated genes in Fe33 rat hepatoma cells by differential display polymerase chain reaction and their hormonal regulation in rat liver and uterus. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 55: 363–373, 1995.
 155. Donahue, L. R., S. J. Hunter, A. P. Sherblom, and C. J. Rosen. Age‐related changes in serum insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins in women. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 71: 575–579, 1990.
 156. Dong, Y., and E. Canalis. Insulin like growth factor I (IGF‐I) and retinoic acid induce the synthesis of IGF binding protein 5 in rat osteoblastic cells. Endocrinology 136: 2000–2007, 1995.
 157. Donovan, S. M., R. L. Hintz, and R. G. Rosenfeld. Investigation into the potential physiological sources of rat milk IGF‐I and IGF‐binding proteins. J. Endocrinol. 145: 569–578, 1995.
 158. Donovan, S. M., Y. Oh, H. Pham, and R. G. Rosenfeld. Ontogeny of serum insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins in the rat. Endocrinology 125: 2621–2627, 1989.
 159. Drop, S. L. S., D. J. Kortleve, and H. J. Guyda. Isolation of a somatomedin‐binding protein from preterm amniotic fluid. Development of a radioimmunoassay. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 59: 899–907, 1984.
 160. Drop, S. L. S., D. J. Kortleve, H. J. Guyda, and B. I. Posner. Immunoassay of a somatomedin‐binding protein from human amniotic fluid: levels in fetal, neonatal, and adult sera. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 59: 908–915, 1984.
 161. Drop, S. L. S., G. Valiquette, H. J. Guyda, M. T. Corvol, and B. I. Posner. Partial purification and characterization of a binding protein for insulin‐like activity in human amniotic fluid. A possible inhibitor of insulin‐like activity. Acta Endocrinol. (Copenh.) 90: 505–518, 1979.
 162. Duan, C. M., and D. R. Clemmons. Transcription factor AP‐2 regulates human insulin like growth factor binding protein‐5 gene expression. J. Biol. Chem. 270: 24844–24851, 1995.
 163. Duan, C. M., and D. R. Clemmons. Insulin like growth factor I (IGF‐I) regulates IGF binding protein‐5 synthesis through transcriptional activation of the gene in aortic smooth muscle cells. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 4280–4288, 1996.
 164. Duan, C., S. Hawes, T. Prevette, and D. R. Clemmons. Insulin like growth factor‐I (IGF‐I) stimulates IGF binding protein‐5 synthesis through transcriptional activation of the gene in aortic smooth muscle cells. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 4280–4288, 1996.
 165. Durham, S. K., D. D. De Leon, R. Okazaki, B. L. Riggs, and C. A. Conover. Regulation of insulin‐like growth factor (IGF)‐binding protein‐4 availability in normal human osteoblast‐like cells: role of endogenous IGFs. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80: 104–110, 1995.
 166. Durham, S. K., B. L. Riggs, S. A. Harris, and C. A. Conover. Alterations in insulin‐like growth factor (IGF)‐dependent IGF‐binding protein‐4 proteolysis in transformed osteoblastic cells. Endocrinology 136: 1374–1380, 1995.
 167. Earnst, M. and G. A. Rodan. Increased activity of IGF‐I in osteoblastic cells in the presence of GH: positive correlation with the presence of GH induced IGFBP‐3. Endocrinology 127: 807–814, 1990.
 168. Elgin, R. G., W. H. Busby, and D. R. Clemmons. An insulinlike growth factor binding protein enhances the biologic response to IGF‐I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84: 3254–3258, 1987.
 169. Elias, A. N., S. C. Stone, R. Tayyanipour, M. R. Pandian, F. J. Rojas, and G. Gwinup. Relationship between serum estradiol concentration and IGF‐I, IGF‐II and IGF‐binding proteins in patients with premature ovarian failure on short‐term estradiol therapy. Int. J. Fertil. Menopausal Stud. 40: 196–201, 1995.
 170. Erfurth, E. M., L. E. Hagmar, M. Saaf, and K. Hall. Serum levels of insulin‐like growth factor I and insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein 1 correlate with serum free testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels in healthy young and middle‐aged men. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf.) 44: 659–664, 1996.
 171. Erickson, G. F., A. Nakatani, N. Ling, and S. Shimasaki. Cyclic changes in insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐4 messenger ribonucleic acid in the rat ovary. Endocrinology 130: 625–636, 1992.
 172. Ernst, C. W., R. H. McCusker, and M. E. White. Gene expression and secretion of insulin like growth factor binding protein during myoblast differentiation. Endocrinology 130: 607–615, 1992.
 173. Ernst, C. W., and M. E. White. Hormonal regulation of IGF‐binding protein‐2 expression in proliferating C2C12 myoblasts. J. Endocrinol. 149: 417–429, 1996.
 174. Evan, A. P., D. P. Henry, B. A. Connors, P. Summerlin, and W. H. Lee. Analysis of insulin‐like growth factors (IGF)‐I, and ‐II, type II IGF receptor and IGF‐binding protein‐2 mRNA and peptide levels in normal and nephrectomized rat kidney. Kidney Int. 48: 1517–1529, 1995.
 175. Fawcett, J., and R. Rabkin. The processing of insulin like growth factor‐I (IGF‐I) by a cultured kidney cell line is altered by IGF‐binding protein‐3. Endocrinology 135: 1140–1147, 1995.
 176. Fervenza, F. C., T. Tsao, and R. Rabkin. Response of the intrarenal insulin‐like growth factor‐I axis to acute ischemic injury and treatment with growth hormone and epidermal growth factor. Kidney Int. 49: 344–354, 1996.
 177. Feyen, J. H., D. B. Evans, C. Binkert, G. F. Heinrich, S. Gaisse, and H. P. Koeher. Recombinant human CYS 281 insulin like growth factor binding protein‐2 inhibits both basal and insulin like growth factor I stimulated proliferation and collagen synthesis in fetal rat calvaria. J. Biol. Chem. 266: 19469–19474, 1991.
 178. Figueroa, J. A., A. V. Lee, J. G. Jackson, and D. Yee. Proliferation of cultured human prostate cancer cells is inhibited by insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) binding protein‐1: evidence for an IGF‐II autocrine growth loop. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80: 3476–3482, 1995.
 179. Flyvbjerg, A., U. Kessler, B. Dorka, B. Funk, H. Orskov, and W. Kiess. Transient increase in renal insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins during initial kidney hypertrophy in experimental diabetes in rats. Diabetologia 35: 589–593, 1992.
 180. Fowlkes, J., J. J. Enghild, N. Suzukik, and H. Nagase. Matrix metalloproteases degrade insulin like growth factor binding protein‐3 in dermal fibroblast cultures. J. Biol. Chem. 269: 25742–25746, 1994.
 181. Fowlkes, J. L., K. M. Thrailkill, C. George‐Nascimento, C. K. Rosenberg, and D. M. Serra. Heparin‐binding, highly basic regions within the thyroglobulin type‐1 repeat of insulin‐like growth factor (IGF)‐binding proteins (IGFBPs)‐3,‐5, and‐6 inhibit IGFBP‐4 degradation. Endocrinology 138: 2280–2285, 1997.
 182. Francis, G. L., M. Ross, F.J. Ballard, S.J. Milner, C. Senn, K. A. McNeil, J. C. Wallace, R. King, and J. R. Wells. Novel recombinant fusion protein analogues of insulin‐like growth factor (IGFI)‐I indicate the relative importance of IGF‐binding protein and receptor binding for enhanced biological potency. J. Mol. Endocrinol. 8: 213–223, 1992.
 183. Frauman, A. G., S. Tsuzaki, and A. C. Moses. The binding characteristics and biological effects in FRTL5 cells of placental protein‐12, and insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein purified from human amniotic fluid. Endocrinology 124: 2289–2296, 1989.
 184. Froesch, E. R., W. A. Muller, and H. Burgi. Nonsuppressible insulin‐like activity of human serum. II. Biological properties of plasma extracts with nonsuppressible insulin‐like activity. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 121: 360–374, 1966.
 185. Froesch, E. R., J. Zapf, T. K. Audhya, E. Benporath, B. J. Segen, and K. D. Gibson. Nonsuppressible insulin like activity and thyroid hormones: prior pituitary‐dependent sulfation factors for cartilage. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73: 2904–2098, 1976.
 186. Frost, J. P., and L. T. Tseng. Insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1 is phosphorylated by cultured human endometrial cells and multiple protein kinases in vitro. J. Biol. Chem. 266: 18082–18088, 1991.
 187. Frost, R. A., A. Bereket, T. A. Wilson, M. M. Wojnar, C. H. Lang, and M. C. Gelato. Phosphorylation of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1 in patients with insulin‐dependent diabetes mellitus and severe trauma. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 78: 1533–1535, 1994.
 188. Furlanetto, R. W. Somatomedin binding protein: evidence for heterogenous subunit structure. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 51: 12–19, 1980.
 189. Gabbitas, B., and E. Canalis. Cortisol enhances the transcription of insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐6 in cultured osteoblasts. Endocrinology 137: 1687–1692, 1996.
 190. Gabbitas, B., J. M. Pash, A. M. Delany, and E. Canalis. Cortisol inhibits the synthesis of insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐5 in bone cell cultures by transcriptional mechanisms. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 9033–9038, 1996.
 191. Galiano, R. D., L. Zhao, D. R. Clemmons, S. I. Roth, X. Lin, and T. A. Mustoe. Interaction between the insulin‐like growth factor family and the integrin receptor family in tissue repair processes. J. Clin. Invest. 98: 2462–2468, 1996.
 192. Gargosky, S. E., H. Pham, K. F. Wilson, F. Liu, L. C. Guidice, and R. G. Rosenfeld. Measurement and characterization of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐3 in human biologic fluids discrepancy between radioimmunoassays and ligang blotting. Endocrinology 131: 3051–3060, 1992.
 193. Gao, J. G., and L. Tseng. Distal Sp3 binding sites in the hIGBP‐1 gene promoter suppress transcriptional repression in decidualized human endometrial stromal cells: identification of a novel Sp3 form in decidual cells. Mol. Endocrinol. 10: 613–621, 1996.
 194. Gay, E., D. Seurin, S. Babajko, S. Doublier, M. Cazillis, and M. Binoux. Liver‐specific expression of human insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1 in transgenic mice: repercussions on reproduction, ante‐and perinatal mortality and postnatal growth. Endocrinology 138: 2937–2947, 1997.
 195. Gelato, M. C., D. Alexander, and K. Marsh. Differential tissue regulation of insulinlike growth factor binding proteins in experimental diabetes mellitus in the rat. Diabetes 41: 1511–1519, 1992.
 196. Giudice, L. C., B. A. Dsupin, and J. C. Irwin. Steroid and peptide regulation of insulin‐like growth factor‐binding proteins secreted by endometrial stromal cells is dependent on stromal differentiation. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 75: 1235–1241, 1992.
 197. Giudice, L. C., E. M. Farrel, H. Pham, F. G. Lamson, and R. G. Rosenfeld. Insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins in maternal serum throughout gestation and in the puerperium: effects of a pregnancy‐associated serum protease activity. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 71: 806–816, 1990.
 198. Giudice, L. C., E. M. Farrel, H. Pham, and R. G. Rosenfeld. Identification of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐3 (IGFBP‐3) and IGFBP‐2 in human follicular fluid. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 71: 1330–1338, 1990.
 199. Gockerman, A., and D. R. Clemmons. Porcine aortic smooth muscle cells secrete a serine protease for insulin like growth factor binding protein‐2. Circ. Res. 76: 514–521, 1995.
 200. Gockerman, A., J. I. Jones, T. Prevette, and D. R. Clemmons. Insulin like growth factor binding protein‐2 inhibits smooth muscle cell migration response to IGF‐I. Endocrinology 136: 4168–4173, 1995.
 201. Goswami, R. G., R. Lacson, E. Yang, R. Sam, and T. Unterman. Functional analysis of glucocorticoid and insulin response sequences in the rat insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1 (IGFBP‐1) promoter. Endocrinology 134: 736–743, 1994.
 202. Grigoriev, V. G., E. G. Moerman, and S. Goldstein. Over‐expression of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐3 by senescent human fibroblasts: attenuation of the mitogenic response to IGF‐I. Exp. Cell Res. 219: 315–321, 1995.
 203. Grimes, R. W., and J. M. Hammond. Insulin and insulin‐like growth factors (IGFs) stimulate production of IGF‐binding proteins by ovarian granulosa cells. Endocrinology 131: 553–558, 1992.
 204. Grimes, R. W., S. E. Samaras, J. A. Barber, S. Shimasaki, N. Ling, and J. M. Hammond, Gonadotropin and cAMP modulation of IGE binding protein production in ovarian granulosa cells. Am. J. Physiol. 262 (Endocrinol. Metab. 25): E497–E503, 1992.
 205. Grinspoon, S., D. R. Clemmons, B. Swearingen, and A. Kli‐banski. Diagnostic use of IGFBP‐3 levels in acromegaly. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80: 927–932, 1995.
 206. Gucev, Z. S., Y. Oh, K. M. Kelley, and R. G. Rosenfeld. Insulin‐like growth factor binding protein 3 mediates retinoic acid‐and transforming growth factor beta2‐induced growth inhibition in human breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 56: 1545–1550, 1996.
 207. Guler, H.‐P., J. Zapf, C. Schmid, and E. R. Froesch. Insulinlike growth factors I and II in healthy man. Estimations of half‐lives and production rates. Acta Endocrinol. (Copenh.) 121: 753–758, 1989.
 208. Hakeda, Y., H. Kawaguchi, M. Hurley, C. C. Pilbeam, C. Abreu, T. A. Linkhardt, S. Mohan, M. Kumegawa, and L. G. Raisz. Intact insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐5 (IGFBP‐5) associates with bone matrix and the soluble fragments of IGFBP‐5 accumulated in cultured medium of neonatal mouse calvariae by parathyroid hormone and prosteglandin E2 treatment. J. Cell. Physiol. 166: 370–379, 1996.
 209. Hamon, G. A., T. K. Hunt, and E. M. Spencer. In vivo effects of systemic insulin‐like growth factor‐I alone and complexed with insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐3 on corticosteroid suppressed wounds. Growth Regul. 3: 53–56, 1993.
 210. Han, V. K. M., N. Bassett, J. Walton, and J. R. G. Challis. The expression of insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) and IGF‐binding protein (IGFBP) genes in the human placenta and membranes: evidence for IGF‐IGFBP interactions at the feto‐maternal interface. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81: 2680–2693, 1996.
 211. Hasegawa, T., P. Cohen, P. Yorgin, and R. G. Rosenfeld. Characterization of urinary insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 74: 830–835, 1992.
 212. Hasegawa, Y., T. Hasegawa, T. Aso, S. Kotoh, Y. Tsuchiya, O. Nose, Y. Ohyama, K. Araki, T. Tanaka, and S. Saisyo. Comparison between insulin‐like growth factor‐I (IGF‐I) and IGF binding protein‐3 (IGFBP‐3) measurement in the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency. Endocr. J. 40: 185–190, 1996.
 213. Hembree, J. R., C. Agawal, R. L. Beard, R. A. Chandraratna, and R. L. Eckert. Retinoid X receptor‐specific retinoids inhibit the ability of retinoic acid receptor‐specific retinoids to increase the level of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐3 in human ectocervical epithelial cells. Cancer Res. 56: 1794–1799, 1996.
 214. Hembree, J. R., C. S. Harmon, T. D. Nevins, and R. L. Eckert. Regulation of human dermal papilla cell production of insulinlike growth factor binding protein‐3 by retinoic acid, glucocorticoids, and insulin‐like growth factor‐1. J. Cell. Physiol. 167: 556–561, 1996.
 215. Hilding, A., K. Brismar, M. Degerglad, M. Thoren, and K. Hall. Altered relation between circulating levels of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1 and insulin in growth hormone deficient patients and insulin‐dependent diabetic patients compared to that in healthy subjects. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80: 2646–2652, 1995.
 216. Hilding, A., K. Brismar, M. Thoren, and K. Hall. Glucagon stimulates insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1 secretion in healthy subjects, patients with pituitary insufficiency, and patients with insulin‐dependent diabetes. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 77: 1142–1147, 1993.
 217. Hill, D. J., D. R. Clemmons, N. Bassett, and J. R. G. Challis. Immunohistochemical localization of insulin like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF binding proteins 1–2 and 3 in human placenta and fetal membranes. Placenta 14: 1–12, 1993.
 218. Hill, D. J., and J. Hogg. Expression of insulin‐like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) during pancreatic development in rat, and modulation of IGF actions on rat islet DNA synthesis by IGF BPs. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 321: 113–120, 1992.
 219. Hintz, R. L., and F. Liu. Demonstration of specific plasma protein binding sites for somatomedin. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 45: 988–995, 1977.
 220. Hodgkinson, S. C., S. R. Davis, L. G. Moore, H. V. Henderson, and P. D. Gluckman. Metabolic clearance of insulin‐like growth factor‐II in sheep. J. Endocrinol. 123: 461–468, 1989.
 221. Hogg, J., V. Han, D. R. Clemmons, and D. J. Hill. Interactions of nutrients, insulin‐like growth factors (IGF's) and IGF binding proteins in the regulation of DNA synthesis by isolated fetal islets of langenhans. Endocrinology 138: 401–412, 1993.
 222. Honda, Y., E. Landale, D. D. Strong, D. J. Baylink, and S. Mohan. Recombinant synthesis of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐4: Development of a radioimmunoassay for IGFBP‐4 in human serum and other biological fluids. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81: 1389–1396, 1996.
 223. Hopkins, N. J., P. M. Jakeman, S. C. Cwyfan‐Hughes, and J. M. P. Holly. Changes in circulating insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1 (IGFBP‐1) during prolonged exercise: effect of carbohydrate feeding. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 79: 1887–1890, 1994.
 224. Hossenlopp, P., B. Segovia, C. Lassare, M. Roghani, M. Bredon, and M. Binoux. Enzymatic evidence of degradation of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein in 150 k complex during pregnancy. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 71: 797–805, 1990.
 225. Hossenlopp, P., D. Seurin, B. Segovia‐Quinson, and M. Binoux. Identification of an insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins in human spinal fluid with selective affinity for IGF‐II. FEBS Lett. 208: 439–444, 1986.
 226. Hossenlopp, P., D. Seurin, B. Segovia‐Quinson, S. Hardouin, and M. Binoux. Analysis of serum insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins using Western blotting: use of the method for titration of the binding proteins and competitive binding studies. Anal. Biochem. 154: 138–143, 1986.
 227. Hu, M., D. G. Robertson, and L. J. Murphy. Growth hormone modulates insulin regulation of hepatic insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1 transcription. Endocrinology 137: 3702–3709, 1996.
 228. Huang, H., K. Rajkumar, and L. J. Murphy. Reduced fecundity in insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐1 transgenic mice. Biol. Reprod. 56: 284–289, 1997.
 229. Huynh, H., X. F. Yang, and M. Pollak. A role for insulin‐like growth factor binding protein 5 in the antiproliferative action of the antiestrogen ICI 182780. Cell Growth Differ. 7: 1501–1506, 1996.
 230. Huynh, H., X. F. Yang, and M. Pollak. Estradiol and antiestrogens regulate a growth inhibitory insulin‐like growth factor binding protein 3 autocrine loop in human breast cancer cells. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 1016–1021, 1996.
 231. Imai, Y., W. H. Busby, C. E. Smith, J. B. Clark, G. D. Horvitz, C. Rees, and D. R. Clemmons. Protease resistant form of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐5 is an inhibitor of insulin‐like growth factor‐I actions in porcine smooth muscle cells in culture. J. Clin. Invest. 100: 2596–2605, 1997.
 232. Imbenotte, J., L. Liu, G. Desauty, and L. Harel. Stimulation by TGF beta of chick embryo fibroblasts‐inhibition by an IGFBP‐3. Exp. Cell Res. 199: 229–233, 1992.
 233. Irwin, J. C., B. A. Dsupin, and L. C. Giudice. Regulation of insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐4 in human endometrial stromal cell cultures: evidence for ligand‐induced proteolysis. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80: 619–626, 1995.
 234. Ishikawa, K., Y. Ohe, and K. Tatemoto. Synthesis and secretion of insulin‐like growth factor (IGF)‐II and IGF binding protein‐2 by cultivated brain meningeal cells. Brain Res. 697: 122–129, 1995.
 235. Ismail, I. S., J. P. Miell, M. F. Scanlon, and J. R. Peters. Effects of cholinergic modulation on serum insulin‐like growth factor‐I and its binding proteins in normal and diabetic subjects. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf.) 42: 147–152, 1995.
 236. Jacques, G., K. Noll, B. Wegmann, S. Witten, E. Kogan, R. T. Radulescu, and K. Havemann. Nuclear localization of insulinlike growth factor binding protein 3 in a lung cancer cell line. Endocrinology 138: 1767–1770, 1997.
 237. James, P. L., S. B. Jones, W. H. Busby, D. R. Clemmons, and P. Rotwein. IGF binding protein‐5 is expressed in myoblast differentiation and is highly conserved. J. Biol. Chem. 268: 22305–22312, 1993.
 238. James, P. L., C. E. Stewart, and P. Rotwein. Insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐5 modulates muscle differentiation through an insulin‐like growth factor‐dependent mechanism. J. Cell Biol. 133: 683–693, 1996.
 239. Jaques, G., P. Kiefer, H. J. Schoneberger, B. Wegmann, U. Kaiser, D. Brandscheid, and K. Havemann. Differential expression of insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins in human non‐small cell lung cancer cell lines. Eur. J. Cancer 28A: 1899–1904, 1992.
 240. Johansson, A. G., D. J. Baylink, E. Af Ekenstam, E. Lindh, S. Mohan, and S. Ljunghall. Circulating levels of insulin‐like growth factor‐I and‐II, and IGF‐binding protein‐3 in inflammation and after parathyroid hormone infusion. Bone Miner. 24: 25–31, 1994.
 241. Johansson, A. G., A. Forslund, L. Hambraeus, W. F. Blum, and S. Ljunghall. Growth hormone‐dependent insulin‐like growth factor binding protein is a major determinant of bone mineral density in healthy men. J Bone Miner. Res. 9: 915–921, 1994.
 242. Jones, J. I., W. H. Busby, G. Wright, C. E. Smith, N. M. Kimack, and D. R. Clemmons. Identification of the sites of phosphorylation in insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1: regulation of its affinity by phosphorylation of serine 101. J. Biol. Chem. 268: 1125–1131, 1993.
 243. Jones, J. I., A. J. D'Ercole, C. Camacho‐Hubner, and D. R. Clemmons. Phosphorylation of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein 1 in cell culture and in vivo: effects on affinity for IGF‐I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 7481–7485, 1991.
 244. Jones, J. I., A. Gockerman, W. H. Busby, C. Camacho‐Hubner, and D. R. Clemmons. Extracellular matrix contains insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐5: potentiation of the effects of IGF‐I. J. Cell Biol. 121: 679–687, 1993.
 245. Jones, J. I., A. Gockerman, W. H. Busby, Jr., G. Wright, and D. R. Clemmons. Insulin‐like growth factor binding protein 1 stimulates cell migration and binds to the α5β1 integrin by means of its Arg‐Gly‐Asp sequence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 10553–10557, 1993.
 246. Julkunen, M., R. Koistinen, K. Aalto‐Setala, M. Seppala, O. A. Janne, and K. Kontula. Primary structure of human insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein/placental protein 12 and tissue‐specific expression of its mRNA. FEBS Lett. 236: 295–302, 1988.
 247. Juul, A., T. Scheike, C. T. Nielsen, S. Krabbe, J. Muller, and N. E. Skakkebaek. Serum Insulin‐like growth factor I (IGF‐I) and IGF‐binding protein 3 levels are increased in centeral precocious puberty: effects of two different treatment regimens with gonadotropin‐releasing hormone agonists, without or in combination with an antiandrogen (cytoproterone acetate). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80: 3059–3067, 1995.
 248. Jyung, R. W., T. Mustoe, W. H. Busby, and D. R. Clemmons. Increased wound breaking strength induced by insulin‐like growth factor‐1 in combination with IGF binding protein‐1. Surgery 115: 223–239, 1994.
 249. Kanzaki, S., S. Hilliker, D. J. Baylink, and S. Mohan. Evidence that human bone cells in culture produce insulin‐like growth factor bidning protein‐4 and‐5 proteases. Endocrinology 134: 383–392, 1994.
 250. Karas, M., M. Danilenko, D. Fishman, D. Le Roith, J. Levy, and Y. Sharoni. Membrane‐associated insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐3 inhibits insulin‐like growth factor‐I‐induced insulin‐like growth factor‐I receptor signaling in ishikawa endometrial cancer cells. J. Biol. Chem. 272: 16514–16520, 1997.
 251. Kassem, M., R. Okazaki, D. D. De Leon, S. A. Harris, J. A. Robinson, T. C. Spelsberg, C. A. Conover, and B. L. Riggs. Potential mechanism of estrogen‐mediated decrease in bone formation: estrogen increases production of inhibitory insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐4. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108: 155–164, 1996.
 252. Keifer, M. C., C. Schmid, M. Waldvogel, I. Schlapfer, E. Futo, F. R. Masiarz, K. Guen, P. J. Barr, and J. Zapf. Characterization of recombinant human insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins‐4,‐5, and‐6 produced in yeast. J. Biol. Chem. 267: 12692–12699, 1992.
 253. Kirby, C. J., W. W. Thatcher, R. J. Collier, F. A. Simmen, and M. C. Lucy. Effects of growth hormone and pregnancy on expression of growth hormone receptor, insulin‐like growth factor‐I, and insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐2 and‐3 genes in bovine uterus, ovary, and oviduct. Biol. Reprod. 55: 996–1002, 1996.
 254. Klempt, N. D., M. Klempt, A. J. Gunn, K. Singh, and P. D. Gluckman. Expression of insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein 2 (IGF‐BP 2) following transient hypoxia‐ischemia in the infant rat brain. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 15: 55–61, 1992.
 255. Knauer, D. J., and G. L. Smith. Inhibition of biologic activity of multiplication stimulating activity by binding to its carrier protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 7252–7254, 1980.
 256. Knutsen, R., Y. Honda, D. D. Strong, T. K. Sampath, D. J. Baylink, and S. Mohan. Regulation of insulin‐like growth factor system components by osteogenic protein‐1 in human bone cells. Endocrinology 136: 857–865, 1995.
 257. Kobayashi, S., D. R. Clemmons, H. Nogami, A. K. Roy, and M. A. Venkatachalam. Tubular hypertrophy due to work load induced by furosemide is associated with increases of IGF‐1 and IGFBP‐1. Kidney Int. 47: 818–828, 1995.
 258. Kobayashi, S., D. R. Clemmons, and M. A. Venkatachalam. Colocalization of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein with insulin‐like growth factor‐I in rat kidney. Am. J. Physiol. 261 (Renal Fluid Electrolyte Physiol. 32): F22–F28, 1991.
 259. Koistinen, R., P. Itkinen, P. Selenius, and M. Seppala. Insulin like growth factor binding protein‐1 inhibits binding of IGF‐I on fetal skin fibroblasts but stimulates their DNA synthesis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 173: 408–415, 1990.
 260. Kou, K., D. Mittanck, C. Fu, and P. Rotwein. Structure and function of the mouse insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐5 gene promoter. DNA Cell Biol. 14: 241–249, 1995.
 261. Kratz, G., M. Lake, K. Ljungstrom, G. Forsberg, A. Haegerstrand, and M. Gidlund. Effect of recombinant IGF binding protein‐1 on primary cultures of human keratinocytes and fibroblasts: selective enhancement of IGF‐I but not IGF‐II induced cell proliferation. Exp. Cell Res. 202: 381–385, 1992.
 262. Kudo, Y., M. Iwashita, S. Itatsu, T. Iguchi, and Y. Takeda. Regulation of insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐4 protease activity by estrogen and parathyroid hormone in SaOS‐2 cells: implications for the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis. J. Endocrinol. 150: 223–229, 1996.
 263. S. R. Kupfer, L. E. Underwood, R. C. Baxter, and D. R. Clemmons. Enhancement of the anabolic effects of growth hormone and insulin like growth factor‐I by the use of both agents simultaneously. J. Clin. Invest. 91: 391–397, 1993.
 264. Lalou, C., C. Lassarre, and M. Binoux. A proteolytic fragment of insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) binding protein‐3 that fails to bind IGF is a cell growth inhibitor. Prog. Growth Factor Res. 6: 311–316, 1995.
 265. Lalou, C., C. Lassarre, and M. Binoux. A proteolytic fragment of insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) binding protein‐3 that fails to bind IGFs inhibits the mitogenic effects of IGF‐I and insulin. Endocrinology 137: 3206–3212, 1996.
 266. Lamson, G., H. Pham, Y. Oh, I. Ocrant, J. Schwander, and R. G. Rosenfeld. Expression of the BRL‐3A insulin‐like growth factor binding protein (rBP‐30) in the rat central nervous system. Endocrinology 123: 1100–1102, 1989.
 267. Langford, K. S., K. H. Nicolaides, J. Jones, A. Abbas, A. M. McGregor, and J. P. Miell. Serum insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐3 (IGFBP‐3) levels and IGFBP‐3 protease activity in normal, abnormal, and multiple human pregnancy. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80: 21–27, 1995.
 268. Lassare, C., and M. Binoux. Insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐3 is functionally altered in pregnancy plasma. Endocrinology 134: 1254–1262, 1994.
 269. Lassarre, C., S. Hardouin, F. Daffos, F. Forestier, F. Frankenne, and M. Binoux. Serum insulin‐like growth factors and insulinlike growth factor binding proteins in the human fetus. Relationships with growth in normal subjects and in subjects with intrauterine growth retardation. Pediatr. Res. 29: 219–225, 1991.
 270. Latour, D., S. Mohan, T. A. Linkhart, D. J. Baylink, and D. Strong. Inhibiting insulin‐like growth factor binding protein cloning, complete sequence and physiologic regulation. Mol. Endocrinol. 4: 1806–1814, 1990.
 271. Lavranos, T. C., P. C. O'Leary, and R. J. Rodgers. Effects of insulin‐like growth factors and binding protein 1 on bovine granulosa cell division in anchorage‐independent culture. J. Reprod. Fertil. 107: 221–228, 1996.
 272. Lee, K. O., Y. Oh, L. C. Giudice, P. Cohen, D. M. Peehl, and R. G. Rosenfeld. Identification of insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐3 (IGFBP‐3) fragments and IGFBP‐5 proteolytic activity in human seminal plasma: a comparison of normal and vasectomized patients. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 79: 1367–1372, 1994.
 273. Lee, P. D. K., L. S. Abdel Maguid, and M. B. Snuggs. Role of protein kinas‐C in regulation of insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐1 production by HepG2 cells. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 75: 459–464, 1992.
 274. Lee, W. H., G. M. Wang, L. B. Seaman, and S. J. Vannucci. Coordinate IGF‐I and IGFBP5 gene expression in perinatal rat brain after hypoxia‐ischemia. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 16: 227–236, 1996.
 275. Lee, Y. L., R. L. Hintz, D. M. James, P. D. K. Lee, J. E. Shively, and D. R. Powell. Insulin like growth factor IGF binding protein complementary deoxyribonucleic acid from human Hep G2 hepatoma cells: predicted protein sequence suggests an IGF binding domain different from those of IGF‐I and IGF‐II receptors. Mol. Endocrinol. 3: 404–411, 1988.
 276. Leogney, S. R., R. C. Baxter, T. Carrerato, J. Davis, and W. I. Wood. Structure and functional expression of acid labile sub‐unit of the insulin‐like growth factor binding protein complex. Mol. Endocrinol. 6: 870–876, 1992.
 277. Lewitt, M. S., G. S. Denyer, G. J. Cooney, and R. C. Baxter. Insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1 modulates blood glucose levels. Endocrinology 129: 2254–2256, 1991.
 278. Lewitt, M. S., H. Saunders, and R. C. Baxter. Interaction of insulin, glucocorticoids, and protein kinase C in the regulation of insulin‐like growth factor‐binding portein‐1 by H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 166: 121–129, 1996.
 279. Lin, T., D. Wang, M. L. Nagpal, S. Shimasaki, and N. Ling. Expression and regulation of insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐1,‐2,‐3, and‐4 messenger ribonucleic acids in purified rat Leydig cells and their biological effects. Endocrinology 132: 1898–1904, 1993.
 280. Ling, N. C., X. J. Liu, M. Malkowski, Y. L. Guo, G. F. Erickson, and S. Schwandi. Structural and functional stimulation of insulin like growth factor binding proteins in the ovary. Growth Regul. 3: 70–74, 1993.
 281. Liu, F., D. R. Powell, and R. L. Hintz. Characterization of insulin‐like growth factor‐binding proteins in human serum from patients with chronic renal failure. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 70: 620–628, 1990.
 282. Liu, H. J., C. Maake, Q. Fu, and L. J. Murphy. Regulation of the mouse IGFBP‐3 promoter by GH, IGF‐I and insulin. Presented at the 79th Annual Meeting of The Endocrine Society, Minneapolis, MN, June 1997, Abstract No. P272.
 283. Liu, L., J. Delbe, C. Blat, J. Zapf, and L. Harel. Insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐3 (IGFBP‐3) is an inhibition of serum growth factors other than IGF‐I and IGF‐II. J. Cell. Physiol. 153: 15–21, 1992.
 284. Liu, X. J., M. Malkowski, Y. L. Guo, G. F. Erickson, S. Shimasaki, and N. Ling. Development of specific antibodies to rat insulin‐like growth factor‐binding proteins (IGFBP‐2 to‐6): analysis of IGFBP production by rat granulosa cells. Endocrinology 132: 1176–1183, 1993.
 285. Maake, C., H. Yamamoto, and L. J. Murphy. The growth hormone dependent serine protease inhibitor, Spi 2.1 inhibits the des (1–3) insulin‐like growth factor‐I generating protease. Endocrinology 138: 5630–5636, 1997.
 286. Margot, J. B., C. Binkert, J.‐L. Mary, J. Landwehr, G. Heinrich, and J. Schwander. A low molecular weight insulin‐like growth factor binding protein from rat: cDNA cloning and tissue distribution of its messenger RNA. Mol. Endocrinol. 3: 1053–1060, 1989.
 287. Martikainen, H., R. Koistinen, and M. Seppala. The effect of estrogen level on glucose‐induced changes in serum insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1 concentrations. Fertil. Steril. 58: 543–546, 1992.
 288. Martin, J. L., M. Ballesteros, and R. C. Baxter. Insulin‐like growth factor‐I (IGF‐I) and transforming growth factor beta‐1 release IGF‐binding protein‐3 from human fibroblasts by different mechanisms. Endocrinology 131: 1703–1710, 1992.
 289. Martin, J. L. and R. C. Baxter. Insulin like growth factor binding protein‐3: biochemistry and physiology. Growth Regul. 2: 88–99, 1992.
 290. Martin, J. L., K. E. Willetts, and R. C. Baxter. Purification and properties of a novel insulin‐like growth factor‐II binding protein from transformed human fibroblasts. J. Biol. Chem. 265: 4124–4130, 1990.
 291. Mason, H. D., R. Margara, R. M. Winston, M. Seppala, R. Koistinen, and S. Franks. Insulin‐like growth factor‐I (IGF‐I) inhibits production of IGF‐binding protein‐I while stimulating estradiol secretion in granulosa cells from normal and polycystic human ovaries. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 76: 1275–1279, 1993.
 292. Matsumoto, T., S. E. Gargosky, K. Iwasaki, and R. G. Rosenfeld. Identification and characterization of insulin‐like growth factors (IGFs), IGF‐binding proteins (IGFBPs), and IGFBP proteases in human synovial fluid. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81: 150–155, 1996.
 293. Matsumoto, T., S. E. Gargosky, K. M. Kelley, and R. G. Rosenfeld. Characterization of an insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐5 protease produced by rat articular chondrocytes and a neuroblastoma cell line. Growth Regul. 6: 185–190, 1996.
 294. Matsumoto, T., S. Yamashita, and R. G. Rosenfeld. The mechanism of induction of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)‐5 by IGFs in rat articular chondrocytes. Endocrine J. 43 (Suppl.): S93–S95, 1996.
 295. McCarthy, T. L., S. Casinghino, D. Mittanck, C. H. Ji, M. Centrella, and P. Rotwein. Promoter‐dependent and ‐independent activation of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐5 gene expression by prostaglandin E2 in primary rat osteoblasts. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 6666–6671, 1996.
 296. McCusker, R. H., C. Camacho‐Hubner, M. L. Bayne, M. A. Cascieri, and D. R. Clemmons. Insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) binding to human fibroblast and glioblastoma cells: the modulating effect of cell released IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs). J. Cell. Physiol. 144: 244–253, 1990.
 297. McCusker, R. H., D. R. Campion, and D. R. Clemmons. The ontogeny and regulation of a 31,000 Mr insulin‐like growth factor/somatomedin (IGF) binding protein in fetal porcine plasma and sera. Endocrinology 122: 2071–2079, 1988.
 298. McGrath, M. F., R. J. Collier, D. R. Clemmons, W. H. Busby, C. A. Sweeny, and G. C. Krivi. The direct effect of insulin‐like growth factors (IGFs) on normal bovine mammary cell proliferation and production of IGF binding proteins: an in vitro study. Endocrinology 129: 671–678, 1991.
 299. McLellan, K. C., S. B. Hooper, A. D. Bocking, P. J. D. Delhanty, I. D. Phillips, D. J. Hill, and V. K. Han. Prolonged hypoxia induced by the reduction of maternal uterine blood flow alters insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐1 (IGFBP‐1) and IGFBP‐2 gene expression in the ovine fetus. Endocrinology 131: 1619–1628, 1992.
 300. Miell, J. P., A. M. Taylor, J. Jones, J. M. Holly, R. C. Gaillard, F. P. Pralong, R. J. Ross, and W. F. Blum. The effects of dexamethasone treatment on immunoreactive and bioactive insulin‐like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF‐binding proteins in normal male volunteers. J. Endocrinol. 136: 525–533, 1993.
 301. Miell, J. P., A. M. Taylor, M. Zini, H. G. Maheshwari, R. J. M. Ross, and R. Valcavi. Effects of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on insulin‐like growth factors (IGFs) and growth hormone‐and IGF binding proteins. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 76: 950–955, 1993.
 302. Mirza, A. M., S. Ezzat, and A. A. Axelrad. Insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1 is elevated in patients with polycythemia vera and stimulates erythroid burst formation in vitro. Blood 89: 1862–1869, 1997.
 303. Moats‐Staats, B. M., W. A. Price, L. Xu, H. W. Jarvis, and A. D. Stiles. Regulation of the insulin‐like growth factor system during normal rat lung development. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 12: 56–64, 1995.
 304. Mohan, S. Insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins in bone cell regulation. Growth Regul. 3: 67–70, 1993.
 305. Mohan, S., C. M. Bautista, J. Wergedal, and D. J. Baylink. Isolation of inhibitory insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) binding protein from bone cell conditioned medium: a potential local regulator of IGF action. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 8338–8342, 1989.
 306. Mohan, S., and D. J. Baylink. Evidence that inhibition of TE85 human bone cell proliferation by agents which stimulate cAMP production may in part be mediated by changes in the IGF‐II regulatory system. Growth Regul. 1: 110–118, 1991.
 307. Mohan, S., J. R. Farley, and D. J. Baylink. Age‐related changes in IGFBP‐4 and IGFBP‐5 levels in human serum and bone: implications for bone loss with aging. Prog. Growth Factor Res. 6: 465–473, 1996.
 308. Mohan, S., C. Libanati, C. Dony, K. Lank, N. Srinivasan, and D. J. Baylink. Development, validation, and application of a radioimmunoassay for insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐5 in human serum and other biological fluids. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80: 2638–2645, 1995.
 309. Mohan, S., Y. Nakao, Y. Honda, E. C. Landale, U. Leser, C. Dony, K. Lang, and D. J. Baylink. Studies on the mechanisms by which insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) binding protein‐4 (IGFBP‐4) and IGFBP‐5 modulate IGF actions in bone cells. J. Biol. Chem. 270: 20424–20431, 1995.
 310. Monget, P., D. Monniaux, C. Pisselet, and P. Durand. Changes in insulin‐like growth factor‐I (IGF‐I), IGF‐II, and their binding proteins during growth and atresia of ovine ovarian follicles. Endocrinology 132: 1438–1446, 1993.
 311. Mortensen, D., W. B. Won, J. Siu, D. Reifsnyder, M. Gironella, T. Etcheverry, and R. G. Clark. Insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1 induces insulin release in the rat. Endocrinology 138: 2073–2080, 1997.
 312. Moser, D. R., W. L. Lowe, B. L. Dake, B. R. Booth, M. Boes, D. R. Clemmons, and R. S. Bar. Endothelial cells synthesize IGFBP‐2, IGFBP‐3 and IGFBP‐4. Mol. Endocrinol. 6: 1805–1814, 1992.
 313. Moses, A. C., S. P. Nissley, P. A. Short, and M. M. Rechler. Purification and characterization of multiplication stimulating activity, insulin‐like growth factors purified from rat liver cell conditioned medium. Eur. J. Biochem. 103: 387–400, 1980.
 314. Mouhieddine, O. B., V. Cazals, E. Kuto, Y. Le Bouc, and A. Clement. Glucocorticoid‐induced growth arrest of lung alveolar epithelial cells is associated with increased production of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐2. Endocrinology 137: 287–295, 1996.
 315. Murphy, L. J., P. Molnar, X. Lu, and H. Huang. Expression of human insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐3 in transgenic mice. J. Mol. Endocrinol. 15: 293–303, 1995.
 316. Nam, T. J., W. H. Busby, and D. R. Clemmons. Insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐5 binds to plasminogen activator inhibitor‐I. Endocrinology 138: 2972–2978, 1997.
 317. Nam, T. J., W. H. Busby, Jr., and D. R. Clemmons. Characterization and determination of the relative abundance of two types of IGFBP‐5 proteases that are secreted by human fibroblasts. Endocrinology 137: 5530–5536, 1996.
 318. Nanto Salonen, K., and R. G. Rosenfeld. Insulin‐like growth factor binding protein expression in the hypothyroid rat is age dependent. Endocrinology 131: 1489–1496, 1992.
 319. Narusawa, K., T. Nakamura, K. Suzuki, Y. Matsuoka, L.J. Lee, H. Tanaka, and Y. Seino. The effects of recombinant human insulin‐like growth hormone factor (rhIGF)‐1 and rhIGF‐1/IGF binding protein‐3 administration on rat osteopenia induced by ovariectomy with concomitant bilateral sciatic neurectomy. J. Bone Miner. Res. 10: 1853–1864, 1995.
 320. Nasu, M., T. Sugimoto, and K. Chihara. Stimulatory effects of parathyroid hormone and 1,25‐dihydroxyvitamin D3 on insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐5 mRNA expression in osteoblastic UMR‐106 cells: the difference between transient and continuous treatments. FEBS Lett. 409: 63–66, 1997.
 321. Neau, E., G. Schweizer‐Groyer, P. Lessceaux, and A. Groyer. Progestin and the activity of the human IGFBP‐1 glucocorti‐coid/progesterone response elements in endometrial cells [Abstract]. Presented at the 79th Endocrine Society Meeting, Minneapolis, MN B: 506, 1997.
 322. Neely, E. K., and R. G. Rosenfeld. Insulin like growth factors reduce IGF binding protein‐4 concentration and stimulate IGFBP‐3 independently of IGF receptors in human fibroblasts and epidermal cells. Endocrinology 130: 985–993, 1992.
 323. Neuenschwander, S., A. Schwartz, T. L. Wood, C. T. Roberts, L. Henninghausen, and D. Le Roith. Involution of the lactating mammary gland is inhibited by the IGF system in a transgenic mouse model. J. Clin. Invest. 97: 2225–2232, 1996.
 324. Nicolas, V., S. Mohan, Y. Honda, A. Prewett, R. D. Finkelman, D. J. Baylink, and J. R. Farley. An age‐related decrease of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐5 in human cortical bone. Calcif. Tissue Int. 57: 206–212, 1995.
 325. Noll, K., B. R. Wegmann, K. Havemann, and G. Jaques. Insulin‐like growth factors stimulate the release of insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐3 (IGFBP‐3) and degradation of IGFBP‐4 in nonsmall cell lung cancer cell lines. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81: 2653–2662, 1996.
 326. Nunn, S. E., D. M. Peehl, and P. Cohen. Acid‐activated insulinlike growth factor binding protein protease activity of cathepsin D in normal and malignant prostatic epithelial cells and seminal plasma. J. Cell. Physiol. 171: 196–204, 1997.
 327. O'Brien, R. M., E. L. Noisin, A. Suwanichkul, T. Yamasaki, P. C. Lucas, J. Wang, D. R. Powell, and D. K. Granner. He patic nuclear factor 3‐and hormone‐regulated expression of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1 genes. Mol. Cell. Biol. 15: 1747–1758, 1995.
 328. Oh, Y., H. L. Muller, G. Lamson, and R. G. Rosenfeld. Insulin like growth factor (IGF) independent actions of IGF binding protein‐3 in HS578 in human breast carcinoma cells. J. Biol. Chem. 268: 14964–14971, 1993.
 329. Oh, Y., H. L. Muller, L. Ng, and R. G. Rosenfeld. Transforming growth factor‐beta‐induced cell growth inhibition in human breast cancer cells is mediated through insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐3 action. J. Biol. Chem. 270: 13589–13592, 1995.
 330. Oh, Y., H. L. Muller, H. Pham, G. Lamson, and R. G. Rosenfeld. Insulin‐like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)‐3 levels in conditioned media of Hs578T human breast cancer cells are post‐transcriptionally regulated. Growth Regul. 3: 84–87, 1993.
 331. Oh, Y., H. L. Muller, H. Pham, and R. G. Rosenfeld. Demonstration of receptors for insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐3 on HS578T breast cancer cells. J. Biol. Chem. 268: 26045–26048, 1996.
 332. Oh, Y., S. R. Nagalla, Y. Yamanaka, H. Kim, E. Wilson, and R. G. Rosenfeld. Synthesis and characterization of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)‐7. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 30322–30325, 1996.
 333. Okajimina, T., M. Iwashita, Y. Takeda, S. Sakamoto, T. Tamake, T. Yasuda, and R. G. Rosenfeld. Inhibitory effects insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins 1 and 3 on IGF activated glucose consumption in mouse Balb/c3T3 fibroblasts. J. Endocrinol. 133: 457–470, 1993.
 334. Olney, R. C., H. Anhalt, E. K. Neely, and D. M. Wilson. A quantitative assay for IGF‐I and IGF binding protein mRNAs: expression in malignant melanoma cells. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 110: 213–223, 1995.
 335. Olney, R. C., K. Tsuchiya, D. M. Wilson, M. Mohtai, W. J. Maloney, D. J. Schurman, and R. L. Smith. Chondrocytes from osteoarthritic cartilage have increased expression of insulin‐like growth factor I (IGF‐I) and IGF binding protein‐3 (IGFBP‐3) and‐5, but not IGF‐II or IGFBP‐4. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81: 1096–1103, 1996.
 336. Ono, T., S. Kanzaki, Y. Seino, D. J. Baylink, and S. Mohan. Growth hormone (GH) treatment of GH‐deficient children increases serum levels of insulin‐like growth factors (IGFs), IGF‐binding protein‐3 and‐5, and bone alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81: 2111–2116, 1996.
 337. Ooi, G., F. J. Cohen, S. Hsieh, D. Seto, M. M. Rechler, and Y. R. Boisclair. Structure and regulation of the ALS gene. Prog Growth Factor Res. 6: 151–157, 1995.
 338. Ooi, G. T., L. Y. Tseng, and M. M. Rechler. Post‐transcriptional regulation of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐2 mRNA in diabetic rat liver. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 189: 1031–1037, 1992.
 339. Ooi, G. T., L. Y. Tseng, M. Q. Tran, and M. M. Rechler. Insulin rapidly decreases insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐1 gene transcription in streptozotocin‐diabetic rats. Mol. Endocrinol. 6: 2219–2228, 1992.
 340. Oscarsson, J., G. Johannsson, J. O. Johansson, P. A. Lundberg, G. Lindstedt, and B. A. Bengtsson. Diurnal variation in serum insulin‐like growth factor (IGF)‐I and IGF binding protein‐3 concentrations during daily subcutaneous injections of recombinant human growth hormone in GH‐deficient adults. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf.) 46: 63–68, 1997.
 341. Pao, C. I., P. K. Farmer, S. Begovic, S. Goldstein, G. J. Wu, and L. S. Phillips. Expression of hepatic insulin‐like growth factor‐I and insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐1 genes is transcriptionally regulated in streptozotocin‐diabetic rats. Mol. Endocrinol. 6: 969–977, 1992.
 342. Park, J. H., R. H. McCusker, J. A. Vanderhoof, S. Mohammadpour, R. F. Harty, and R. G. MacDonald. Secretion of insulin‐like growth factor II (IGF‐II) and IGF‐binding protein‐2 by intestinal epithelial (IEC‐6) cells: implications for autocrine growth regulation. Endocrinology 131: 1359, 1992.
 343. Parker, A., W. H. Busby, and D. R. Clemmons. Identification of the extracellular matrix binding site for insulin like growth factor binding protein‐5. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 13523–13529, 1996.
 344. Parker, A., A. Gockerman, W. H. Busby, and D. R. Clemmons. Properties of an insulin like growth factor binding protein 4 protease that is secreted by smooth muscle cells. Endocrinology 135: 2470–2476, 1995.
 345. Pekonen, F., T. Nyman, V. Ilvesmaki, and S. Partanen. Insulinlike growth factor binding proteins in human breast cancer tissue. Cancer Res. 52: 5204–5207, 1992.
 346. Pertell, U. S., S. Mohan, D. J. Baylink, and T. A. Linkhart. An inhibitory insulin like growth factor binding protein (In‐IGFBP) from human prostatic cell conditioned medium reveals N‐terminal sequence identity with bone derived IN‐IGFBP. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 71: 533–535, 1990.
 347. Pintar, J. E., A. Schuller, J. A. Cerro, M. Czick, A. Grewal, and B. Green. Genetic ablation of IGFBP‐2 suggests functional redundancy in the IGFBP family. Prog. Growth Factor Res. 6: 437–445, 1995.
 348. Plymate, S. R., C. J. Rosen, C. A. Paulsen, J. L. Ware, J. Chen, R. E. Vessella, and R. S. Birnbaum. Proteolysis of insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐3 in the male reproductive tract. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81: 618–624, 1996.
 349. Plymate, S. R., M. K. Tennant, R. S. Birnbaum, J. B. Thrasher, G. Chatta, and J. L. Ware. The effect on the insulin‐like growth factor system in human prostate epithelial cells of immortalization and transformation by simian virus‐40 T antigen. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81: 3709–3716, 1996.
 350. Pons, S., and I. Torres‐Aleman. Basic fibroblast growth factor modulates insulin‐like growth factor‐I, its receptor, and its binding proteins in hypothalamic cell cultures. Endocrinology 131: 2271–2278, 1992.
 351. Poretsky, L., Y. Chandrasekher, C. Bai, H. C. Liu, Z. Rosenwaks, and L. C. Giudice. Insulin receptor mediates inhibitory effect of insulin, but not of insulin‐like growth factor (IGF)‐I, on IGF binding protein 1 (IGFBP‐1) production in human granulosa cells. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81: 493–496, 1996.
 352. Poretsky, L., B. Chun, H. C. Liu, and Z. Rosenwaks. Insulinlike growth factor II (IGF‐II) inhibits insulin‐like growth factor binding protein I (IGFBP‐1) production in luteinized human granulosa cells with a potency similar to insulin‐like growth factor I (IGF‐I) and higher than insulin. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81: 3412–3414, 1996.
 353. Powell, D. R., S. V. Allander, A. O. Scheimann, R. M. Wasserman, S. K. Durham, and A. Suwanichkul. Multiple proteins bind the insulin response element in the human IGFBP‐1 promoter. Prog. Growth Factor Res. 6: 93–101, 1995.
 354. Powell, D. R., P. D. K. Lee, L. A. De Paolis, S. L. Morris, and A. Suwanichkul. Dexamethasone stimulates expression of insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐1 gene expression in human hepatoma cells. Growth Regul. 3: 11–13, 1993.
 355. Powell, D. R., A. Suwanichkul, M. L. Cubbage, L. A. De Paolis, M. B. Snuggs, and P. D. K. Lee. Insulin inhibits transcription of the human gene for insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐1. J. Biol. Chem. 266: 18868–18876, 1991.
 356. Price, W. A., B. M. Moats‐Staats, A. J. D'Ercole, and A. D. Stiles. Insulin‐like growth factor binding protein production and regulation in fetal rat lung cells. Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. 8: 425–432, 1993.
 357. Price, W. A., L. Rong, A. D. Stiles, and A. J. D'Ercole. Changes in IGF‐I and‐II, IGF binding protein, and IGF receptor transcript abundance after uterine artery ligation. Pediatr. Res. 32: 291–295, 1992.
 358. Price, W. A., A. D. Stiles, B. M. Moats‐Staats, and A. J. D'Ercole. Gene expression of insulin‐like growth factors (IGFs), the type 1 IGF receptor, and IGF‐binding proteins in dexamethasone‐induced fetal growth retardation. Endocrinology 130: 1424–1432, 1992.
 359. Pucilowska, J. B., M. L. Davenport, I. Kabir, D. R. Clemmons, J. B. Thissen, T. Butler, and L. E. Underwood. The effect of dietary protein supplementation on insulin like growth factors (IGF's) and IGF binding proteins in children with shigellosis. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 77: 1516–1521, 1993.
 360. Pugliese, G., F. Pricci, N. Locuratolo, G. Romeo, G. Romano, S. Giannini, B. Cresci, G. Galli, C. M. Rotella, and U. Di Mario. Increased activity of the insulin‐like growth factor system in mesangial cells cultured in high glucose conditions. Relation to glucose‐enhanced extracellular matrix production. Diabetologia 39: 775–784, 1996.
 361. Qin, X., S. Morales, K. W. Lee, V. Boonyaratanakormkit, D. J. Baylink, S. Mohan, and D. D. Strong. Structural and functional analysis of the 5′‐flanking region of the human insulin‐like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)‐4 gene. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1350: 136–140, 1997.
 362. Rajah, R., B. Valentinis, and P. Cohen. Insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐3 induces apoptosis and mediates the effects of tranforming growth factor‐beta1 on programmed cell death through a p53–and IGF‐independent mechanism. J. Biol. Chem. 272: 12181–12188, 1997.
 363. Rajkumar, K., T. Dheen, M. Krsek, and L. J. Murphy. Impaired estrogen action in the uterus of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1 transgenic mice. Endocrinology 137: 1258–1264, 1996.
 364. Rappaport, M. S. and E. P. Smith. Insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) binding protein 3 in the rat testis: follicle stimulating hormone depedence of mRNA expression and inhibition of IGF‐I action on cultured Sertoli cells. Biol. Reprod. 52: 419–425, 1995.
 365. Rasmussen, M. H., J. Frystyk, T. Anderson, L. Breum, J. S. Christiansen, and J. Hilsted. The impact of obesity, fat distribution, and energy restriction on insulin‐like growth factor‐I (IGF‐I), IGF binding protein‐3, insulin, and growth hormone. Metabolism 43: 315–319, 1994.
 366. Rechler, M. M. Insulin like growth factor binding proteins. Vitam. Horm. 47: 1–114, 1993.
 367. Rechler, M. M. Growth inhibition by insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) binding protein‐3—what's IGF got to do with it? Endocrinology 138: 2645–2647, 1997.
 368. Reeve, J. G., J. Schwanda, and N. M. Bleecham. IGFBP‐2: an important regulator of insulin like growth factor action in human lung tissues. Growth Regul. 3: 82–84, 1993.
 369. Reeve, J. G., J. Xiong, J. Morgan, and N. M. Bleeher. Diminished expression of insulin like growth factor (IGF) binding protein‐5 and activation of autocrine inhibited growth in simian virus‐40 transformed human fibroblasts. J. Biol. Chem. 270: 135–142, 1995.
 370. Remacle‐Bonnet, M., F. Garrouste, F. El Atiq, J. Marvaldi, and G. Pommier. Cell polarity of the insulin‐like growth factor system in human intestinal epithelial cells. Unique apical sorting of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐6 in differentiated human colon cancer cells. J. Clin. Invest. 96: 129–200, 1995.
 371. Ren, S. G., S. Erzzat, S. Melmed, and G. D. Braunstein. Somatostatin analog induces insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1 (IGFBP‐1) expression in human hepatoma cells. Endocrinology 131: 2479–2481, 1992.
 372. Ricciarelli, E., E. R. Hernandez, E. Kokia, R. M. Rohan, C. Tedeschi, L. Botero, R. G. Rosenfeld, A. L. Albiston, A. C. Herrington, and E. Y. Adashi. Rat ovarian insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐3: a growth hormone‐dependent theca‐interstitial cell‐derived antigonadotropin. Endocrinology 130: 3092–3094, 1992.
 373. Ritvos, O., T. Ranta, J. Jalkanen, A. M. Suikkari, R. Voutilainen, H. Bohn, and E. M. Rutanen. Insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) binding protein from human decidua inhibits the binding and biological action of IGF‐I in cultured choriocarcinoma cells. Endocrinology 122: 2150–2157, 1988.
 374. Rocha, R. L., S. G. Hilsenbeck, J. G. Jackson, A. V. Lee, J. A. Figueroa, and D. Yee. Correlation of insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐3 messenger RNA with protein expression in primary breast cancer tissues: detection of higher levels in tumors with poor prognostic features. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 88: 601–606, 1996.
 375. Roghani, M., P. Hossenlopp, P. Lepage, A. Balland, and M. Binoux. Isolation from human cerebrospinal fluid of a new insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein with a selective affinity for IGF‐II. FEBS Lett. 255: 253–258, 1989.
 376. Rohan, R. M., E. Riccarelli, M. C. Kiefer, C. E. Resmick, and E. Y. Adashi. Rat overian insulin like growth factor binding protein‐6: a hormonally regulated theca‐interstitial‐selective species with limited antigonadotropic activity. Endocrinology 132: 2507–2512, 1993.
 377. Rosen, C., L. R. Donahue, S. Hunter, M. Holick, H. Kavookjian, A. Kirschenbaum, S. Mohan, and D. J. Baylink. The 24/25–kDa serum insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein is increased in elderly women with hip and spine fractures. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 74: 24–27, 1992.
 378. Ross, M., G. L. Francis, L. Szabo, J. C. Wallace, and F. J. Ballard. Insulin‐like growth factor (IGF)‐binding proteins inhibit the biological activities of IGF‐I and IGF‐2 but not des‐(1–3)‐IGF‐I. Biochem. J. 258: 267–272, 1989.
 379. Rutanen, E.‐M., H. Bohn, and M. Seppala. Radioimmunoassay of placental protien 12: levels in amniotic fluid, cord blood, and serum of healthy adults, pregnant women and patients with trophoblastic disease. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 144: 460–466, 1982.
 380. Rutanen, E., T. Karkkainen, U. H. Stenman, and H. Yki‐Jarvinen. Aging is associated with decreased suppression of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1 by insulin. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 77: 1152–1155, 1993.
 381. Rutanen, E.‐M., M. Menabawey, K. Isaka, H. Bohn, T. Chard, and J. G. Grudzinskas. Synthesis of placental protein 12 by decidua from early pregnancy. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 63: 675–679, 1986.
 382. Rutanen, E.‐M., F. Pekonen, and T. Makinen. Soluble 34 K binding protein inhibits the binding of insulin‐like growth factor I to its own cell receptors in human secretory phase endometrium: evidence for autocrine/paracrine regulation of growth factor action. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 66: 173–180, 1988.
 383. Salahifar, H., R. C. Baxter, and J. L. Martin. Insulin‐like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)‐3 protease activity secreted by MCF‐7 breast cancer cells: inhibition by IGFs does not require IGF‐IGFBP interaction. Endocrinology 138: 1683–1690, 1997.
 384. Salmon Jr., W. D., and W. H. Daughaday. A hormonally controlled serum factor which stimulates sulfate incorporation by cartilage in vitro. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 49: 825–836, 1957.
 385. San Roman, G. A., and D. A. Magoffin. Insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins in ovarian follicles from women with polycystic ovarian disease: cellular source and levels in follicular fluid. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 75: 1010–1016, 1992.
 386. San Roman, G. A., and D. A. Magoffin. Insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins in healthy and artretic follicles during normal menstrual cycles. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 76: 625–632, 1992.
 387. Schmid, C., J. Rutishauser, I. Schlapfer, E. R. Froesch, and J. Zapf. Intact but not truncated insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐3 blocks IGF‐I induced stimulation of osteoblasts: control of IGF signalling to bone cells by IGFBP‐3 specific proteolysis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 179: 579–585, 1991.
 388. Schmid, C., I. Schlapfer, M. Waldvogel, P. J. Meier, J. Schwander, M. Boni‐Schnetzler, J. Zapf, and E. R. Froesch. Differential regulation of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)‐2 mRNA in liver and bone cells by insulin and retinoic acid in vitro. FEBS Lett. 303: 205–209, 1992.
 389. Schoen, T. J., D. C. Beebe, D. R. Clemmons, G. J. Chader, and R. J. Waldbillig. Local synthesis and developmental regulation of avian vitreal insulin‐like growth factor‐binding proteins: a model for independent regulation in extravascular and vascular compartments. Endocrinology 131: 2846–2854, 1997.
 390. Schuller, A. G., J. M. van Neck, R. W. Beukenholdt, E. C. Zwarthoff, and S. L. Drop. IGF, type I IGF receptor and IGF‐binding protein mRNA expression in the developing mouse lung. J. Mol. Endocrinol. 14: 349–355, 1995.
 391. Schwander, J., J.‐L. Mary, J. Landwehr, M. Boni, J. Margot, and C. Binkert. The regulation of the mRNA of an insulin‐like growth factor binding protein (IBP‐2) in the rat. In: Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins. Excerpta Medica International Congress Series 881, edited by S. L. S. Drop and R. L. Hintz. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., 1989, p. 125–131.
 392. Senevirantre, C., L. Jiangming, and L. J. Murphy. Transcriptional regulation of rat insulin like growth factor binding protein‐1 expression by growth hormone. Mol. Endocrinol. 4: 1199–1204, 1990.
 393. Seppala, M., E.‐M. Rutanen, R. Koistinen, M. Julkunen, A. I. Koskimies, and T. Wahlstrom. Placental proteins in early events of human reproduction. In: Proteins of the Placenta. Biochemistry, Biology and Clinical Application, edited by P. Bischof and A. Klopper. Basel: Karger, 1984, p. 123–128.
 394. Seppala, M., T. Wahlstrom, A. I. Koskimies, A. Tehuunen, E. M. Rutanen, R. Koistinen, I. Huhtaniemi, H. Bohn, and U. K. Stenman. Human preovulatory follicular fluid luteinized cells of hyperstimulated preovulatory follicles and corpus leuteum contain placental protein 12. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 58: 505–510, 1984.
 395. Sheikh, M. S., Z. M. Shao, A. Hussain, D. R. Clemmons, J. C. Chen, C. T. Roberts, D. Le Roith, and J. A. Fontana. Regulation of insulin like growth factor binding protein 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Synthesis, secretion and gene expression in estrogen receptor negative human breast carcinoma cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 155: 556–567, 1993.
 396. Shimasaki, S., L. Gao, M. Shimonaka, and N. Ling. Isolation and molecular cloning of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐6. Mol. Endocrinol. 5: 938–941, 1991.
 397. Shimasaki, S., A. Koba, M. Mercado, M. Shimonaka, and N. Ling. Complementary DNA structure of high molecular weight insulin like growth factor binding protein and tissue distribution of its mRNA. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 165: 907–912, 1989.
 398. Shimasaki, S., M. Shimonaka, H. P. Zhang, and N. Ling. Identification of five different insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) from adult rat serum and molecular cloning of a novel IGFBP in rat and human. J. Biol. Chem. 266: 10646–10653, 1991.
 399. Shimasaki, S., F. Uchlyama, S. Motoyuki, and N. Ling. Molecular cloning of the complementary DNAs encoding a novel insulin‐like growth factor binding protein from rat and human. Mol. Endocrinol. 4: 1451–1458, 1990.
 400. Simmen, F. A., R. C. M. Simmen, and G. Reinhart. Maternal and neonatal somatomedin‐C/insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins during early lactation in the pig. Dev. Biol. 130: 16, 1988.
 401. Singh, P., B. Dai, U. Yallampalli, X. Lu, and P. C. Schroy. Proliferation and differentiation of a human colon cancer cell line (CaCo2) is associated with significant changes in the expression and secretion of insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) IGF‐II and IGF binding protein‐4: role of IGF‐II. Endocrinology 137: 1764–1774, 1996.
 402. Skalli, M., O. Avallet, M. Vigier, and J. M. Saez. Opposite vectorial secretion of insulin‐like growth factor I and its binding proteins by pig Sertoli cells cultured in the bicameral chamber system. Endocrinology 131: 985–987, 1992.
 403. Skarr, T. C., J. R. Vega, S. N. Pyke, and C. R. Baumrucker. Changes in insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins in mammary secretions associated with pregnancy and parturition. J. Endocrinol. 131: 127, 1991.
 404. Slootweg, M. C., C. Ohlsson, E. J. van Elk, J. C. Netelenbos, and D. L. Andress. Growth hormone receptor activity is stimulated by insulin‐like growth factor binding protein 5 in rat osteosarcoma cells. Growth Regul. 6: 238–246, 1996.
 405. Smith, E. P., P. T. Cheung, A. Ferguson, and S. D. Chernausek. Mechanisms of Sertoli cell insulin‐like growth factor (IGF)‐binding protein‐3 regulation by IGF‐I and adenosine 3′,5′‐monophosphate. Endocrinology 131: 2733–2741, 1992.
 406. Smith, E. P., L. Lu, S. D. Chernausek, and D. J. Klein. Insulinlike growth factor‐binding protein‐3 (IGFBP‐3) concentration in rat Sertoli cell‐conditioned medium is regulated by a pathway involving association of IGFBP‐3 with cell surface proteoglycans. Endocrinology 135: 359–364, 1994.
 407. Smith, W. J., T. J. Nam, L. E. Underwood, W. J. Busby, A. Celniker, and D. R. Clemmons. Use of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP‐2), IGFBP‐3 and IGF‐I for assessing growth hormone status in short children. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 77: 1294–1299, 1993.
 408. Smith, W. J., L. E. Underwood, and D. R. Clemmons. Effects of caloric or protein restriction on insulin‐like growth factor‐I (IGF‐I) and IGF‐binding proteins in children and adults. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80: 443–449, 1995.
 409. Snyder, D. K., and D. R. Clemmons. Insulin dependent regulation of insulin like growth factor binding protein‐1. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 71: 1632–1636, 1990.
 410. Sommer, A., C. Mack, K. S. Spratt, O. Masacrenhas, T. J. Tressel, E. T. Rhodes, and R. Lee. Molecular genetics and actions of recombinant insulin like growth factor binding pro‐tein‐3. In: Modern Concepts of Insulin‐Like Growth Factors, edited by E. M. Spencer. New York: Elsevier Science Publishing, 1991, p. 715–728.
 411. Spagnoli, A., S. E. Gargosky, G. L. Spadoni, M. MacGillivray, Y. Oh, B. Boscherini, and R. G. Rosenfeld. Characterization of a low molecular mass form of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐3 (17.7 kilodaltons) in urine and serum from health children and growth hormone (GH)‐deficient patients: relationship with GH therapy. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80: 3668–3676, 1995.
 412. Spicer, L. J., S. E. Echternkamp, E. A. Wong, D. T. Hamilton, and R. K. Vernon. Serum hormones, follicular fluid steroids, insulin‐like growth factors and their binding proteins, and ovarian IGF mRNA in sheep with different ovulation rates. J. Anim. Sci. 73: 1152–1163, 1995.
 413. Stanko, R. L., W. S. Cohick, D. W. Armstrong, R. W. Shaw, R. W. Harvey, D. R. Clemmons, and M. D. Whitacre. Effect of somatrotropin and (or) pregnant mare serum gonadotropin on serum and follicular IGF‐I and IGF binding proteins in cattle. Biol. Reprod. 50: 290–300, 1994.
 414. Stewart, C. E., P. L. James, M. E. Fant, and P. Rotwein. Over‐expression of insulin‐like growth factor‐II induces accelerated myoblast differentiation. J. Cell. Physiol. 169: 23–32, 1996.
 415. Stewart, C. H., D. C. Bates, T. A. Calder, S. M. Woddell, and J. M. Pell. Potentiation of insulin like growth factor (IGF‐I) activity by an antibody: supportive evidence for enhancement of IGF‐I bioavailability in vivo by IGF binding proteins. Endocrinology 133: 1462–1465, 1993.
 416. Strasser‐Vogel, B., W. F. Blum, R. Past, U. Kessler, A. Hoeflich, B. Meiler, and W. Kiess. Insulin‐like growth factor (IGF)‐I and‐II and IGF binding proteins‐1, 2, and‐3 in children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus: correlation with metabolic control and height adjustment. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80: 1207–1213, 1995.
 417. Straus, D. S., and C. D. Takemoto. Effect of dietary protein deprivation insulin‐like growth factor IGF‐I and II, IGF binding protein‐2 and serum albumin gene expression in the rat. Endocrinology 127: 1849–1860, 1990.
 418. Suh, D., G. T. Ooi, and M. M. Rechler. Identification of cis‐elements mediating the stimulation of rat insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1 promoter activity by dexamethasone, cyclic AMP and phorbol esters, and the inhibition by insulin. Mol. Endocrinol. 8: 794–805, 1994.
 419. Suhonen, S., M. Haukkamaa, T. Holmstrom, P. Lahteenmaki, and E. M. Rutanen. Endometrial response to hormone replacement therapy as assessed by expression of insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐1 in the endometrium. Fertil. Steril. 65: 776–782, 1996.
 420. Suikkari, A. M. Insulin‐like growth factor (IGF‐I) and its low molecular weight binding protein in human milk. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 30: 19–25, 1989.
 421. Suikkari, A.‐M., V. A. Koivisto, R. Koistinen, M. Seppala, and H. Yki‐Jarvinen. Dose‐response characteristics for suppression of low molecular weight plasma insulin‐like growth factor binding protein by insulin. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 68: 135–140, 1989.
 422. Suikkari, A.‐M., T. Sane, M. Seppala, H. Yki‐Jarvinen, S.‐L. Karonen, and V. A. Koivisto. Prolonged exercise increases serum insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein concentrations. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 68: 141–147, 1989.
 423. Suwanichkul, A., S. V. Allander, S. L. Morris, and D. R. Powell. Glucocorticoids and insulin regulate expression of the human gene for insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1 through proximal promoter elements. J. Biol. Chem. 269: 30835–30841, 1994.
 424. Suwanichkul, A., M. L. Cubbage, and D. R. Powell. The promoter of the human gene for insulin like growth factor binding protein‐1: basal promoter activity in Hep G2 cells depends upon liver factor B1. J. Biol. Chem. 265: 21185–21193, 1990.
 425. Svoboda, M. E., J. J. Van Wyk, D. G. Klapper, R. E. Fellows, F. E. Grissom, and R. J. Schlueter. Purification of somatomedin‐C from human plasma: chemical and biological properties, partial sequence analysis and relationship to other somatomedins. Biochemistry 19: 790–797, 1980.
 426. Swisshelm, K., K. Ryan, K. Tsuchiy, and R. Sager. Enhanced expression of an insulin like growth factor binding protein (Mac‐25) in scenescent human using epithelial cells and induced expression with retinoic acid. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92: 4472–4476, 1995.
 427. Takenada, A., Y. Miura, M. Mori, M. Hirosawa, H. Kato, and T. Noguchi. Distribution of mRNAs of insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins 1 and 3 between parenchymal and non‐parenchymal cells in the liver. J. Biol. Chem. 55: 1191–1193, 1991.
 428. Takenaka, A., M. Hirosawa, M. Mori, S. Yamada, Y. Miura, H. Kato, S. Takahashi, and T. Noguchi. Effect of protein nutrition on the mRNA content of insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐1 in liver and kidney of rats. Br. J. Nutr. 69: 73–82, 1993.
 429. Tapanainen, P., M. L. Kaar, J. Leppaluoto, N. P. Huttunen, and M. Knip. Normal stimulated growth hornone secretion but low peripheral levels of insulin‐like growth factor I in prepubertal children with insulin‐dependent diabetes mellitus. Acta Paediatr. 84: 6546–6550, 1995.
 430. Tarantino, S., H. G. Verhage, and A. Fazleabas. Regulation of insulin‐like growth factor‐binding proteins in the baboon (Papio anubis) uterus during early pregnancy. Endocrinology 130: 2354–2362, 1992.
 431. Tardif, G., J. P. Pelletier, C. Geng, J. M. Cloutier, and J. Martel‐Pelletier. Normal expression of type 1 insulin‐like growth factor receptor by human osteoarthritic chondrocytes with increased expression and synthesis of insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins. Arthrit. Rheumat. 39: 968–978, 1996.
 432. Taylor, W. R., R. M. Nerem, and R. W. Alexander. Polarized secretion of IGF‐I and IGF‐I binding protein activity by cultured aortic endothelial cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 154: 139–142, 1993.
 433. Tennant, M. K., J. B. Thrasher, P. A. Twomey, R. S. Birnbaum, and S. R. Plymate. Insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐2 and‐3 expression in benign human prostate epithelium, prostate intraepithelial neoplasia, and adenocarcinoma of the prostate. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81: 411–420, 1996.
 434. Thissen, J. P., M. L. Davenport, J. Pucilowska, M. V. Miles, and L. E. Underwood. Increased serum clearance and degradation of [125I]‐IGF‐I in protein restricted rats. Am. J. Physiol. (Endocrinol. Metab. 33) 262: 406–E411, 1992.
 435. Thomas, M. J., A. M. Gronowski, S. A. Berry, P. L. Bergad, and P. Rotwein. Growth hormone rapidly activates rat serine inhibitor 2.1 gene transcription and induces a DNA‐binding activity distinct from those of Stat1,‐3 and‐4. Mol. Cell. Biol. 15: 12–18, 1995.
 436. Thoren, M., I. Wivall‐Helleryd, W. Blum, and K. Hall. Effects of repeated subcutaneous administration of recombinant human insulin‐like growth factor I in adults with growth hormone deficiency. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 131: 33–40, 1994.
 437. Thrailkill, K. M., D. R. Clemmons, W. H. Busby, and S. R. Handweger. Differential regulation of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein secretion from human decidual cells by IGF‐I, insulin and relaxin. J. Clin. Invest. 129: 671–678, 1990.
 438. Thrailkill, K. M., L. Quarks, H. Nagase, K. Suzuki, D. M. Serra, and J. L. Fowlkes. Characterization of insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐5 degrading proteases produced throughout murine osteoblast differentiation. Endocrinology 136: 3527–3534, 1995.
 439. Thrasher, J. B., M. K. Tennant, P. A. Twomey, K. L. Hansberry, J. N. Wettlaufer, and S. R. Plymate. Immunohistochemical localization of insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins 2 and 3 in prostate tissue: clinical correlations. J. Vrol. 155: 999–1003, 1996.
 440. Tollefsen, S. E., R. Lajara, R. H. McCusker, D. R. Clemmons, and P. Rotwein. Insulin‐like growth factors (IGF) in muscle development. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 13810–13817, 1989.
 441. Tomas, F. M., S. E. Knowles, P. C. Owens, C. S. Chandler, G. L. Francis, L. C. Read, and F. J. Ballard. Insulin‐like growth factor‐I (IGF‐I) and especially IGF‐I variants are anabolic in dexamethasone‐treated rats. Biochem. J. 282: 91–97, 1992.
 442. Tonner, E., L. Quarrie, M. Travers, M. Barber, A. Logan, C. Wilde, and D. Flint. Does an IGF‐binding protein (IGFBP) present in involuting rat mammary gland regulate apoptosis? Prog. Growth Factor Res. 6: 409–414, 1995.
 443. Tseng, L., J. G. Gao, R. Chen, H. H. Zhu, J. Mazella, and D. R. Powell. Effect of progestin, antiprogestin, and relaxin on the accumulation of prolactin and insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐1 messenger ribonucleic acid in human endometrial stromal cells. Biol. Reprod. 47: 441–450, 1992.
 444. Tseng, L. Y.‐H., A. L. Brown, Y. W.‐H. Yang, J. A. Romanus, C. C. Orlowski, T. Taylor, and M. M. Rechler. The fetal rat binding protein for insulin‐like growth factors is expressed in the choroid plexus and cerebrospinal fluid of adult rats. Mol. Endocrinol. 3: 1559–1568, 1989.
 445. Tseng, L. Y., G. T. Ooi, A. L. Brown, D. S. Straus, and M. M. Rechler. Transcription of the insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐2 gene is increased in neonatal and fasted adult rat liver. Mol. Endocrinol. 6: 1195–1201, 1992.
 446. Tsuboi, R., C. M. Shi, C. Sato, G. N. Cox, and H. Ogawa. Coadministration of insulin like growth factor (IGF‐I) and IGF binding protein‐1 stimulates wound healing in animal models. J. Invest. Dermatol. 104: 199–203, 1995.
 447. Ui, M., M. Shimonaka, S. Shimasaki, and N. Ling. An insulinlike growth factor‐binding protein in ovarian follicular fluid blocks follicle‐stimulating hormone‐stimulated steroid production by ovarian granulosa cells. Endocrinology 125: 912–916, 1989.
 448. Unterman, T. G., A. Fareeduddin, M. A. Harris, R. G. Goswami, A. Porcella, R. H. Costa, and R. G. Lacson. Hepatic nuclear factor‐3 (HNF‐3) binds to the insulin response sequence in the insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1 (IGFBP‐1) promoter and enhances promoter function. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 203: 1835–1841, 1994.
 449. Unterman, T. G., R. G. Lacson, J. J. Jentel, and D. T. Oehler. Divergent effects of phorbol esters and insulin on insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1 (IGFBP‐1) production and mRNA in rat H4IIE hepatoma cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 182: 262–268, 1992.
 450. Unterman, T. G., R. G. Lacson, E. McGary, C. Whalen, C. Purple, and R. G. Goswami. Cloning of the rat insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1 gene and analysis of its 5′ promoter region. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 185: 993–999, 1992.
 451. Unterman, T., D. T. Oehler, H. Ngyuen, P. Sengupta, and R. Lacson. A novel DNA/protein complex interacts with the insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐1 (IGFBP‐1) insulin response sequence and is required for maximal effects of insulin and glucocorticoids on promoter function. Prog. Growth Factor Res. 6: 119–129, 1995.
 452. Valentinis, B., A. Bhala, T. De Angelis, R. Baserga, and P. Cohen. The human insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) binding protein‐3 inhibits the growth of fibroblasts with a targeted disruption of the IGF‐I receptor gene. Mol. Endocrinol. 9: 361–367, 1995.
 453. van Buul‐Offers, S. C., R. Reijen‐Gresnigt, R. Bloenen, C. Hoogerbrugge, and J. L. van den Brande. Co‐administration of IGF‐I binding protein‐3 differentially inhibits IGF‐I induced total body organ growth of Snell dwarf mice. Prog. Growth Factor Res. 6: 377–383, 1995.
 454. Van Dessel, H. J. H. M. T., Y. Chandrasekher, O. W. S. Yap, P. D. K. Lee, R. L. Hintz, G. H.J. Faessen, D. D. M. Braat, B. C. J. M. Fauser, and L. C. Giudice. Serum and follicular fluid levels of insulin‐like growth factor I (IGF‐I), IGF‐II, and IGF‐binding protein‐1 and‐3 during the normal menstrual cycle. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81: 1224–1231, 1996.
 455. Velez‐Yanguas, M. C., T. Kalebic, M. Maggi, C. C. Kappel, J. Letterio, M. Uskokovic, and L. J. Helman. 1 alpha, 25‐dihydroxy‐16‐ene‐23‐yne‐26,27‐hexafluorocholecalciferol (Ro 24–5531) modulation of insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐3 and induction of differentiation and growth arrest in a human osteosarcoma cell line. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81: 93–99, 1996.
 456. Villafuerte, B. C., W. N. Zhang, and L. S. Phillips. Insulin and insulin‐like growth factor‐I regulate hepatic insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐3 by different mechanisms. Mol. Endocrinol. 10: 622–630, 1996.
 457. Villafuerte, B. C., W. Zhao, A. C. Herington, R. Saffery, and L. S. Phillips. Identification of an insulin‐responsive element in the rat insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐3 gene. J. Biol. Chem. 272: 5024–5030, 1997.
 458. Villaudy, J., J. Delbe, C. Blat, G. Desaulty, A. Gole, and L. Harel. An IGF binding protein is an inhibitor of IGF stimulation. J. Cell. Physiol. 149: 492–496, 1991.
 459. Vollenhoven, B. J., A. C. Herington, and D. L. Healy, Messenger ribonucleic acid expression of the insulin‐like growth factors and their binding proteins in uterine fibroids and myometrium. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 76: 1106–1110, 1993.
 460. Voutilainen, R., S. Franks, H. D. Mason, and H. Martikainen. Expression of insulin‐like growth factor (IGF), IGF‐binding protein, and IGF receptor messenger ribonucleic acids in normal and polycystic ovaries. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81: 1003–1008, 1996.
 461. Walker, J. L., R. C. Baxter, S. Young, J. Pucilowska, D. R. Clemmons, and L. E. Underwood. Effects of recombinant insulin‐like growth factor I on IGF binding proteins and the acid‐labile subunit in growth hormone insensitivity syndrome. Growth Regul. 3: 109–112, 1993.
 462. Walker, J. L., J. J. Van Wyk, and L. E. Underwood. Stimulation of statural grwoth by recombinant insulin‐like growth factor‐I in a child with growth hormone insensitivity syndrome (Laron‐type). J. Pediatr. 121: 641–646, 1992.
 463. Walton, P. E., and T. D. Etherton. Effects of porcine growth hormone and insulin‐like growth factor‐I (IGF‐I) on immunoreactive IGF‐binding protein concentration in pigs. J. Endocrinol. 120: 153–160, 1989.
 464. Wang, E., J. Wang, E. Chin, J. Zhou, and C. A. Bondy. Cellular patterns of insulin‐like growth factor system gene expression in murine chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Endocrinology 136: 2741–2751, 1995.
 465. Wang, H. S., J. D. Lee, and Y. K. Soong. Serum levels of insulin‐like growth factor I and insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐1 and‐3 in women with regular menstrual cycles. Fertil. Steril. 63: 1204–1209, 1995.
 466. Wang, J. F., G. P. Becks, and D. J. Hill. Degradation of IGF‐binding protein‐3 by proteases in cultured FRTL‐5 rat thyroid cells. J. Endocrinol. 152: 265–274, 1997.
 467. Westwood, M., J. M. Gibson, and A. White. Purification and characterization of the insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐1 phosphoform found in normal plasma. Endocrinology 138: 1130–1136, 1997.
 468. Westwood, M., J. M. Gibson, A. C. Williams, P. E. Clayton, O. Hamberg, A. Flyvbjerg, and A. White. Hormonal regulation of circulating insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐1 phosphorylation status. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80: 3520–3527, 1995.
 469. Wilson, K. F., P. J. Fielder, J. Guevara‐Aguirre, P. Cohen, O. Vasconez, V. Martinez, A. Martinez, A. L. Rosenbloom, and R. G. Rosenfeld. Long‐term effects of insulin‐like growth factor (IGF)‐I treatment on serum IGFs and IGF binding proteins in adolescent patients with growth hormone receptor deficiency. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf.) 42: 399–407, 1995.
 470. Winesett, D. E., M. H. Ulshen, E. C. Hoyt, N. K. Mohapatra, C. R. Fuller, and P. K. Lund. Regulation and localization of the insulin‐like growth factor system in small bowel during altered nutrient status. Am. J. Physiol. 268 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 31): G631–G640, 1995.
 471. Wood, T. L. Gene‐targeting and transgenic approaches to IGF and IGF binding protein function. Am. J. Physiol. 269 (Endocrinol. Metab. 32): E613–E622, 1995.
 472. Wood, T. L., A. L. Brown, M. M. Rechler, and J. E. Pintar. The expression pattern of an insulin like growth factor (IGF) binding protein gene is distinct from IGF‐II in mid gestation embryo. Mol. Endocrinol. 4: 1257–1263, 1990.
 473. Wood, W. I., G. Cachianes, W. J. Henzel, G. A. Winslow, S. A. Spencer, R. Hellmiss, J. L. Martin, and R. C. Baxter. Cloning and expression of the GH dependent insulin like growth factor binding protein. Mol. Endocrinol. 2: 1176–1185, 1988.
 474. Wraight, C. J., and G. A. Werther. Insulin‐like growth factor‐I and epidermal growth factor regulate insulin‐like growth factor binding protein‐3 (IGFBP‐3) in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. J. Invest. Dermatol. 105: 602–607, 1995.
 475. Xu, S., S. C. Cwyfan‐Hughes, J. W. van der Strappen, J. Sansom, J. L. Burton, M. Donnelly, and J. M. Holly. Insulin‐like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF‐binding proteins in human skin interstitial fluid. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80: 2940–2945, 1995.
 476. Xu, S., P. Savage, J. L. Burton, J. Sansom, and J. M. Holly. Proteolysis of insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐3 by human skin keratinocytes in culture in comparison to that in skin interstitial fluid: the role and regulation of components of the plasmin system. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82: 1863–1868, 1997.
 477. Yang, Y. W.‐H., A. L. Brown, C. C. Orlowski, D. E. Graham, L. Y.‐H. Tseng, J. A. Romanus, and M. M. Rechler. Identification of rat cell lines that preferentially express insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins rIGFBP‐1, 2, or 3. Mol. Endocrinol. 4: 29–38, 1990.
 478. Yang, Y. W.‐H., J.‐F. Wang, C. C. Orlowski, S. P. Nissley, and M. M. Rechler. Structure, specificity, and regulation of the insulin‐like growth factor‐binding proteins in adult rat serum. Endocrinology 125: 1540–1555, 1989.
 479. Yang, Y. W.‐H., M. Yanagishita, and M. M. Rechler. Heparin inhibition of insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐3 binding to human fibroblasts and rat glioma cells: role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Endocrinology 137: 4363–4371, 1996.
 480. Yateman, M. E., D. C. Claffey, S. C. Cwyfan‐Hughes, V. J. Frost, J. A. H. Wass, and J. M. Holly. Cytokines modulate the sensitivity of human fibroblasts to stimulation with insulin‐like growth factor‐I (IGF‐I) by altering endogenous IGF‐binding protein production. J. Endocrinol. 137: 151–159, 1993.
 481. Yee, D., R. E. Favoni, G. S. Lebovic, F. Lombana, D. R. Powell, and C. P. Reynolds. Insulin‐like growth factor I expression by tumors of neuroectodermal origin with the t(11;22) chromosomal translocation. A potential autocrine growth factor. J. Clin. Invest. 86: 1806–1814, 1990.
 482. Young, S. C. J., M. V. Miles, and D. R. Clemmons. Determination of the pharmacokinetic profiles of IGFBP‐1 and IGFBP‐2 in rats. Endocrinology 131: 1867–1873, 1992.
 483. Young, S. C. J., A. Smith‐Banks, L. E. Underwood, and D. R. Clemmons. Effects of recombinant IGF‐I and GH treatment upon serum IGF binding proteins in calorically restricted adults. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 75: 603–608, 1992.
 484. Zadeh, S. M., and M. Binoux. The 16‐kDa proteolytic fragment of insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) binding protein‐3 inhibits the mitogenic action of fibroblast growth factor on mouse fibroblasts with a targeted disruption of the type I IGF receptor gene. Endocrinology 138: 3069–3072, 1997.
 485. Zapf, J., E. R. Froesch, and R. E. Humbel. The insulin‐like growth factors (IGF) of human serum: chemical and biological characterization and aspects of their possible physiologic role. Curr. Topics Cell. Regul. 19: 257–309, 1981.
 486. Zapf, J., C. Hauri, E. Futo, M. A. Hussain, J. Rutishauser, C. A. Maack, and E. R. Froesch. Intravenously injected insulinlike growth factor (IGF) I/IGF binding protein‐3 complex exerts insulin‐like effects in hypophysectomized, but not in normal rats. J. Clin. Invest. 95: 179–186, 1995.
 487. Zapf, J., M. C. Keifer, J. Merryweather, F. R. Masiarz, D. Dower, W. Born, J. A. Fisher, and E. R. Froesch. Isolation from adult human serum forms of insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins and molecular cloning of one of them that is increased by IGF‐I administration. J. Biol. Chem. 265: 14892–14898, 1990.
 488. Zapf, J., H. Morrell, and H. Walter. Serum levels of insulinlike growth factor (IGF) and its carrier protein in various metabolic disorders. Acta Endocrinol. (Copenh.) 95: 505–517, 1980.
 489. Zapf, J., E. Rinderknecht, R. E. Humble, and E. R. Froesch. Nonsuppressable insulin‐like activity (NSILA) from human serum: Recent accomplishments and their physiologic implications. Metabolism 27: 1803–1828, 1978.
 490. Zapf, J., C. Schmid, H. P. Guler, M. Waldvogel, C. Hauri, E. Futo, P. Hossenlopp, M. Binoux, and E. R. Froesch. Regulation of binding proteins for insulin‐like growth factors in humans: Increased expression of IGF binding proteins during treatment of healthy adults and in patients with extrapancreatic tumor. J. Clin. Invest. 86: 952–961, 1990.
 491. Zapf, J., C. Schmid, M. Kiefer, H.‐P. Guler, and E. R. Froesch. In vivo models of IGF binding protein (IGFBP) regulation with possible relevance to their physiological roles. In: Modern Concepts of Insulin‐like Growth Factors, edited by E. M. Spencer. New York: Elsevier Science Publishing, 1991, p. 591–605.
 492. Zapf, J., E. Schoenle, G. Jagars, I. Sand, J. Grunwald, and E. R. Froesch. Inhibition of the action of nonsuppressible insulin‐like activity on isolated fat cells by binding to its carrier protein. J. Clin. Invest. 63: 1077–1084, 1979.
 493. Zapf, J., M. Waldvogel, and E. R. Froesch. Binding of nonsuppressible insulin‐like activity to human serum: evidence for a carrier protein. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 168: 638–645, 1975.
 494. Zhou, J., O. O. Adesanya, G. Vatzias, J. M. Hammond, and C. A. Bondy. Selective expression of insulin‐like growth factor system components during porcine ovary follicular selection. Endocrinology 137: 4893–4901, 1996.
 495. Zhou, J., and C. A. Bondy. Insulin‐like growth factor‐II and its binding proteins in placental development. Endocrinology 131: 1230–1240, 1992.
 496. Zhou, J., B. A. Dsupin, L. C. Giudice, and C. A. Bondy. Insulin‐like growth factor system gene expression in human endometrium during the menstrual cycle. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 79: 1723–1734, 1994.
 497. Zhou, Y., S. Mohan, T. A. Linkhart, D. J. Baylink, and D. D. Strong. Retinoic acid regulates insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein expression in human osteoblast cells. Endocrinology 137: 975–983, 1996.

Contact Editor

Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite

David R. Clemmons. Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 24: Handbook of Physiology, The Endocrine System, Hormonal Control of Growth: 573-631. First published in print 1999. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp070519