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Dopamine, Neurochemical Processes, and Oxygen Toxicity at Pressure

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All mammals, including man, exposed to breathing gas mixtures at high pressures exhibit central nervous system disturbances, which differ according to the gas used. With the use of compressed air, the increased oxygen partial pressure induces hyperoxic disturbances that consist of epileptic seizures that occur, on average, after 30 min exposure to 2.8 ATA in man or to 5 ATA in rats. Increased oxygen partial pressure induces reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species production that could be related to neurotransmitter changes reported for the preepileptic phase or at pressures that produce epileptic seizures. In rats, oxygen pressures lower than 5 ATA induce a decrease of dopamine release in the stratum that could be due to disturbances of neurotransmitter regulatory processes that are different from those implicated for hyperbaric oxygen‐induced epileptic seizures. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1339‐1344, 2016.

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Figure 1. Figure 1. Relationships between depth of sea water, absolute pressure, relative pressure, and oxygen or nitrogen partial pressure.
Figure 2. Figure 2. Consequences of the increase of pressure and partial pressure of breathing gas mixtures on biological and physiological systems.
Figure 3. Figure 3. Maximal decrease in DA level recorded in striatum of rats by differential pulse voltametry during different exposures at 1, 2, 3, and 4 ATA. Results are expressed in percentage difference from control value.
Figure 4. Figure 4. Changes in striatal DA level during exposure to 5 ATA oxygen before and after hyperoxic epileptic seizure comparatively to control values. Results are expressed in percentage difference from control value.

Figure 1. Relationships between depth of sea water, absolute pressure, relative pressure, and oxygen or nitrogen partial pressure.

Figure 2. Consequences of the increase of pressure and partial pressure of breathing gas mixtures on biological and physiological systems.

Figure 3. Maximal decrease in DA level recorded in striatum of rats by differential pulse voltametry during different exposures at 1, 2, 3, and 4 ATA. Results are expressed in percentage difference from control value.

Figure 4. Changes in striatal DA level during exposure to 5 ATA oxygen before and after hyperoxic epileptic seizure comparatively to control values. Results are expressed in percentage difference from control value.
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How to Cite

Jean‐Claude Rostain, Cécile Lavoute. Dopamine, Neurochemical Processes, and Oxygen Toxicity at Pressure. Compr Physiol 2016, 6: 1339-1344. doi: 10.1002/cphy.c140025