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Pathogenesis of Hyperthyroidism

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Hyperthyroidism is a form of thyrotoxicosis in which there is excess thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion. Multiple etiologies can lead to a common clinical state of “thyrotoxicosis,” which is a consequence of the high thyroid hormone levels and their action on different tissues of the body. The most common cause of thyrotoxicosis is Graves' disease, an autoimmune disorder in which stimulating thyrotropin receptor antibodies bind to thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptors on thyroid cells and cause overproduction of thyroid hormones. Other etiologies include: forms of thyroiditis in which inflammation causes release of preformed hormone, following thyroid gland insult that is autoimmune, infectious, mechanical or medication induced; secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin in the setting of transient gestational thyrotoxicosis and trophoblastic tumors; pituitary thyrotropin release, and exposure to extra‐thyroidal sources of thyroid hormone that may be endogenous or exogenous. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:67‐79, 2017.

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Figure 1. Figure 1. Pathogenesis of Graves' disease.

Figure 1. Pathogenesis of Graves' disease.
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Ishita Singh, Jerome M. Hershman. Pathogenesis of Hyperthyroidism. Compr Physiol 2016, 7: 67-79. doi: 10.1002/cphy.c160001