Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Adipose Tissue as a Site of Toxin Accumulation

Full Article on Wiley Online Library


We examine the role of adipose tissue, typically considered an energy storage site, as a potential site of toxicant accumulation. Although the production of most persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was banned years ago, these toxicants persist in the environment due to their resistance to biodegradation and widespread distribution in various environmental forms (e.g., vapor, sediment, and water). As a result, human exposure to these toxicants is inevitable. Largely due to their lipophilicity, POPs bioaccumulate in adipose tissue, resulting in greater body burdens of these environmental toxicants with obesity. POPs of major concern include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo‐p‐dioxins and furans (PCDDs/PCDFs), and polybrominated biphenyls and diphenyl ethers (PBBs/PBDEs), among other organic compounds. In this review, we (i) highlight the physical characteristics of toxicants that enable them to partition into and remain stored in adipose tissue, (ii) discuss the specific mechanisms of action by which these toxicants act to influence adipocyte function, and (iii) review associations between POP exposures and the development of obesity and diabetes. An area of controversy relates to the relative potential beneficial versus hazardous health effects of toxicant sequestration in adipose tissue. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:1085‐1135, 2017.

 1.Shane R. de Solla. Exposure, bioaccumulation, metabolism and monitoring of persistent organic pollutants in terrestrial wildlife. In: Alaee M, editor. Dioxin and Related Compounds. Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 203‐252. eBook ISBN 978‐3‐319‐23889‐0.
 2.Frank APC Gobas. Assessing bioaccumulation factors of persistent organic pollutants in aquatic food‐chains. In: Stuart H, editor. Persistent Organic Pollutants. Springer US, 2001, pp. 145‐165. eBook ISBN 978‐1‐4615‐1571‐5.
 3.(ATSDR) AfTSaDR. Toxicological Profile for Aldrin/Dieldrin. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services PHS, 2002.
 4.(ATSDR) AfTSaDR. Toxicological Profile for Chlordane. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services PHS, 1994.
 5.(ATSDR) AfTSaDR. Toxicological Profile for Chlorinated Dibenzo‐p‐dioxins (CDDs). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services PHS, 1998.
 6.(ATSDR) AfTSaDR. Toxicological Profile for DDT, DDE, and DDD. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services PHS, 2002.
 7.(ATSDR) AfTSaDR. Toxicological Profile for Di(2‐ethylhexyl) phthlate. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services PHS, 2002.
 8.(ATSDR) AfTSaDR. Toxicological Profile for Endosulfan. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services PHS, 2013.
 9.(ATSDR) AfTSaDR. Toxicological Profile for Endrin. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services PHS, 1996.
 10.(ATSDR) AfTSaDR. Toxicological Profile for Heptachlor and Heptachlor Epoxide. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services PHS, 2007.
 11.(ATSDR) AfTSaDR. Toxicological Profile for Hexachlorobenzene. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services PHS, 2013.
 12.(ATSDR) AfTSaDR. Toxicological Profile for Methoxychlor. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services PHS, 2002.
 13.(ATSDR) AfTSaDR. Toxicological Profile for Mirex and Chlordecone. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services PHS, 1995.
 14.(ATSDR) AfTSaDR. Toxicological Profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services PHS, 2000.
 15.(ATSDR) AfTSaDR. Toxicological Profile for Toxaphene. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services PHS, 2014.
 16.(ATSDR). AfTSaDR. Toxicological Profile for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services PHS, 1995.
 17.(EPA) USEPA. Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Aldrin/Dieldrin. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency, 1980.
 18.(EPA) USEPA. Persistent Organic Pollutants: A Global Issue, A Global Response‐cooperation/persistent‐organic‐pollutants‐global‐issue‐global‐response. [March 15, 2016].
 19.Adolfsson‐Erici M, Åkerman G, McLachlan MS. Measuring bioconcentration factors in fish using exposure to multiple chemicals and internal benchmarking to correct for growth dilution. Environ Toxicol Chem 31: 1853‐1860, 2012.
 20.Aekplakorn W, Chailurkit LO, Ongphiphadhanakul B. Relationship of serum bisphenol A with diabetes in the Thai population, National Health Examination Survey IV, 2009. J Diabetes 7: 240‐249, 2015.
 21.Agay‐Shay K, Martinez D, Valvi D, Garcia‐Esteban R, Basagana X, Robinson O, Casas M, Sunyer J, Vrijheid M. Exposure to endocrine‐disrupting chemicals during pregnancy and weight at 7 years of age: A multi‐pollutant approach. Environ Health Perspect 123: 1030‐1037, 2015.
 22.Ahmadian M, Suh JM, Hah N, Liddle C, Atkins AR, Downes M, Evans RM. PPARgamma signaling and metabolism: The good, the bad and the future. Nat Med 19: 557‐566, 2013.
 23.Ahmadkhaniha R, Mansouri M, Yunesian M, Omidfar K, Jeddi MZ, Larijani B, Mesdaghinia A, Rastkari N. Association of urinary bisphenol a concentration with type‐2 diabetes mellitus. J Environ Health Sci Eng 12: 64, 2014.
 24.Airaksinen R, Rantakokko P, Eriksson JG, Blomstedt P, Kajantie E, Kiviranta H. Association between type 2 diabetes and exposure to persistent organic pollutants. Diabetes Care 34: 1972‐1979, 2011.
 25.Alawi MA, Tamimi S, Jaghabir M. Storage of organochlorine pesticides in human adipose tissues of Jordanian males and females. Chemosphere 38: 2865‐2873, 1999.
 26.Alexander DL, Ganem LG, Fernandez‐Salguero P, Gonzalez F, Jefcoate CR. Aryl‐hydrocarbon receptor is an inhibitory regulator of lipid synthesis and of commitment to adipogenesis. J Cell Sci 111(Pt 22): 3311‐3322, 1998.
 27.Alonso‐Magdalena P, Quesada I, Nadal A. Endocrine disruptors in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nat Rev Endocrinol 7: 346‐353, 2011.
 28.Alshaarawy O, Zhu M, Ducatman AM, Conway B, Andrew ME. Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biomarkers and diabetes mellitus. Occup Environ Med 71: 437‐441, 2014.
 29.Alvarez L, Randi A, Alvarez P, Kolliker Frers R, Kleiman de Pisarev DL. Effect of hexachlorobenzene on NADPH‐generating lipogenic enzymes and L‐glycerol‐3‐phosphate dehydrogenase in brown adipose tissue. J Endocrinol Invest 22: 436‐445, 1999.
 30.Archibeque‐Engle SL, Tessari JD, Winn DT, Keefe TJ, Nett TM, Zheng T. Comparison of organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in human breast adipose tissue and serum. J Toxicol Environ Health 52: 285‐293, 1997.
 31.Arendt M. Communicating human biomonitoring results to ensure policy coherence with public health recommendations: analysing breastmilk whilst protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding. Environ Health 7(Suppl 1): S6, 2008.
 32.Ariemma F, D'Esposito V, Liguoro D, Oriente F, Cabaro S, Liotti A, Cimmino I, Longo M, Beguinot F, Formisano P, Valentino R. Low‐dose bisphenol‐A impairs adipogenesis and generates dysfunctional 3T3‐L1 adipocytes. PLoS One 11: e0150762, 2016.
 33.Arrebola JP, Pumarega J, Gasull M, Fernandez MF, Martin‐Olmedo P, Molina‐Molina JM, Fernández‐Rodríguez M, Porta M, Olea N. Adipose tissue concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in adults from Southern Spain. Environ Res 122: 31‐37, 2013.
 34.Arsenescu V, Arsenescu RI, King V, Swanson H, Cassis LA. Polychlorinated biphenyl‐77 induces adipocyte differentiation and proinflammatory adipokines and promotes obesity and atherosclerosis. Environ Health Perspect 116: 761‐768, 2008.
 35.Baillie‐Hamilton PF. Chemical toxins: A hypothesis to explain the global obesity epidemic. J Altern Complement Med 8: 185‐192, 2002.
 36.Baker JL, Olsen LW, Sorensen TI. Childhood body‐mass index and the risk of coronary heart disease in adulthood. N Engl J Med 357: 2329‐2337, 2007.
 37.Baker NA, English V, Sunkara M, Morris AJ, Pearson KJ, Cassis LA. Resveratrol protects against polychlorinated biphenyl‐mediated impairment of glucose homeostasis in adipocytes. J Nutr Biochem 24: 2168‐2174, 2013.
 38.Baker NA, Karounos M, English V, Fang J, Wei Y, Stromberg A, Sunkara M, Morris AJ, Swanson HI, Cassis LA. Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls impair glucose homeostasis in lean #c57BL/6 mice and mitigate beneficial effects of weight loss on glucose homeostasis in obese mice. Environ Health Perspect 121: 105‐110, 2013.
 39.Baker NA, Shoemaker R, English V, Larian N, Sunkara M, Morris AJ, Walker M, Yiannikouris F, Cassis LA. Effects of adipocyte aryl hydrocarbon receptor deficiency on PCB‐induced disruption of glucose homeostasis in lean and obese mice. Environ Health Perspect 123: 944‐950, 2015.
 40.Barnes M. Solving the Problem of Childhood Obesity Within a Generation. White House Task Force on Childhood Obesity Report to the President Washington, DC 2010.
 41.Barrett JR. POPs vs. fat: Persistent organic pollutant toxicity targets and is modulated by adipose tissue. Environ Health Perspect 121: a61, 2013.
 42.Bennett GW, Ballee DL, Hall RC, Fahey JE, Butts WL, Osmun JV. Persistence and distribution of chlordane and dieldrin applied as termiticides. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 11: 64‐69, 1974.
 43.Bertazzi PA, Bernucci I, Brambilla G, Consonni D, Pesatori AC. The Seveso studies on early and long‐term effects of dioxin exposure: a review. Environ Health Perspect 106(Suppl 2): 625‐633, 1998.
 44.Biemann R, Navarrete Santos A, Navarrete Santos A, Riemann D, Knelangen J, Bluher M, Koch H, Fischer B. Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in distinct ontogenetic windows. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 417: 747‐752, 2012.
 45.Biggs ML, Mukamal KJ, Luchsinger JA, Ix JH, Carnethon MR, Newman AB, de Boer IH, Strotmeyer ES, Mozaffarian D, Siscovick DS. Association between adiposity in midlife and older age and risk of diabetes in older adults. JAMA 303: 2504‐2512, 2010.
 46.Biljes D, Hammerschmidt‐Kamper C, Kadow S, Diel P, Weigt C, Burkart V, Esser C. Impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in ageing aryl hydrocarbon receptor deficient mice. EXCLI J 14: 1153‐1163, 2015.
 47.Blanck HM, Marcus M, Rubin C, Tolbert PE, Hertzberg VS, Henderson AK, Zhang RH. Growth in girls exposed in utero and postnatally to polybrominated biphenyls and polychlorinated biphenyls. Epidemiology 13: 205‐210, 2002.
 48.Boas M, Frederiksen H, Feldt‐Rasmussen U, Skakkebaek NE, Hegedus L, Hilsted L, Juul A, Main KM. Childhood exposure to phthalates: Associations with thyroid function, insulin‐like growth factor I, and growth. Environ Health Perspect 118: 1458‐1464, 2010.
 49.Bodin J, Stene LC, Nygaard UC. Can exposure to environmental chemicals increase the risk of diabetes type 1 development? Biomed Res Int 2015: 208947, 2015.
 50.Bondy G, Armstrong C, Coady L, Doucet J, Robertson P, Feeley M, Barker M. Toxicity of the chlordane metabolite oxychlordane in female rats: Clinical and histopathological changes. Food Chem Toxicol 41: 291‐301, 2003.
 51.Bonefeld‐Jorgensen EC, Andersen HR, Rasmussen TH, Vinggaard AM. Effect of highly bioaccumulated polychlorinated biphenyl congeners on estrogen and androgen receptor activity. Toxicology 158: 141‐153, 2001.
 52.Botella B, Crespo J, Rivas A, Cerrillo I, Olea‐Serrano MF, Olea N. Exposure of women to organochlorine pesticides in Southern Spain. Environ Res 96: 34‐40, 2004.
 53.Boucher JG, Boudreau A, Atlas E. Bisphenol A induces differentiation of human preadipocytes in the absence of glucocorticoid and is inhibited by an estrogen‐receptor antagonist. Nutr Diabetes 4: e102, 2014.
 54.Bourez S, Van den Daelen C, Le Lay S, Poupaert J, Larondelle Y, Thomé JP, Schneider YJ, Dugail I, Debier C. The dynamics of accumulation of PCBs in cultured adipocytes vary with the cell lipid content and the lipophilicity of the congener. Toxicol Lett 216: 40‐46, 2013.
 55.Braun WH, Young JD, Blau GE, Gehring PJ. The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of pentachlorophenol in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 41: 395‐406, 1977.
 56.Brodie AE, Azarenko VA, Hu CY. 2,3,7,8‐Tetrachlorodibenzo‐p‐dioxin (TCDD) inhibition of fat cell differentiation. Toxicol Lett 84: 55‐59, 1996.
 57.Brunnberg S, Pettersson K, Rydin E, Matthews J, Hanberg A, Pongratz I. The basic helix‐loop‐helix‐PAS protein ARNT functions as a potent coactivator of estrogen receptor‐dependent transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100: 6517‐6522, 2003.
 58.Burns JS, Williams PL, Sergeyev O, Korrick SA, Lee MM, Revich B, Altshul L, Del Prato JT, Humblet O, Patterson DG, Turner WE, Starovoytov M, Hauser R. Serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and growth among Russian boys. Environ Health Perspect 120: 303‐308, 2012.
 59.Buser MC, Murray HE, Scinicariello F. Age and sex differences in childhood and adulthood obesity association with phthalates: Analyses of NHANES 2007‐2010. Int J Hyg Environ Health 217: 687‐694, 2014.
 60.Butt CM, Berger U, Bossi R, Tomy GT. Levels and trends of poly‐ and perfluorinated compounds in the arctic environment. Sci Total Environ 408: 2936‐2965, 2010.
 61.Calvert GM, Sweeney MH, Deddens J, Wall DK. Evaluation of diabetes mellitus, serum glucose, and thyroid function among United States workers exposed to 2,3,7,8‐tetrachlorodibenzo‐p‐dioxin. Occup Environ Med 56: 270‐276, 1999.
 62.Campioli E, Martinez‐Arguelles DB, Papadopoulos V. In utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di‐(2‐ethylhexyl) phthalate promotes local adipose and systemic inflammation in adult male offspring. Nutr Diabetes 4: e115, 2014.
 63.Canada Go. Screening Assessment Report. edited by Environment Canada HC. Canada: Government of Canada, 2013.
 64.Cariou R, Antignac JP, Zalko D, Berrebi A, Cravedi JP, Maume D, Marchand P, Monteau F, Riu A, Andre F, Le Bizec B. Exposure assessment of French women and their newborns to tetrabromobisphenol‐A: Occurrence measurements in maternal adipose tissue, serum, breast milk and cord serum. Chemosphere 73: 1036‐1041, 2008.
 65.Carwile JL, Michels KB. Urinary bisphenol A and obesity: NHANES 2003‐2006. Environ Res 111: 825‐830, 2011.
 66.Cavender F, O'Donohue J. Phenol and phenolics. In: Bingham E, Cohrssen B, editors. Patty's Toxicology. United States: John Wiley & Sons, 2012.
 67.Chamorro‐Garcia R, Kirchner S, Li X, Janesick A, Casey SC, Chow C, Blumberg B. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether induces adipogenic differentiation of multipotent stromal stem cells through a peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor gamma‐independent mechanism. Environ Health Perspect 120: 984‐989, 2012.
 68.Chang AM, Halter JB. Aging and insulin secretion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 284: E7‐E12, 2003.
 69.Chapados NA, Casimiro C, Robidoux MA, Haman F, Batal M, Blais JM, Imbeault P. Increased proliferative effect of organochlorine compounds on human preadipocytes. Mol Cell Biochem 365: 275‐278, 2012.
 70.Chemicals NRCUSoF‐R. Toxicological Risks of Selected Flame‐Retardant Chemicals. Washington, DC: National Academic Press (US), 2000.
 71.Chen CL, Brodie AE, Hu CY. CCAAT/enhancer‐binding protein beta is not affected by tetrachlorodibenzo‐p‐dioxin (TCDD) inhibition of 3T3‐L1 preadipocyte differentiation. Obes Res 5: 146‐152, 1997.
 72.Chevrier J, Dewailly E, Ayotte P, Mauriège P, Després JP, Tremblay A. Body weight loss increases plasma and adipose tissue concentrations of potentially toxic pollutants in obese individuals. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24: 1272‐1278, 2000.
 73.Chiang HC, Kuo YT, Shen CC, Lin YH, Wang SL, Tsou TC. Mono(2‐ethylhexyl)phthalate accumulation disturbs energy metabolism of fat cells. Arch Toxicol 90: 589‐601, 2016.
 74.Children CoPitDoIa. Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children. Washington (DC): National Academies Press, 1993.
 75.Chiolero A, Faeh D, Paccaud F, Cornuz J. Consequences of smoking for body weight, body fat distribution, and insulin resistance. Am J Clin Nutr 87: 801‐809, 2008.
 76.Choi H, Jedrychowski W, Spengler J, Camann DE, Whyatt RM, Rauh V, Tsai WY, Perera FP. International studies of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fetal growth. Environ Health Perspect 114: 1744‐1750, 2006.
 77.Choi J, Eom J, Kim J, Lee S, Kim Y. Association between some endocrine‐disrupting chemicals and childhood obesity in biological samples of young girls: a cross‐sectional study. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 38: 51‐57, 2014.
 78.Chu I, Villeneuve DC, Secours V, Franklin C, Rock G, Viau A. Metabolism and tissue distribution of mono‐2‐ethylhexyl phthalate in the rat. Drug Metab Dispos 6: 146‐149, 1978.
 79.Cimafranca MA, Hanlon PR, Jefcoate CR. TCDD administration after the pro‐adipogenic differentiation stimulus inhibits PPARgamma through a MEK‐dependent process but less effectively suppresses adipogenesis. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 196: 156‐168, 2004.
 80.Codru N, Schymura MJ, Negoita S, Akwesasne Task Force on E, Rej R, Carpenter DO. Diabetes in relation to serum levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides in adult Native Americans. Environ Health Perspect 115: 1442‐1447, 2007.
 81.Cok I, Donmez MK, Satiroğlu MH, Aydinuraz B, Henkelmann B, Shen H, Kotalik J, Schramm KW. Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo‐p‐dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin‐like PCBs in adipose tissue of infertile men. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 55: 143‐152, 2008.
 82.Collins S. Overview of clinical perspectives and mechanisms of obesity. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 73: 470‐471, 2005.
 83.Committee DMIC. Advances and Emerging Opportunities in Diabetes Research: A Stragegic Planning Report of the Diabetes Mellitus Interagency Coordinating Committee. US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, Diabetes Mellitus Interagency Coordinating Committee, 2011.
 84.Cox S, Niskar AS, Narayan KM, Marcus M. Prevalence of self‐reported diabetes and exposure to organochlorine pesticides among Mexican Americans: Hispanic health and nutrition examination survey, 1982‐1984. Environ Health Perspect 115: 1747‐1752, 2007.
 85.Cranmer M, Louie S, Kennedy RH, Kern PA, Fonseca VA. Exposure to 2,3,7,8‐tetrachlorodibenzo‐p‐dioxin (TCDD) is associated with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Toxicol Sci 56: 431‐436, 2000.
 86.Crookes MJ, Howe PD. Environmental hazard assessment: halogenated naphthalenes., edited by Department of the Environment BRE, Directorate for Air, Climate and Toxic Substances, Toxic Substances Division. Garston, United Kingdom: 1993.
 87.Cummings AM. Methoxychlor as a model for environmental estrogens. Crit Rev Toxicol 27: 367‐379, 1997.
 88.Cupul‐Uicab LA, Hernandez‐Avila M, Terrazas‐Medina EA, Pennell ML, Longnecker MP. Prenatal exposure to the major DDT metabolite 1,1‐dichloro‐2,2‐bis(p‐chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) and growth in boys from Mexico. Environ Res 110: 595‐603, 2010.
 89.Cupul‐Uicab LA, Klebanoff MA, Brock JW, Longnecker MP. Prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorines and childhood obesity in the US collaborative perinatal project. Environ Health Perspect 121: 1103‐1109, 2013.
 90.Daniels JL, Pan IJ, Jones R, Anderson S, Patterson DG, Jr., Needham LL, Sjodin A. Individual characteristics associated with PBDE levels in U.S. human milk samples. Environ Health Perspect 118: 155‐160, 2010.
 91.Darnerud PO, Eriksen GS, Jóhannesson T, Larsen PB, Viluksela M. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers: Occurrence, dietary exposure, and toxicology. Environ Health Perspect 109(Suppl 1): 49‐68, 2001.
 92.Davis KE, Neinast MD, Sun K, Skiles WM, Bills JD, Zehr JA, Zeve D, Hahner LD, Cox DW, Gent LM, Xu Y, Wang ZV, Khan SA, Clegg DJ. The sexually dimorphic role of adipose and adipocyte estrogen receptors in modulating adipose tissue expansion, inflammation, and fibrosis. Mol Metab 2: 227‐242, 2013.
 93.De Bruijn J, Busser F, Seinen W, Hermens J. Determination of octanol/water partition coefficients for hydrophobic organic chemicals with the "slow‐stirring" method. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 8: 499‐512, 1989. Cock M, de Boer MR, Lamoree M, Legler J, van de Bor M. First year growth in relation to prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptors—a Dutch prospective cohort study. Int J Environ Res Public Health 11: 7001‐7021, 2014.
 95.De Roos AJ, Ulrich CM, Sjodin A, McTiernan A. Adiposity, body composition, and weight change in relation to organochlorine pollutant plasma concentrations. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 22: 617‐624, 2012.
 96.Dearth MA, Hites RA. Complete analysis of technical chlordane using negative ionization mass spectrometry. Environmental Science and Technology 25: 245‐254, 1991.
 97.Debier C, Chalon C, Le Boeuf BJ, de Tillesse T, Larondelle Y, Thomé JP. Mobilization of PCBs from blubber to blood in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) during the post‐weaning fast. Aquat Toxicol 80: 149‐157, 2006.
 98.Debier C, Crocker DE, Houser DS, Vanden Berghe M, Fowler M, Mignolet E, de Tillesse T, Rees JF, Thomé JP, Larondelle Y. Differential changes of fat‐soluble vitamins and pollutants during lactation in northern elephant seal mother‐pup pairs. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 162: 323‐330, 2012.
 99.Debost‐Legrand A, Warembourg C, Massart C, Chevrier C, Bonvallot N, Monfort C, Rouget F, Bonnet F, Cordier S. Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and organophosphate pesticides, and markers of glucose metabolism at birth. Environ Res 146: 207‐217, 2016.
 100.Delvaux I, Van Cauwenberghe J, Den Hond E, Schoeters G, Govarts E, Nelen V, Baeyens W, Van Larebeke N, Sioen I. Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants and body composition at age 7‐9 years. Environ Res 132: 24‐32, 2014.
 101.Denison MS, Heath‐Pagliuso S. The Ah receptor: A regulator of the biochemical and toxicological actions of structurally diverse chemicals. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 61: 557‐568, 1998.
 102.Dewailly E, Mulvad G, Pedersen HS, Ayotte P, Demers A, Weber JP, Hansen JC. Concentration of organochlorines in human brain, liver, and adipose tissue autopsy samples from Greenland. Environ Health Perspect 107: 823‐828, 1999.
 103.Dhooge W, Den Hond E, Koppen G, Bruckers L, Nelen V, Van De Mieroop E, Bilau M, Croes K, Baeyens W, Schoeters G, Van Larebeke N. Internal exposure to pollutants and body size in Flemish adolescents and adults: Associations and dose‐response relationships. Environ Int 36: 330‐337, 2010.
 104.Dirinck E, Dirtu AC, Jorens PG, Malarvannan G, Covaci A, Van Gaal LF. Pivotal role for the visceral fat compartment in the release of persistent organic pollutants during weight loss. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 100: 4463‐4471, 2015.
 105.Dirinck E, Jorens PG, Covaci A, Geens T, Roosens L, Neels H, Mertens I, Van Gaal L. Obesity and persistent organic pollutants: Possible obesogenic effect of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls. Obesity (Silver Spring) 19: 709‐714, 2011.
 106.Dirinck EL, Dirtu AC, Govindan M, Covaci A, Van Gaal LF, Jorens PG. Exposure to persistent organic pollutants: Relationship with abnormal glucose metabolism and visceral adiposity. Diabetes Care 37: 1951‐1958, 2014.
 107.Donat‐Vargas C, Gea A, Sayon‐Orea C, Carlos S, Martinez‐Gonzalez MA, Bes‐Rastrollo M. Association between dietary intakes of PCBs and the risk of obesity: The SUN project. J Epidemiol Community Health 68: 834‐841, 2014.
 108.Elobeid MA, Allison DB. Putative environmental‐endocrine disruptors and obesity: A review. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 15: 403‐408, 2008.
 109.Elobeid MA, Padilla MA, Brock DW, Ruden DM, Allison DB. Endocrine disruptors and obesity: An examination of selected persistent organic pollutants in the NHANES 1999‐2002 data. Int J Environ Res Public Health 7: 2988‐3005, 2010.
 110.Epstein SS. Kepone–hazard evaluation. Sci Total Environ 9: 1‐62, 1978.
 111.Ericson I, van Bavel B, Lindström G. Screening of persistent halogenated compounds in human adipose tissue and blood from Sweden. Man‐Technology‐Environment (MTM) Research Centre, Örebro University, SE‐701 82 Örebro, Sweden: 2008.
 112.Erkin‐Cakmak A, Harley KG, Chevrier J, Bradman A, Kogut K, Huen K, Eskenazi B. In utero and childhood polybrominated diphenyl ether exposures and body mass at age 7 years: The CHAMACOS study. Environ Health Perspect 123: 636‐642, 2015.
 113.Everett CJ, Frithsen IL, Diaz VA, Koopman RJ, Simpson WM, Jr., Mainous AG, III. Association of a polychlorinated dibenzo‐p‐dioxin, a polychlorinated biphenyl, and DDT with diabetes in the 1999‐2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Environ Res 103: 413‐418, 2007.
 114.Feige JN, Gelman L, Rossi D, Zoete V, Metivier R, Tudor C, Anghel SI, Grosdidier A, Lathion C, Engelborghs Y, Michielin O, Wahli W, Desvergne B. The endocrine disruptor monoethyl‐hexyl‐phthalate is a selective peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor gamma modulator that promotes adipogenesis. J Biol Chem 282: 19152‐19166, 2007.
 115.Fernandez MF, Arrebola JP, Taoufiki J, Navalón A, Ballesteros O, Pulgar R, Vilchez JL, Olea N. Bisphenol‐A and chlorinated derivatives in adipose tissue of women. Reprod Toxicol 24: 259‐264, 2007.
 116.Foryst‐Ludwig A, Kintscher U. Metabolic impact of estrogen signalling through ERalpha and ERbeta. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 122: 74‐81, 2010.
 117.Fox K, Zauke GP, Butte W. Kinetics of bioconcentration and clearance of 28 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 28: 99‐109, 1994.
 118.Frank R, Rasper J, Smout MS, Braun HE. Organochlorine residues in adipose tissues, blood and milk from Ontario residents, 1976‐1985. Can J Public Health 79: 150‐158, 1988.
 119.Freedman DS, Mei Z, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS, Dietz WH. Cardiovascular risk factors and excess adiposity among overweight children and adolescents: The Bogalusa Heart Study. J Pediatr 150: 12‐17 e12, 2007.
 120.Gadupudi G, Gourronc FA, Ludewig G, Robertson LW, Klingelhutz AJ. PCB126 inhibits adipogenesis of human preadipocytes. Toxicol In Vitro 29: 132‐141, 2015.
 121.Galloway T, Cipelli R, Guralnik J, Ferrucci L, Bandinelli S, Corsi AM, Money C, McCormack P, Melzer D. Daily bisphenol A excretion and associations with sex hormone concentrations: Results from the InCHIANTI adult population study. Environ Health Perspect 118: 1603‐1608, 2010.
 122.Gauthier MS, Rabasa‐Lhoret R, Prud'homme D, Karelis AD, Geng D, van Bavel B, Ruzzin J. The metabolically healthy but obese phenotype is associated with lower plasma levels of persistent organic pollutants as compared to the metabolically abnormal obese phenotype. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99: E1061‐E1066, 2014.
 123.Geyer HJ, Rimkus G, Scheunert I, Kaune A, Schramm K‐W, Kettrup A, Zeeman M, Muir DCG, Hansen LG, Mackay D. Bioaccumulation and occurrence of endocrine‐disrupting chemicals (EDCs), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and other organic compounds in fish and other organisms including humans. Bioaccumulation‐New Aspects and Developments. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2000, pp. 1‐166.
 124.Giesy JP, Kannan K. Perfluorochemical surfactants in the environment. Environ Sci Technol 36: 146A‐152A, 2002.
 125.Gladen BC, Klebanoff MA, Hediger ML, Katz SH, Barr DB, Davis MD, Longnecker MP. Prenatal DDT exposure in relation to anthropometric and pubertal measures in adolescent males. Environ Health Perspect 112: 1761‐1767, 2004.
 126.Gladen BC, Ragan NB, Rogan WJ. Pubertal growth and development and prenatal and lactational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene. J Pediatr 136: 490‐496, 2000.
 127.Glynn AW, Granath F, Aune M, Atuma S, Darnerud PO, Bjerselius R, Vainio H, Weiderpass E. Organochlorines in Swedish women: Determinants of serum concentrations. Environ Health Perspect 111: 349‐355, 2003.
 128.Gobas FAPC, Clark KE, Shiu WY, MacKay D. Bioconcentration of polybrominated benzenes and biphenyls and related superhydrophobic chemicals in fish: Role of bioavailability and elimination into the feces. Environ Toxicol Chem 8: 231‐245, 1989.
 129.Gómez‐Catalán J, To‐Figueras J, Rodamilans M, Corbella J. Transport of organochlorine residues in the rat and human blood. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 20: 61‐66, 1991.
 130.Govarts E, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Schoeters G, Ballester F, Bloemen K, de Boer M, Chevrier C, Eggesbo M, Guxens M, Kramer U, Legler J, Martinez D, Palkovicova L, Patelarou E, Ranft U, Rautio A, Petersen MS, Slama R, Stigum H, Toft G, Trnovec T, Vandentorren S, Weihe P, Kuperus NW, Wilhelm M, Wittsiepe J, Bonde JP, Obelix, Enrieco. Birth weight and prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE): A meta‐analysis within 12 European Birth Cohorts. Environ Health Perspect 120: 162‐170, 2012.
 131.Grandjean P, Henriksen JE, Choi AL, Petersen MS, Dalgard C, Nielsen F, Weihe P. Marine food pollutants as a risk factor for hypoinsulinemia and type 2 diabetes. Epidemiology 22: 410‐417, 2011.
 132.Grimm HG, Schellmann B, Schaller KH, Gossler K. [Pentachlorophenol concentrations in tissues and body fluids of normal persons (author's transl)]. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg B 174: 77‐90, 1981.
 133.Grun F, Blumberg B. Endocrine disrupters as obesogens. Mol Cell Endocrinol 304: 19‐29, 2009.
 134.Grun F, Blumberg B. Environmental obesogens: Organotins and endocrine disruption via nuclear receptor signaling. Endocrinology 147: S50‐S55, 2006.
 135.Gu YZ, Hogenesch JB, Bradfield CA. The PAS superfamily: Sensors of environmental and developmental signals. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 40: 519‐561, 2000.
 136.Ha MH, Lee DH, Jacobs DR. Association between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and self‐reported cardiovascular disease prevalence: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999‐2002. Environ Health Perspect 115: 1204‐1209, 2007.
 137.Hamers T, Kamstra JH, Sonneveld E, Murk AJ, Kester MH, Andersson PL, Legler J, Brouwer A. In vitro profiling of the endocrine‐disrupting potency of brominated flame retardants. Toxicol Sci 92: 157‐173, 2006.
 138.Han JC, Lawlor DA, Kimm SY. Childhood obesity. Lancet 375: 1737‐1748, 2010.
 139.Hankinson O. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor complex. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 35: 307‐340, 1995.
 140.Hansch C, Leo A, Hoekman D. Exploring QSAR‐Hydrophobic, Electronic, and Steric Constants. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society, 1995, p. 557.
 141.Hao C, Cheng X, Xia H, Ma X. The endocrine disruptor mono‐(2‐ethylhexyl) phthalate promotes adipocyte differentiation and induces obesity in mice. Biosci Rep 32: 619‐629, 2012.
 142.Harley KG, Aguilar Schall R, Chevrier J, Tyler K, Aguirre H, Bradman A, Holland NT, Lustig RH, Calafat AM, Eskenazi B. Prenatal and postnatal bisphenol A exposure and body mass index in childhood in the CHAMACOS cohort. Environ Health Perspect 121: 514‐520, 2013.
 143.Harley KG, Chevrier J, Aguilar Schall R, Sjodin A, Bradman A, Eskenazi B. Association of prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and infant birth weight. Am J Epidemiol 174: 885‐892, 2011.
 144.Hatch EE, Nelson JW, Qureshi MM, Weinberg J, Moore LL, Singer M, Webster TF. Association of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations with body mass index and waist circumference: A cross‐sectional study of NHANES data, 1999‐2002. Environ Health 7: 27, 2008.
 145.Health UDo, Services H, Health NIo. Strategic plan for NIH obesity research. A report of the NIH Obesity Research Task Force (NIH publication no. 11‐5493). 2011. 2013.
 146.Hedgeman E, Chen Q, Hong B, Chang CW, Olson K, Ladronka K, Ward B, Adriaens P, Demond A, Gillespie BW, Lepkowski J, Franzblau A, Garabrant DH. The University of Michigan Dioxin Exposure Study: Population survey results and serum concentrations for polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and biphenyls. Environ Health Perspect 117: 811‐817, 2009.
 147.Heindel JJ, vom Saal FS. Role of nutrition and environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals during the perinatal period on the aetiology of obesity. Mol Cell Endocrinol 304: 90‐96, 2009.
 148.Heine PA, Taylor JA, Iwamoto GA, Lubahn DB, Cooke PS. Increased adipose tissue in male and female estrogen receptor‐alpha knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97: 12729‐12734, 2000.
 149.Henriksen GL, Ketchum NS, Michalek JE, Swaby JA. Serum dioxin and diabetes mellitus in veterans of Operation Ranch Hand. Epidemiology 8: 252‐258, 1997.
 150.Hertz‐Picciotto I, Charles MJ, James RA, Keller JA, Willman E, Teplin S. In utero polychlorinated biphenyl exposures in relation to fetal and early childhood growth. Epidemiology 16: 648‐656, 2005.
 151.Hill JO, Peters JC. Environmental contributions to the obesity epidemic. Science 280: 1371‐1374, 1998.
 152.Hirai Y, Tomokuni K. Levels of chlordane, oxychlordane, and nonachlor in human adipose tissues. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 47: 173‐176, 1991.
 153.Hong NS, Kim KS, Lee IK, Lind PM, Lind L, Jacobs DR, Lee DH. The association between obesity and mortality in the elderly differs by serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants: A possible explanation for the obesity paradox. Int J Obes (Lond) 36: 1170‐1175, 2012.
 154.Hoppe AA, Carey GB. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers as endocrine disruptors of adipocyte metabolism. Obesity (Silver Spring) 15: 2942‐2950, 2007.
 155.Hoppin JA, Brock JW, Davis BJ, Baird DD. Reproducibility of urinary phthalate metabolites in first morning urine samples. Environ Health Perspect 110: 515‐518, 2002.
 156.Houlahan KE, Prokopec SD, Sun RX, Moffat ID, Linden J, Lensu S, Okey AB, Pohjanvirta R, Boutros PC. Transcriptional profiling of rat white adipose tissue response to 2,3,7,8‐tetrachlorodibenzo‐rho‐dioxin. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 288: 223‐231, 2015.
 157.Howard P, Meylan W. Handbook of Physical Properties of Organic Chemicals. Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers, 1997.
 158.Howard PH editor. Handbook of Environmental Fate and Exposure Data for Organic Chemicals. Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers, 1991, pp. 502‐504.
 159.Howell G, Mangum L, III. Exposure to bioaccumulative organochlorine compounds alters adipogenesis, fatty acid uptake, and adipokine production in NIH3T3‐L1 cells. Toxicol In Vitro 25: 394‐402, 2011.
 160.Hsu HF, Tsou TC, Chao HR, Kuo YT, Tsai FY, Yeh SC. Effects of 2,3,7,8‐tetrachlorodibenzo‐p‐dioxin on adipogenic differentiation and insulin‐induced glucose uptake in 3T3‐L1 cells. J Hazard Mater 182: 649‐655, 2010.
 161.Hu H, Xu F, Li B, Cao J, Dawson R, Tao S. Prediction of the bioconcentration factor of PCBs in fish using the molecular connectivity index and fragment constant models. Water Environment Research 77: 87‐97, 2005.
 162.Huang T, Saxena AR, Isganaitis E, James‐Todd T. Gender and racial/ethnic differences in the associations of urinary phthalate metabolites with markers of diabetes risk: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001‐2008. Environ Health 13: 6, 2014.
 163.Hue O, Marcotte J, Berrigan F, Simoneau M, Dore J, Marceau P, Marceau S, Tremblay A, Teasdale N. Plasma concentration of organochlorine compounds is associated with age and not obesity. Chemosphere 67: 1463‐1467, 2007.
 164.Huff JE, Gerstner HB. Kepone: A literature summary. J Environ Pathol Toxicol 1: 377‐395, 1978.
 165.Hugo ER, Brandebourg TD, Woo JG, Loftus J, Alexander JW, Ben‐Jonathan N. Bisphenol A at environmentally relevant doses inhibits adiponectin release from human adipose tissue explants and adipocytes. Environ Health Perspect 116: 1642‐1647, 2008.
 166.Hurst CH, Waxman DJ. Activation of PPARalpha and PPARgamma by environmental phthalate monoesters. Toxicol Sci 74: 297‐308, 2003.
 167.Information NCfB. Compound Summary for CID 6618 (Tetrabromobisphenol A). PubChem Compound Database, 2005.
 168.Information NCfB. Compound Summary for CID 8343. PubChem Compound Database, 2004.
 169.Information NCfB. Compound Summary for CID 20393. PubChem Compound Database, 2004.
 170.Ino T. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring obesity: Meta‐analysis. Pediatr Int 52: 94‐99, 2010.
 171.Irigaray P, Lacomme S, Mejean L, Belpomme D. Ex vivo study of incorporation into adipocytes and lipolysis‐inhibition effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Toxicol Lett 187: 35‐39, 2009.
 172.Irigaray P, Ogier V, Jacquenet S, Notet V, Sibille P, Mejean L, Bihain BE, Yen FT. Benzo[a]pyrene impairs beta‐adrenergic stimulation of adipose tissue lipolysis and causes weight gain in mice. A novel molecular mechanism of toxicity for a common food pollutant. FEBS J 273: 1362‐1372, 2006.
 173.Iszatt N, Stigum H, Verner MA, White RA, Govarts E, Murinova LP, Schoeters G, Trnovec T, Legler J, Pele F, Botton J, Chevrier C, Wittsiepe J, Ranft U, Vandentorren S, Kasper‐Sonnenberg M, Klumper C, Weisglas‐Kuperus N, Polder A, Eggesbo M, Obelix. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and infant growth: A pooled analysis of seven European birth cohorts. Environ Health Perspect 123: 730‐736, 2015.
 174.Jacobson JL, Jacobson SW. Intellectual impairment in children exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls in utero. N Engl J Med 335: 783‐789, 1996.
 175.Jacobson JL, Jacobson SW, Humphrey HE. Effects of exposure to PCBs and related compounds on growth and activity in children. Neurotoxicol Teratol 12: 319‐326, 1990.
 176.Jamaluddin MS, Weakley SM, Yao Q, Chen C. Resistin: Functional roles and therapeutic considerations for cardiovascular disease. Br J Pharmacol 165: 622‐632, 2012.
 177.Jan J. Chlorobenzene residues in human fat and milk. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 30: 595‐599, 1983.
 178.Jarosova A, Harazim J, Suchy P, Kratka L, Stancova V. The distribution and accumulation of phthalates in the organs and tissues of chicks after the administration of feedstuffs with different phthalate concentrations. Veterinarni Medicina 54: 427‐434, 2009.
 179.Jedrychowski W, Perera FP, Tang D, Stigter L, Mroz E, Flak E, Spengler J, Budzyn‐Mrozek D, Kaim I, Jacek R. Impact of barbecued meat consumed in pregnancy on birth outcomes accounting for personal prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Birth cohort study in Poland. Nutrition 28: 372‐377, 2012.
 180.Jimenez Torres M, Campoy Folgoso C, Cañabate Reche F, Rivas Velasco A, Cerrillo Garcia I, Mariscal Arcas M, Olea‐Serrano F. Organochlorine pesticides in serum and adipose tissue of pregnant women in Southern Spain giving birth by cesarean section. Sci Total Environ 372: 32‐38, 2006.
 181.Johnson‐Restrepo B, Adams DH, Kannan K. Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in tissues of humans, dolphins, and sharks from the United States. Chemosphere 70: 1935‐1944, 2008.
 182.Johnson‐Restrepo B, Kannan K, Rapaport DP, Rodan BD. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in human adipose tissue from New York. Environ Sci Technol 39: 5177‐5182, 2005.
 183.Jorgenson JL. Aldrin and dieldrin: A review of research on their production, environmental deposition and fate, bioaccumulation, toxicology, and epidemiology in the United States. Environ Health Perspect 109(Suppl 1): 113‐139, 2001.
 184.Kamstra JH, Hruba E, Blumberg B, Janesick A, Mandrup S, Hamers T, Legler J. Transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms underlying enhanced in vitro adipocyte differentiation by the brominated flame retardant BDE‐47. Environ Sci Technol 48: 4110‐4119, 2014.
 185.Kanayama T, Kobayashi N, Mamiya S, Nakanishi T, Nishikawa J. Organotin compounds promote adipocyte differentiation as agonists of the peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor gamma/retinoid X receptor pathway. Mol Pharmacol 67: 766‐774, 2005.
 186.Kang HK, Dalager NA, Needham LL, Patterson DG, Jr., Lees PS, Yates K, Matanoski GM. Health status of Army Chemical Corps Vietnam veterans who sprayed defoliant in Vietnam. Am J Ind Med 49: 875‐884, 2006.
 187.Kannan K, Corsolini S, Falandysz J, Fillmann G, Kumar KS, Loganathan BG, Mohd MA, Olivero J, Van Wouwe N, Yang JH, Aldoust KM. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in human blood from several countries. Environ Sci Technol 38: 4489‐4495, 2004.
 188.Karmaus W, Osuch JR, Eneli I, Mudd LM, Zhang J, Mikucki D, Haan P, Davis S. Maternal levels of dichlorodiphenyl‐dichloroethylene (DDE) may increase weight and body mass index in adult female offspring. Occup Environ Med 66: 143‐149, 2009.
 189.Kedderis LB, Mills JJ, Andersen ME, Birnbaum LS. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for 2,3,7,8‐tetrabromodibenzo‐p‐dioxin (TBDD) in the rat: Tissue distribution and CYP1A induction. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 121: 87‐98, 1993.
 190.Kelce WR, Stone CR, Laws SC, Gray LE, Kemppainen JA, Wilson EM. Persistent DDT metabolite p,p′‐DDE is a potent androgen receptor antagonist. Nature 375: 581‐585, 1995.
 191.Kelishadi R, Poursafa P, Jamshidi F. Role of environmental chemicals in obesity: A systematic review on the current evidence. J Environ Public Health 2013: 896789, 2013.
 192.Kelly BC, Ikonomou MG, Blair JD, Morin AE, Gobas FA. Food web‐specific biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants. Science 317: 236‐239, 2007.
 193.Kerley‐Hamilton JS, Trask HW, Ridley CJ, Dufour E, Ringelberg CS, Nurinova N, Wong D, Moodie KL, Shipman SL, Moore JH, Korc M, Shworak NW, Tomlinson CR. Obesity is mediated by differential aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling in mice fed a Western diet. Environ Health Perspect 120: 1252‐1259, 2012.
 194.Kern PA, Dicker‐Brown A, Said ST, Kennedy R, Fonseca VA. The stimulation of tumor necrosis factor and inhibition of glucose transport and lipoprotein lipase in adipose cells by 2,3,7,8‐tetrachlorodibenzo‐p‐dioxin. Metabolism 51: 65‐68, 2002.
 195.Kern PA, Ranganathan S, Li C, Wood L, Ranganathan G. Adipose tissue tumor necrosis factor and interleukin‐6 expression in human obesity and insulin resistance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 280: E745‐E751, 2001.
 196.Kim HW, Kam S, Lee DH. Synergistic interaction between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and environmental tobacco smoke on the risk of obesity in children and adolescents: The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003‐2008. Environ Res 135: 354‐360, 2014.
 197.Kim HW, Song WJ, Li Q, Han SM, Jeon KO, Park SC, Ryu MO, Chae HK, Kyeong K, Youn HY. Canine adipose tissue‐derived mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate severe acute pancreatitis by regulating T cells in rats. J Vet Sci 17: 539‐548, 2016.
 198.Kim JH, Park HY, Bae S, Lim YH, Hong YC. Diethylhexyl phthalates is associated with insulin resistance via oxidative stress in the elderly: a panel study. PLoS One 8: e71392, 2013.
 199.Kim JS, Lim HS, Cho SI, Cheong HK, Lim MK. Impact of Agent Orange exposure among Korean Vietnam veterans. Ind Health 41: 149‐157, 2003.
 200.Kim K, Park H. Association between urinary concentrations of bisphenol A and type 2 diabetes in Korean adults: A population‐based cross‐sectional study. Int J Hyg Environ Health 216: 467‐471, 2013.
 201.Kim MJ, Marchand P, Henegar C, Antignac JP, Alili R, Poitou C, Bouillot JL, Basdevant A, Le Bizec B, Barouki R, Clément K. Fate and complex pathogenic effects of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls in obese subjects before and after drastic weight loss. Environ Health Perspect 119: 377‐383, 2011.
 202.Kim MJ, Pelloux V, Guyot E, Tordjman J, Bui LC, Chevallier A, Forest C, Benelli C, Clément K, Barouki R. Inflammatory pathway genes belong to major targets of persistent organic pollutants in adipose cells. Environ Health Perspect 120: 508‐514, 2012.
 203.Kohan AB, Vandersall AE, Yang Q, Xu M, Jandacek RJ, Tso P. The transport of DDT from chylomicrons to adipocytes does not mimic triacylglycerol transport. Biochim Biophys Acta 1831: 300‐305, 2013.
 204.Kohlmeier L, Kohlmeier M. Adipose tissue as a medium for epidemiologic exposure assessment. Environ Health Perspect 103(Suppl 3): 99‐106, 1995.
 205.Kramer HJ, Drenth H, vandenBerg M, Seinen W, DeJongh J. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for tetrachlorobenzyltoluenes in rat: Comparison of in vitro and in vivo metabolic rates. Toxicol Sci 63: 22‐28, 2001.
 206.Kuiper GG, Shughrue PJ, Merchenthaler I, Gustafsson JA. The estrogen receptor beta subtype: A novel mediator of estrogen action in neuroendocrine systems. Front Neuroendocrinol 19: 253‐286, 1998.
 207.Kumar KS, Kannan K, Paramasivan ON, Shanmuga Sundaram VP, Nakanishi J, Masunaga S. Polychlorinated dibenzo‐p‐dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in human tissues, meat, fish, and wildlife samples from India. Environ Sci Technol 35: 3448‐3455, 2001.
 208.Kuramochi H, Kawamoto K, Miyazaki K, Nagahama K, Maeda K, Li XW, Shibata E, Nakamura T, Sakai S. Determination of physicochemical properties of tetrabromobisphenol A. Environ Toxicol Chem 27: 2413‐2418, 2008.
 209.La Merrill M, Birnbaum LS. Childhood obesity and environmental chemicals. Mt Sinai J Med 78: 22‐48, 2011.
 210.La Merrill M, Emond C, Kim MJ, Antignac JP, Le Bizec B, Clément K, Birnbaum LS, Barouki R. Toxicological function of adipose tissue: Focus on persistent organic pollutants. Environ Health Perspect 121: 162‐169, 2013.
 211.Lamb MR, Taylor S, Liu X, Wolff MS, Borrell L, Matte TD, Susser ES, Factor‐Litvak P. Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and postnatal growth: A structural analysis. Environ Health Perspect 114: 779‐785, 2006.
 212.Lamichhane DK, Leem JH, Kim HC, Lee JY, Park MS, Jung DY, Ko JK, Ha M, Kim Y, Hong YC, Ha EH. Impact of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from maternal diet on birth outcomes: A birth cohort study in Korea. Public Health Nutr 19: 2562‐2571, 2016.
 213.Lang IA, Galloway TS, Scarlett A, Henley WE, Depledge M, Wallace RB, Melzer D. Association of urinary bisphenol A concentration with medical disorders and laboratory abnormalities in adults. JAMA 300: 1303‐1310, 2008.
 214.Langer P, Kocan A, Tajtakova M, Koska J, Radikova Z, Ksinantova L, Imrich R, Huckova M, Drobna B, Gasperikova D, Sebokova E, Klimes I. Increased thyroid volume, prevalence of thyroid antibodies and impaired fasting glucose in young adults from organochlorine cocktail polluted area: Outcome of transgenerational transmission? Chemosphere 73: 1145‐1150, 2008.
 215.Langer P, Ukropec J, Kocan A, Drobna B, Radikova Z, Huckova M, Imrich R, Gasperikova D, Klimes I, Trnovec T. Obesogenic and diabetogenic impact of high organochlorine levels (HCB, p,p′‐DDE, PCBs) on inhabitants in the highly polluted Eastern Slovakia. Endocr Regul 48: 17‐24, 2014.
 216.Lanting CI, Huisman M, Muskiet FA, van der Paauw CG, Essed CE, Boersma ER. Polychlorinated biphenyls in adipose tissue, liver, and brain from nine stillborns of varying gestational ages. Pediatr Res 44: 222‐225, 1998.
 217.le Maire A, Bourguet W, Balaguer P. A structural view of nuclear hormone receptor: Endocrine disruptor interactions. Cell Mol Life Sci 67: 1219‐1237, 2010.
 218.le Maire A, Grimaldi M, Roecklin D, Dagnino S, Vivat‐Hannah V, Balaguer P, Bourguet W. Activation of RXR‐PPAR heterodimers by organotin environmental endocrine disruptors. EMBO Rep 10: 367‐373, 2009.
 219.Lee DH, Lee IK, Jin SH, Steffes M, Jacobs DR, Jr. Association between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and insulin resistance among nondiabetic adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999‐2002. Diabetes Care 30: 622‐628, 2007.
 220.Lee DH, Lee IK, Porta M, Steffes M, Jacobs DR, Jr. Relationship between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among non‐diabetic adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999‐2002. Diabetologia 50: 1841‐1851, 2007.
 221.Lee DH, Lee IK, Song K, Steffes M, Toscano W, Baker BA, Jacobs DR, Jr. A strong dose‐response relation between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and diabetes: Results from the National Health and Examination Survey 1999‐2002. Diabetes Care 29: 1638‐1644, 2006.
 222.Lee DH, Lee IK, Steffes M, Jacobs DR, Jr. Extended analyses of the association between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and diabetes. Diabetes Care 30: 1596‐1598, 2007.
 223.Lee DH, Lind L, Jacobs DR, Jr., Salihovic S, van Bavel B, Lind PM. Associations of persistent organic pollutants with abdominal obesity in the elderly: The Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Environ Int 40: 170‐178, 2012.
 224.Lee DH, Lind PM, Jacobs DR, Jr., Salihovic S, van Bavel B, Lind L. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in plasma predict development of type 2 diabetes in the elderly: The prospective investigation of the vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Diabetes Care 34: 1778‐1784, 2011.
 225.Lee DH, Porta M, Jacobs DR, Jr., Vandenberg LN. Chlorinated persistent organic pollutants, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Endocr Rev 35: 557‐601, 2014.
 226.Lee DH, Steffes MW, Sjodin A, Jones RS, Needham LL, Jacobs DR, Jr. Low dose of some persistent organic pollutants predicts type 2 diabetes: A nested case‐control study. Environ Health Perspect 118: 1235‐1242, 2010.
 227.Lee DH, Steffes MW, Sjodin A, Jones RS, Needham LL, Jacobs DR, Jr. Low dose organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls predict obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance among people free of diabetes. PLoS One 6: e15977, 2011.
 228.Lerch S, Guidou C, Thome JP, Jurjanz S. Non‐dioxin‐like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlordecone release from adipose tissue to blood in response to body fat mobilization in Ewe (Ovis aries). J Agric Food Chem 64: 1212‐1220, 2016.
 229.Levitt DG. Quantitative relationship between the octanol/water partition coefficient and the diffusion limitation of the exchange between adipose and blood. BMC Clin Pharmacol 10: 1, 2010.
 230.Lewis RG, Sovocool GW. Identification of polybrominated biphenyls in the adipose tissues of the general population of the United States. J Anal Toxicol 6: 196‐198, 1982.
 231.Li C, Ford ES, Zhao G, Mokdad AH. Prevalence of pre‐diabetes and its association with clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors and hyperinsulinemia among U.S. adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005‐2006. Diabetes Care 32: 342‐347, 2009.
 232.Li W, Vogel CF, Matsumura F. Studies on the cell treatment conditions to elicit lipolytic responses from 3T3‐L1 adipocytes to TCDD, 2,3,7,8‐tetrachlorodibenzo‐p‐dioxin. J Cell Biochem 102: 389‐402, 2007.
 233.Li X, Ycaza J, Blumberg B. The environmental obesogen tributyltin chloride acts via peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma to induce adipogenesis in murine 3T3‐L1 preadipocytes. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 127: 9‐15, 2011.
 234.Lihn AS, Pedersen SB, Richelsen B. Adiponectin: action, regulation and association to insulin sensitivity. Obes Rev 6: 13‐21, 2005.
 235.Lilienthal H, Hack A, Roth‐Harer A, Grande SW, Talsness CE. Effects of developmental exposure to 2,2,4,4,5‐pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE‐99) on sex steroids, sexual development, and sexually dimorphic behavior in rats. Environ Health Perspect 114: 194‐201, 2006.
 236.Lim JS, Lee DH, Jacobs DR, Jr. Association of brominated flame retardants with diabetes and metabolic syndrome in the U.S. population, 2003‐2004. Diabetes Care 31: 1802‐1807, 2008.
 237.Lim JS, Son HK, Park SK, Jacobs DR, Lee DH. Inverse associations between long‐term weight change and serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants. Int J Obes (Lond) 35: 744‐747, 2011.
 238.Lind PM, Lee DH, Jacobs DR, Salihovic S, van Bavel B, Wolff MS, Lind L. Circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants are related to retrospective assessment of life‐time weight change. Chemosphere 90: 998‐1004, 2013.
 239.Lindberg P, Sellström U, Häggberg L, de Wit CA. Higher brominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane found in eggs of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) breeding in Sweden. Environ Sci Technol 38: 93‐96, 2004.
 240.Ljunggren SA, Helmfrid I, Salihovic S, van Bavel B, Wingren G, Lindahl M, Karlsson H. Persistent organic pollutants distribution in lipoprotein fractions in relation to cardiovascular disease and cancer. Environ Int 65: 93‐99, 2014.
 241.Lobstein T, Frelut ML. Prevalence of overweight among children in Europe. Obes Rev 4: 195‐200, 2003.
 242.Lohmann R, Breivik K, Dachs J, Muir D. Global fate of POPs: Current and future research directions. Environ Pollut 150: 150‐165, 2007.
 243.Longnecker MP, Klebanoff MA, Brock JW, Zhou H, Collaborative Perinatal P. Polychlorinated biphenyl serum levels in pregnant subjects with diabetes. Diabetes Care 24: 1099‐1101, 2001.
 244.Longnecker MP, Michalek JE. Serum dioxin level in relation to diabetes mellitus among Air Force veterans with background levels of exposure. Epidemiology 11: 44‐48, 2000.
 245.Lopez‐Espinosa MJ, Murcia M, Iniguez C, Vizcaino E, Llop S, Vioque J, Grimalt JO, Rebagliato M, Ballester F. Prenatal exposure to organochlorine compounds and birth size. Pediatrics 128: e127‐e134, 2011.
 246.Louis C, Covaci A, Crocker DE, Debier C. Lipophilicity of PCBs and fatty acids determines their mobilisation from blubber of weaned northern elephant seal pups. Sci Total Environ 541: 599‐602, 2016.
 247.Louis C, Dirtu AC, Stas M, Guiot Y, Malarvannan G, Das K, Costa DP, Crocker DE, Covaci A, Debier C. Mobilisation of lipophilic pollutants from blubber in northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris) during the post‐weaning fast. Environ Res 132: 438‐448, 2014.
 248.Ludwicki JK, Góralczyk K. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in human adipose tissues in Poland. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 52: 400‐403, 1994.
 249.Lundén A, Norén K. Polychlorinated naphthalenes and other organochlorine contaminants in Swedish human milk, 1972‐1992. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 34: 414‐423, 1998.
 250.Mabey WR, Smith JH, Podoll RT, Johnson HL, Mill T, Chou T‐W, Gates J, Waight Partridge I, Jaber H, Vandenberg D. Aquatic Fate Process Data for Organic Priority Pollutants. Standards. MaDSDOoWRa. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Protection Agency, 1981.
 251.MacGregor JA, Nixon WB. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD): Determination of n‐Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient Arlington, VA: Wildlife International LTD. Project No. 439C‐104, 1997.
 252.Maffeis C, Tato L. Long‐term effects of childhood obesity on morbidity and mortality. Horm Res 55(Suppl 1): 42‐45, 2001.
 253.Malarvannan G, Dirinck E, Dirtu AC, Pereira‐Fernandes A, Neels H, Jorens PG, Gaal LV, Blust R, Covaci A. Distribution of persistent organic pollutants in two different fat compartments from obese individuals. Environ Int 55: 33‐42, 2013.
 254.Marette A. Molecular mechanisms of inflammation in obesity‐linked insulin resistance. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27(Suppl 3): S46‐48, 2003.
 255.Masuno H, Iwanami J, Kidani T, Sakayama K, Honda K. Bisphenol a accelerates terminal differentiation of 3T3‐L1 cells into adipocytes through the phosphatidylinositol 3‐kinase pathway. Toxicol Sci 84: 319‐327, 2005.
 256.McConnachie PR, Zahalsky AC. Immunological consequences of exposure to pentachlorophenol. Arch Environ Health 46: 249‐253, 1991.
 257.McConnell R, Gilliland FD, Goran M, Allayee H, Hricko A, Mittelman S. Does near‐roadway air pollution contribute to childhood obesity? Pediatr Obes 11: 1‐3, 2016.
 258.McDonald M. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of Pentachlorobenzene in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Studies) (CAS No. 608‐93‐5). Toxic Rep Ser 6: 1‐48, 1991.
 259.Meeker JD, Sathyanarayana S, Swan SH. Phthalates and other additives in plastics: Human exposure and associated health outcomes. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364: 2097‐2113, 2009.
 260.Melzer D, Rice NE, Lewis C, Henley WE, Galloway TS. Association of urinary bisphenol a concentration with heart disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06. PLoS One 5: e8673, 2010.
 261.Menale C, Grandone A, Nicolucci C, Cirillo G, Crispi S, Di Sessa A, Marzuillo P, Rossi S, Mita DG, Perrone L, Diano N, Miraglia Del Giudice E. Bisphenol A is associated with insulin resistance and modulates adiponectin and resistin gene expression in obese children. Pediatr Obes 2016. Epub ahead of print.
 262.Mendez MA, Garcia‐Esteban R, Guxens M, Vrijheid M, Kogevinas M, Goni F, Fochs S, Sunyer J. Prenatal organochlorine compound exposure, rapid weight gain, and overweight in infancy. Environ Health Perspect 119: 272‐278, 2011.
 263.Mes J, Davies DJ, Turton D. Polychlorinated biphenyl and other chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in adipose tissue of Canadians. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 28: 97‐104, 1982.
 264.Meylan WM, Howard PH. Atom/fragment contribution method for estimating octanol‐water partition coefficients. J Pharm Sci 84: 83‐92, 1995.
 265.Miao M, Yuan W, Zhu G, He X, Li DK. In utero exposure to bisphenol‐A and its effect on birth weight of offspring. Reprod Toxicol 32: 64‐68, 2011.
 266.Miceli JN, Nolan DC, Marks B, Hariharan M. Persistence of polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) in human post‐mortem tissue. Environ Health Perspect 60: 399‐403, 1985.
 267.Mitsuhashi K, Senmaru T, Fukuda T, Yamazaki M, Shinomiya K, Ueno M, Kinoshita S, Kitawaki J, Katsuyama M, Tsujikawa M, Obayashi H, Nakamura N, Fukui M. Testosterone stimulates glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation through LKB1/AMPK signaling in 3T3‐L1 adipocytes. Endocrine 51: 174‐184, 2016.
 268.Miyawaki J, Sakayama K, Kato H, Yamamoto H, Masuno H. Perinatal and postnatal exposure to bisphenol a increases adipose tissue mass and serum cholesterol level in mice. J Atheroscler Thromb 14: 245‐252, 2007.
 269.Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, Dietz WH, Vinicor F, Bales VS, Marks JS. Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity‐related health risk factors, 2001. JAMA 289: 76‐79, 2003.
 270.Mokdad AH, Serdula MK, Dietz WH, Bowman BA, Marks JS, Koplan JP. The spread of the obesity epidemic in the United States, 1991‐1998. JAMA 282: 1519‐1522, 1999.
 271.Montague CT, O'Rahilly S. The perils of portliness: Causes and consequences of visceral adiposity. Diabetes 49: 883‐888, 2000.
 272.Montgomery MP, Kamel F, Saldana TM, Alavanja MC, Sandler DP. Incident diabetes and pesticide exposure among licensed pesticide applicators: Agricultural Health Study, 1993‐2003. Am J Epidemiol 167: 1235‐1246, 2008.
 273.Moon HB, Lee DH, Lee YS, Kannan K. Occurrence and accumulation patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and synthetic musk compounds in adipose tissues of Korean females. Chemosphere 86: 485‐490, 2012.
 274.Moreno‐Aliaga MJ, Matsumura F. Effects of 1,1,1‐trichloro‐2,2‐bis(p‐chlorophenyl)‐ethane (p,p′‐DDT) on 3T3‐L1 and 3T3‐F442A adipocyte differentiation. Biochem Pharmacol 63: 997‐1007, 2002.
 275.Morgan DP, Roan CC, Paschal EH. Transport of DDT, DDE, and dieldrin in human blood. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 8: 321‐326, 1972.
 276.Moriyama K, Tagami T, Akamizu T, Usui T, Saijo M, Kanamoto N, Hataya Y, Shimatsu A, Kuzuya H, Nakao K. Thyroid hormone action is disrupted by bisphenol A as an antagonist. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87: 5185‐5190, 2002.
 277.Morris S, Allchin CR, Zegers BN, Haftka JJ, Boon JP, Belpaire C, Leonards PE, Van Leeuwen SP, De Boer J. Distribution and fate of HBCD and TBBPA brominated flame retardants in North Sea estuaries and aquatic food webs. Environ Sci Technol 38: 5497‐5504, 2004.
 278.Muir DCG, Segstro MD, Welbourn PM, Toom D, Eisenreich SJ, Macdonald CR, Whelpdale DM. Patterns of accumulation of airborne organochlorine contaminants in lichens from the upper Great Lakes region of Ontario. Environ Sci Technol 27: 1201‐1210, 1993.
 279.Müllerová D, Matějková D, Dvořáková J, Müller L, Rosmus J, Kovářová K. Persistent organochlorine pollutants in obese women after diet induced weight loss: Five years follow up study. Cent Eur J Public Health 23: 214‐217, 2015.
 280.Murphy LE, Gollenberg AL, Buck Louis GM, Kostyniak PJ, Sundaram R. Maternal serum preconception polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and infant birth weight. Environ Health Perspect 118: 297‐302, 2010.
 281.Must A, Jacques PF, Dallal GE, Bajema CJ, Dietz WH. Long‐term morbidity and mortality of overweight adolescents. A follow‐up of the Harvard Growth Study of 1922 to 1935. N Engl J Med 327: 1350‐1355, 1992.
 282.Nair A, Dureja P, Pillai MK. Aldrin and dieldrin residues in human fat, milk and blood serum collected from Delhi. Hum Exp Toxicol 11: 43‐45, 1992.
 283.Neely WB, Branson DR, Blau GE. Partition coefficient to measure bioconcentration potential of organic chemicals in fish. Environ Sci Technol 8: 1113‐1115, 1974.
 284.Neff JM. Bioaccumulation in Marine Organisms: Effect of Contaminants from Oil Well Produced Water. United Kingdom: Elsevier Science, 2002, p. 468.
 285.Newbold RR, Padilla‐Banks E, Jefferson WN, Heindel JJ. Effects of endocrine disruptors on obesity. Int J Androl 31: 201‐208, 2008.
 286.Newbold RR, Padilla‐Banks E, Snyder RJ, Jefferson WN. Perinatal exposure to environmental estrogens and the development of obesity. Mol Nutr Food Res 51: 912‐917, 2007.
 287.Nishiumi S, Yoshida M, Azuma T, Yoshida K, Ashida H. 2,3,7,8‐tetrachlorodibenzo‐p‐dioxin impairs an insulin signaling pathway through the induction of tumor necrosis factor‐alpha in adipocytes. Toxicol Sci 115: 482‐491, 2010.
 288.Obana H, Hori S, Kashimoto T, Kunita N. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human fat and liver. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 27: 23‐27, 1981.
 289.Oberg M, Sjödin A, Casabona H, Nordgren I, Klasson‐Wehler E, Håkansson H. Tissue distribution and half‐lives of individual polychlorinated biphenyls and serum levels of 4‐hydroxy‐2,3,3′,4′,5‐pentachlorobiphenyl in the rat. Toxicol Sci 70: 171‐182, 2002.
 290.Ode A, Källén K, Gustafsson P, Rylander L, Jönsson BA, Olofsson P, Ivarsson SA, Lindh CH, Rignell‐Hydbom A. Fetal exposure to perfluorinated compounds and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in childhood. PLoS One 9: e95891, 2014.
 291.Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999‐2004. JAMA 295: 1549‐1555, 2006.
 292.Ohlstein JF, Strong AL, McLachlan JA, Gimble JM, Burow ME, Bunnell BA. Bisphenol A enhances adipogenic differentiation of human adipose stromal/stem cells. J Mol Endocrinol 53: 345‐353, 2014.
 293.Ohtake F, Fujii‐Kuriyama Y, Kato S. [Transcription factor AhR is a ligand‐dependcnt E3 ubiquitin ligase]. Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso 52: 1973‐1979, 2007.
 294.Ohtake F, Takeyama K, Matsumoto T, Kitagawa H, Yamamoto Y, Nohara K, Tohyama C, Krust A, Mimura J, Chambon P, Yanagisawa J, Fujii‐Kuriyama Y, Kato S. Modulation of oestrogen receptor signalling by association with the activated dioxin receptor. Nature 423: 545‐550, 2003.
 295.Oken E, Levitan EB, Gillman MW. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and child overweight: Systematic review and meta‐analysis. Int J Obes (Lond) 32: 201‐210, 2008.
 296.Oliver BG, Niimi AJ. Bioconcentration factors of some halogenated organics for rainbow trout: Limitations in their use for prediction of environmental residues. Environ Sci Technol 19: 842‐849, 1985.
 297.Olsen H, Enan E, Matsumura F. 2,3,7,8‐Tetrachlorodibenzo‐p‐dioxin mechanism of action to reduce lipoprotein lipase activity in the 3T3‐L1 preadipocyte cell line. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 12: 29‐39, 1998.
 298.Orban JE, Stanley JS, Schwemberger JG, Remmers JC. Dioxins and dibenzofurans in adipose tissue of the general US population and selected subpopulations. Am J Public Health 84: 439‐445, 1994.
 299.Organization WH. Diabetes; Fact sheet 312. 2016.
 300.Organization WH. Facts and figures on childhood obesity. 2014.
 301.Organization WH. Obesity and Overweight Fact Sheet No 311. 2016.
 302.Park MJ, Lee SK, Yang JY, Kim KW, Lee SY, Lee WT, Chung KH, Yun YP, Yoo YC. Distribution of organochlorines and PCB congeners in Korean human tissues. Arch Pharm Res 28: 829‐838, 2005.
 303.Patandin S, Koopman‐Esseboom C, de Ridder MA, Weisglas‐Kuperus N, Sauer PJ. Effects of environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins on birth size and growth in Dutch children. Pediatr Res 44: 538‐545, 1998.
 304.Patterson DGJ, Fürst P, Henderson LO, Isaacs SG, Alexander LR, Turner WE, Needham LL, Hannon H. Partitioning of in vivo bound PCDDs/PCDFs among various compartments in whole blood. Chemosphere 19: 135‐142, 1989.
 305.Pavuk M, Schecter AJ, Akhtar FZ, Michalek JE. Serum 2,3,7,8‐tetrachlorodibenzo‐p‐dioxin (TCDD) levels and thyroid function in Air Force veterans of the Vietnam War. Ann Epidemiol 13: 335‐343, 2003.
 306.Pedersen SB, Bruun JM, Hube F, Kristensen K, Hauner H, Richelsen B. Demonstration of estrogen receptor subtypes alpha and beta in human adipose tissue: influences of adipose cell differentiation and fat depot localization. Mol Cell Endocrinol 182: 27‐37, 2001.
 307.Pelletier C, Despres JP, Tremblay A. Plasma organochlorine concentrations in endurance athletes and obese individuals. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34: 1971‐1975, 2002.
 308.Pereira MdS. Polychlorinated dibenzo‐p‐dioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB): Main sources, environmental behaviour and risk to man and biota. Química Nova 27: 934‐943, 2004.
 309.Perera FP, Jedrychowski W, Rauh V, Whyatt RM. Molecular epidemiologic research on the effects of environmental pollutants on the fetus. Environ Health Perspect 107(Suppl 3): 451‐460, 1999.
 310.Perera FP, Whyatt RM, Jedrychowski W, Rauh V, Manchester D, Santella RM, Ottman R. Recent developments in molecular epidemiology: A study of the effects of environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on birth outcomes in Poland. Am J Epidemiol 147: 309‐314, 1998.
 311.Pestana D, Faria G, Sa C, Fernandes VC, Teixeira D, Norberto S, Faria A, Meireles M, Marques C, Correia‐Sa L, Cunha A, Guimaraes JT, Taveira‐Gomes A, Santos AC, Domingues VF, Delerue‐Matos C, Monteiro R, Calhau C. Persistent organic pollutant levels in human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals–depot differences and dysmetabolism implications. Environ Res 133: 170‐177, 2014.
 312.Peterson SH, Peterson MG, Debier C, Covaci A, Dirtu AC, Malarvannan G, Crocker DE, Schwarz LK, Costa DP. Deep‐ocean foraging northern elephant seals bioaccumulate persistent organic pollutants. Sci Total Environ 533: 144‐155, 2015.
 313.Petreas M, Smith D, Hurley S, Jeffrey SS, Gilliss D, Reynolds P. Distribution of persistent, lipid‐soluble chemicals in breast and abdominal adipose tissues: Lessons learned from a breast cancer study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13: 416‐424, 2004.
 314.Phillips M, Enan E, Liu PC, Matsumura F. Inhibition of 3T3‐L1 adipose differentiation by 2,3,7,8‐tetrachlorodibenzo‐p‐dioxin. J Cell Sci 108(Pt 1): 395‐402, 1995.
 315.Pitteloud N, Mootha VK, Dwyer AA, Hardin M, Lee H, Eriksson KF, Tripathy D, Yialamas M, Groop L, Elahi D, Hayes FJ. Relationship between testosterone levels, insulin sensitivity, and mitochondrial function in men. Diabetes Care 28: 1636‐1642, 2005.
 316.Poon BH, Leung CK, Wong CK, Wong MH. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human adipose tissue and breast milk collected in Hong Kong. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 49: 274‐282, 2005.
 317.Quintana PJ, Delfino RJ, Korrick S, Ziogas A, Kutz FW, Jones EL, Laden F, Garshick E. Adipose tissue levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and risk of non‐Hodgkin's lymphoma. Environ Health Perspect 112: 854‐861, 2004.
 318.Ranjbar M, Rotondi MA, Ardern CI, Kuk JL. Urinary biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with cardiometabolic health risk. PLoS One 10: e0137536, 2015.
 319.Richter CA, Birnbaum LS, Farabollini F, Newbold RR, Rubin BS, Talsness CE, Vandenbergh JG, Walser‐Kuntz DR, vom Saal FS. In vivo effects of bisphenol A in laboratory rodent studies. Reprod Toxicol 24: 199‐224, 2007.
 320.Rignell‐Hydbom A, Elfving M, Ivarsson SA, Lindh C, Jonsson BA, Olofsson P, Rylander L. A nested case‐control study of intrauterine exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants in relation to risk of type 1 diabetes. PLoS One 5: e11281, 2010.
 321.Ritter L, Solomon KR, Forget J, Stemeroff M, O'Leary C. A review of selected persistent organic pollutants DDT‐Aldrin‐Dieldrin‐Endrin‐Chlordane‐Heptachlor‐Hexachlorobenzene‐Mirex‐Toxaphene‐Polychorintaed biphenyls‐Dioxins and Furans. Canada: 1995.
 322.Riu A, Grimaldi M, le Maire A, Bey G, Phillips K, Boulahtouf A, Perdu E, Zalko D, Bourguet W, Balaguer P. Peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor gamma is a target for halogenated analogs of bisphenol A. Environ Health Perspect 119: 1227‐1232, 2011.
 323.Riu A, le Maire A, Grimaldi M, Audebert M, Hillenweck A, Bourguet W, Balaguer P, Zalko D. Characterization of novel ligands of ERalpha, Erbeta, and PPARgamma: The case of halogenated bisphenol A and their conjugated metabolites. Toxicol Sci 122: 372‐382, 2011.
 324.Robinson PE, Leczynski BA, Kutz FW, Remmers JC. An evaluation of hexachlorobenzene body‐burden levels in the general population of the USA. IARC Sci Publ 183‐192, 1986.
 325.Ronen Z, Abeliovich A. Anaerobic‐aerobic process for microbial degradation of tetrabromobisphenol A. Appl Environ Microbiol 66: 2372‐2377, 2000.
 326.Ronn M, Lind L, van Bavel B, Salihovic S, Michaelsson K, Lind PM. Circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants associate in divergent ways to fat mass measured by DXA in humans. Chemosphere 85: 335‐343, 2011.
 327.Roos V, Ronn M, Salihovic S, Lind L, van Bavel B, Kullberg J, Johansson L, Ahlstrom H, Lind PM. Circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants in relation to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue by abdominal MRI. Obesity (Silver Spring) 21: 413‐418, 2013.
 328.Roy JR, Chakraborty S, Chakraborty TR. Estrogen‐like endocrine disrupting chemicals affecting puberty in humans—a review. Med Sci Monit 15: RA137‐RA145, 2009.
 329.Rundle A, Hoepner L, Hassoun A, Oberfield S, Freyer G, Holmes D, Reyes M, Quinn J, Camann D, Perera F, Whyatt R. Association of childhood obesity with maternal exposure to ambient air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol 175: 1163‐1172, 2012.
 330.Ruzzin J, Petersen R, Meugnier E, Madsen L, Lock EJ, Lillefosse H, Ma T, Pesenti S, Sonne SB, Marstrand TT, Malde MK, Du ZY, Chavey C, Fajas L, Lundebye AK, Brand CL, Vidal H, Kristiansen K, Froyland L. Persistent organic pollutant exposure leads to insulin resistance syndrome. Environ Health Perspect 118: 465‐471, 2010.
 331.Rylander L, Rignell‐Hydbom A, Hagmar L. A cross‐sectional study of the association between persistent organochlorine pollutants and diabetes. Environ Health 4: 28, 2005.
 332.Sabljic A. On the prediction of soil sorption coefficients of organic pollutants from molecular structure: Application of molecular topology model. Environ Sci Technol 21: 358‐366, 1987.
 333.Safe S. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo‐p‐dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and related compounds: Environmental and mechanistic considerations which support the development of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). Crit Rev Toxicol 21: 51‐88, 1990.
 334.Safe S, Wormke M. Inhibitory aryl hydrocarbon receptor‐estrogen receptor alpha cross‐talk and mechanisms of action. Chem Res Toxicol 16: 807‐816, 2003.
 335.Sbarbati A, Accorsi D, Benati D, Marchetti L, Orsini G, Rigotti G, Panettiere P. Subcutaneous adipose tissue classification. Eur J Histochem 54: e48, 2010.
 336.Schecter A, Pavuk M, Päpke O, Ryan JJ, Birnbaum L, Rosen R. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in U.S. mothers' milk. Environ Health Perspect 111: 1723‐1729, 2003.
 337.Schildkraut JM, Demark‐Wahnefried W, DeVoto E, Hughes C, Laseter JL, Newman B. Environmental contaminants and body fat distribution. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 8: 179‐183, 1999.
 338.Schrader TJ, Cooke GM. Effects of Aroclors and individual PCB congeners on activation of the human androgen receptor in vitro. Reprod Toxicol 17: 15‐23, 2003.
 339.Schwarzenbach RP, Gschwend PM, Imboden DM. Environmental Organic Chemistry. Hoboken, New Jersey and Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003.
 340.Scinicariello F, Buser MC. Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and childhood obesity: NHANES (2001‐2006). Environ Health Perspect 122: 299‐303, 2014.
 341.Seale P, Lazar MA. Brown fat in humans: Turning up the heat on obesity. Diabetes 58: 1482‐1484, 2009.
 342.Seefeld MD, Corbett SW, Keesey RE, Peterson RE. Characterization of the wasting syndrome in rats treated with 2,3,7,8‐tetrachlorodibenzo‐p‐dioxin. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 73: 311‐322, 1984.
 343.Shankar A, Teppala S. Relationship between urinary bisphenol A levels and diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96: 3822‐3826, 2011.
 344.Shanle EK, Xu W. Endocrine disrupting chemicals targeting estrogen receptor signaling: Identification and mechanisms of action. Chem Res Toxicol 24: 6‐19, 2011.
 345.Sharman M, Read WA, Castle L, Gilbert J. Levels of di‐(2‐ethylhexyl)phthalate and total phthalate esters in milk, cream, butter and cheese. Food Addit Contam 11: 375‐385, 1994.
 346.Shaw SD, Berger ML, Brenner D, Kannan K, Lohmann N, Päpke O. Bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in the northwest Atlantic marine food web. Sci Total Environ 407: 3323‐3329, 2009.
 347.Shen H, Han J, Tie X, Xu W, Ren Y, Ye C. Polychlorinated dibenzo‐p‐dioxins/furans and polychlorinated biphenyls in human adipose tissue from Zhejiang Province, China. Chemosphere 74: 384‐388, 2009.
 348.Shimba S, Todoroki K, Aoyagi T, Tezuka M. Depletion of arylhydrocarbon receptor during adipose differentiation in 3T3‐L1 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 249: 131‐137, 1998.
 349.Shiverick KT, Muther TF. Effects of 2,3,7,8‐tetrachlorodibenzo‐p‐dioxin on serum concentrations and the uterotrophic action of exogenous estrone in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 65: 170‐176, 1982.
 350.Sijm DTHM, Wever H, de Vries PJ, Opperhuizen A. Octan‐1‐ol/water partition coefficients of polychlorinated dibenzo‐p‐dioxins and dibenzofurans: Experimental values determined with a stirring method. Chemosphere 19: 263‐266, 1989.
 351.Silverstone AE, Rosenbaum PF, Weinstock RS, Bartell SM, Foushee HR, Shelton C, Pavuk M. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and diabetes: Results from the Anniston Community Health Survey. Environ Health Perspect 120: 727‐732, 2012.
 352.Sjödin A, Patterson DG, Bergman A. Brominated flame retardants in serum from U.S. blood donors. Environ Sci Technol 35: 3830‐3833, 2001.
 353.Sjödin A, Patterson DG, Bergman A. A review on human exposure to brominated flame retardants—particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Environ Int 29: 829‐839, 2003.
 354.Skogen JC, Overland S. The fetal origins of adult disease: A narrative review of the epidemiological literature. JRSM Short Rep 3: 59, 2012.
 355.Slotkin TA. Does early‐life exposure to organophosphate insecticides lead to prediabetes and obesity? Reprod Toxicol 31: 297‐301, 2011.
 356.Smink A, Ribas‐Fito N, Garcia R, Torrent M, Mendez MA, Grimalt JO, Sunyer J. Exposure to hexachlorobenzene during pregnancy increases the risk of overweight in children aged 6 years. Acta Paediatr 97: 1465‐1469, 2008.
 357.Soine PJ, Blanke RV, Guzelian PS, Schwartz CC. Preferential binding of chlordecone to the protein and high density lipoprotein fractions of plasma from humans and other species. J Toxicol Environ Health 9: 107‐118, 1982.
 358.Somm E, Schwitzgebel VM, Toulotte A, Cederroth CR, Combescure C, Nef S, Aubert ML, Huppi PS. Perinatal exposure to bisphenol a alters early adipogenesis in the rat. Environ Health Perspect 117: 1549‐1555, 2009.
 359.Spiegelman BM, Flier JS. Adipogenesis and obesity: Rounding out the big picture. Cell 87: 377‐389, 1996.
 360.Spink DC, Eugster HP, Lincoln DW, 2nd, Schuetz JD, Schuetz EG, Johnson JA, Kaminsky LS, Gierthy JF. 17 beta‐estradiol hydroxylation catalyzed by human cytochrome P450 1A1: A comparison of the activities induced by 2,3,7,8‐tetrachlorodibenzo‐p‐dioxin in MCF‐7 cells with those from heterologous expression of the cDNA. Arch Biochem Biophys 293: 342‐348, 1992.
 361.Spink DC, Hayes CL, Young NR, Christou M, Sutter TR, Jefcoate CR, Gierthy JF. The effects of 2,3,7,8‐tetrachlorodibenzo‐p‐dioxin on estrogen metabolism in MCF‐7 breast cancer cells: Evidence for induction of a novel 17 beta‐estradiol 4‐hydroxylase. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 51: 251‐258, 1994.
 362.Spink DC, Lincoln DW, 2nd, Dickerman HW, Gierthy JF. 2,3,7,8‐Tetrachlorodibenzo‐p‐dioxin causes an extensive alteration of 17 beta‐estradiol metabolism in MCF‐7 breast tumor cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87: 6917‐6921, 1990.
 363.Srinivasan SR, Bao W, Wattigney WA, Berenson GS. Adolescent overweight is associated with adult overweight and related multiple cardiovascular risk factors: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Metabolism 45: 235‐240, 1996.
 364.Stahlhut RW, van Wijngaarden E, Dye TD, Cook S, Swan SH. Concentrations of urinary phthalate metabolites are associated with increased waist circumference and insulin resistance in adult U.S. males. Environ Health Perspect 115: 876‐882, 2007.
 365.Steenland K, Piacitelli L, Deddens J, Fingerhut M, Chang LI. Cancer, heart disease, and diabetes in workers exposed to 2,3,7,8‐tetrachlorodibenzo‐p‐dioxin. J Natl Cancer Inst 91: 779‐786, 1999.
 366.Stellman SD, Djordjevic MV, Muscat JE, Gong L, Bernstein D, Citron ML, White A, Kemeny M, Busch E, Nafziger AN. Relative abundance of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in adipose tissue and serum of women in Long Island, New York. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7: 489‐496, 1998.
 367.Strakovsky RS, Lezmi S, Shkoda I, Flaws JA, Helferich WG, Pan YX. In utero growth restriction and catch‐up adipogenesis after developmental di (2‐ethylhexyl) phthalate exposure cause glucose intolerance in adult male rats following a high‐fat dietary challenge. J Nutr Biochem 26: 1208‐1220, 2015.
 368.Strakovsky RS, Wang H, Engeseth NJ, Flaws JA, Helferich WG, Pan YX, Lezmi S. Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure leads to sex‐specific modification of hepatic gene expression and epigenome at birth that may exacerbate high‐fat diet‐induced hepatic steatosis. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 284: 101‐112, 2015.
 369.Sugiura K, Aoki M, Kaneko S, Daisaku I, Komatsu Y, Shibuya H, Suzuki H, Goto M. Fate of 2,4,6‐trichlorophenol, pentachlorophenol, p‐chlorobiphenyl, and hexachlorobenzene in an outdoor experimental pond: Comparison between observations and predictions based on laboratory data. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 13: 745‐758, 1984.
 370.Sun Q, Cornelis MC, Townsend MK, Tobias DK, Eliassen AH, Franke AA, Hauser R, Hu FB. Association of urinary concentrations of bisphenol A and phthalate metabolites with risk of type 2 diabetes: A prospective investigation in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII cohorts. Environ Health Perspect 122: 616‐623, 2014.
 371.Sun Q, Yue P, Deiuliis JA, Lumeng CN, Kampfrath T, Mikolaj MB, Cai Y, Ostrowski MC, Lu B, Parthasarathy S, Brook RD, Moffatt‐Bruce SD, Chen LC, Rajagopalan S. Ambient air pollution exaggerates adipose inflammation and insulin resistance in a mouse model of diet‐induced obesity. Circulation 119: 538‐546, 2009.
 372.Svensson K, Hernandez‐Ramirez RU, Burguete‐Garcia A, Cebrian ME, Calafat AM, Needham LL, Claudio L, Lopez‐Carrillo L. Phthalate exposure associated with self‐reported diabetes among Mexican women. Environ Res 111: 792‐796, 2011.
 373.Swedenborg E, Pongratz I. AhR and ARNT modulate ER signaling. Toxicology 268: 132‐138, 2010.
 374.Swedenborg E, Ruegg J, Makela S, Pongratz I. Endocrine disruptive chemicals: Mechanisms of action and involvement in metabolic disorders. J Mol Endocrinol 43: 1‐10, 2009.
 375.Sweeney MH, Calvert GM, Egeland GA, Fingerhut MA, Halperin WE, Piacitelli LA. Review and update of the results of the NIOSH medical study of workers exposed to chemicals contaminated with 2,3,7,8‐tetrachlorodibenzodioxin. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen 17: 241‐247, 1997.
 376.Tang‐Peronard JL, Andersen HR, Jensen TK, Heitmann BL. Endocrine‐disrupting chemicals and obesity development in humans: A review. Obes Rev 12: 622‐636, 2011.
 377.Tang‐Peronard JL, Heitmann BL, Andersen HR, Steuerwald U, Grandjean P, Weihe P, Jensen TK. Association between prenatal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and obesity development at ages 5 and 7 y: A prospective cohort study of 656 children from the Faroe Islands. Am J Clin Nutr 99: 5‐13, 2014.
 378.Tang‐Peronard JL, Jensen TK, Andersen HR, Ried‐Larsen M, Grontved A, Andersen LB, Timmermann CA, Nielsen F, Heitmann BL. Associations between exposure to persistent organic pollutants in childhood and overweight up to 12 years later in a low exposed Danish population. Obes Facts 8: 282‐292, 2015.
 379.Taxvig C, Dreisig K, Boberg J, Nellemann C, Schelde AB, Pedersen D, Boergesen M, Mandrup S, Vinggaard AM. Differential effects of environmental chemicals and food contaminants on adipogenesis, biomarker release and PPARgamma activation. Mol Cell Endocrinol 361: 106‐115, 2012.
 380.Taylor KW, Novak RF, Anderson HA, Birnbaum LS, Blystone C, Devito M, Jacobs D, Kohrle J, Lee DH, Rylander L, Rignell‐Hydbom A, Tornero‐Velez R, Turyk ME, Boyles AL, Thayer KA, Lind L. Evaluation of the association between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and diabetes in epidemiological studies: A national toxicology program workshop review. Environ Health Perspect 121: 774‐783, 2013.
 381.Tchernof A, Calles‐Escandon J, Sites CK, Poehlman ET. Menopause, central body fatness, and insulin resistance: Effects of hormone‐replacement therapy. Coron Artery Dis 9: 503‐511, 1998.
 382.Teitelbaum SL, Mervish N, Moshier EL, Vangeepuram N, Galvez MP, Calafat AM, Silva MJ, Brenner BL, Wolff MS. Associations between phthalate metabolite urinary concentrations and body size measures in New York City children. Environ Res 112: 186‐193, 2012.
 383.Teixeira D, Pestana D, Santos C, Correia‐Sá L, Marques C, Norberto S, Meireles M, Faria A, Silva R, Faria G, Sá C, Freitas P, Taveira‐Gomes A, Domingues V, Delerue‐Matos C, Calhau C, Monteiro R. Inflammatory and cardiometabolic risk on obesity: Role of environmental xenoestrogens. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 100: 1792‐1801, 2015.
 384.Thayer KA, Heindel JJ, Bucher JR, Gallo MA. Role of environmental chemicals in diabetes and obesity: A National Toxicology Program workshop review. Environ Health Perspect 120: 779‐789, 2012.
 385.Tomar LR, Agarwal MP, Avasthi R, Tyagi V, Mustafa M, Banerjee BD. Serum organochlorine pesticide levels in patients with metabolic syndrome. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 17: S342‐S344, 2013.
 386.Tomlin CDS. Pendimethalin. The e‐Pesticide Manual. UK: British Crop Protection Council, 2004‐2005.
 387.Tontonoz P, Hu E, Spiegelman BM. Stimulation of adipogenesis in fibroblasts by PPAR gamma 2, a lipid‐activated transcription factor. Cell 79: 1147‐1156, 1994.
 388.Trasande L, Attina TM, Blustein J. Association between urinary bisphenol A concentration and obesity prevalence in children and adolescents. JAMA 308: 1113‐1121, 2012.
 389.Trasande L, Spanier AJ, Sathyanarayana S, Attina TM, Blustein J. Urinary phthalates and increased insulin resistance in adolescents. Pediatrics 132: e646‐e655, 2013.
 390.Trayhurn P, Bing C, Wood IS. Adipose tissue and adipokines—energy regulation from the human perspective. J Nutr 136: 1935S‐1939S, 2006.
 391.Tung EW, Boudreau A, Wade MG, Atlas E. Induction of adipocyte differentiation by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in 3T3‐L1 cells. PLoS One 9: e94583, 2014.
 392.Turyk M, Anderson HA, Knobeloch L, Imm P, Persky VW. Prevalence of diabetes and body burdens of polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and p,p′‐diphenyldichloroethene in Great Lakes sport fish consumers. Chemosphere 75: 674‐679, 2009.
 393.Uemura H, Arisawa K, Hiyoshi M, Kitayama A, Takami H, Sawachika F, Dakeshita S, Nii K, Satoh H, Sumiyoshi Y, Morinaga K, Kodama K, Suzuki T, Nagai M. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome associated with body burden levels of dioxin and related compounds among Japan's general population. Environ Health Perspect 117: 568‐573, 2009.
 394.Uemura H, Arisawa K, Hiyoshi M, Satoh H, Sumiyoshi Y, Morinaga K, Kodama K, Suzuki T, Nagai M, Suzuki T. Associations of environmental exposure to dioxins with prevalent diabetes among general inhabitants in Japan. Environ Res 108: 63‐68, 2008.
 395.Ukropec J, Radikova Z, Huckova M, Koska J, Kocan A, Sebokova E, Drobna B, Trnovec T, Susienkova K, Labudova V, Gasperikova D, Langer P, Klimes I. High prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes in a population exposed to high levels of an organochlorine cocktail. Diabetologia 53: 899‐906, 2010.
 396.Vafeiadi M, Georgiou V, Chalkiadaki G, Rantakokko P, Kiviranta H, Karachaliou M, Fthenou E, Venihaki M, Sarri K, Vassilaki M, Kyrtopoulos SA, Oken E, Kogevinas M, Chatzi L. Association of prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants with obesity and cardiometabolic traits in early childhood: The Rhea Mother‐Child Cohort (Crete, Greece). Environ Health Perspect 123: 1015‐1021, 2015.
 397.Vafeiadi M, Roumeliotaki T, Myridakis A, Chalkiadaki G, Fthenou E, Dermitzaki E, Karachaliou M, Sarri K, Vassilaki M, Stephanou EG, Kogevinas M, Chatzi L. Association of early life exposure to bisphenol A with obesity and cardiometabolic traits in childhood. Environ Res 146: 379‐387, 2016.
 398.Valentino R, D'Esposito V, Passaretti F, Liotti A, Cabaro S, Longo M, Perruolo G, Oriente F, Beguinot F, Formisano P. Bisphenol‐A impairs insulin action and up‐regulates inflammatory pathways in human subcutaneous adipocytes and 3T3‐L1 cells. PLoS One 8: e82099, 2013.
 399.Valvi D, Casas M, Mendez MA, Ballesteros‐Gomez A, Luque N, Rubio S, Sunyer J, Vrijheid M. Prenatal bisphenol a urine concentrations and early rapid growth and overweight risk in the offspring. Epidemiology 24: 791‐799, 2013.
 400.Valvi D, Casas M, Romaguera D, Monfort N, Ventura R, Martinez D, Sunyer J, Vrijheid M. Prenatal phthalate exposure and childhood growth and blood pressure: evidence from the Spanish INMA‐Sabadell Birth Cohort Study. Environ Health Perspect 123: 1022‐1029, 2015.
 401.Valvi D, Mendez MA, Garcia‐Esteban R, Ballester F, Ibarluzea J, Goni F, Grimalt JO, Llop S, Marina LS, Vizcaino E, Sunyer J, Vrijheid M. Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and rapid weight gain and overweight in infancy. Obesity (Silver Spring) 22: 488‐496, 2014.
 402.Valvi D, Mendez MA, Martinez D, Grimalt JO, Torrent M, Sunyer J, Vrijheid M. Prenatal concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, DDE, and DDT and overweight in children: A prospective birth cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 120: 451‐457, 2012.
 403.Vandenberg LN, Colborn T, Hayes TB, Heindel JJ, Jacobs DR, Jr., Lee DH, Shioda T, Soto AM, vom Saal FS, Welshons WV, Zoeller RT, Myers JP. Hormones and endocrine‐disrupting chemicals: Low‐dose effects and nonmonotonic dose responses. Endocr Rev 33: 378‐455, 2012.
 404.Vandenberg LN, Maffini MV, Sonnenschein C, Rubin BS, Soto AM. Bisphenol‐A and the great divide: A review of controversies in the field of endocrine disruption. Endocr Rev 30: 75‐95, 2009.
 405.Vasiliu O, Cameron L, Gardiner J, Deguire P, Karmaus W. Polybrominated biphenyls, polychlorinated biphenyls, body weight, and incidence of adult‐onset diabetes mellitus. Epidemiology 17: 352‐359, 2006.
 406.Veith GD, Defoe DL, Bergstedt BV. Measuring and estimating the bioconcentration factor of chemicals in fish. J Fish Res Board Canada 36: 1040‐1048, 1979.
 407.Vena J, Boffetta P, Becher H, Benn T, Bueno‐de‐Mesquita HB, Coggon D, Colin D, Flesch‐Janys D, Green L, Kauppinen T, Littorin M, Lynge E, Mathews JD, Neuberger M, Pearce N, Pesatori AC, Saracci R, Steenland K, Kogevinas M. Exposure to dioxin and nonneoplastic mortality in the expanded IARC international cohort study of phenoxy herbicide and chlorophenol production workers and sprayers. Environ Health Perspect 106(Suppl 2): 645‐653, 1998.
 408.Verhulst SL, Nelen V, Hond ED, Koppen G, Beunckens C, Vael C, Schoeters G, Desager K. Intrauterine exposure to environmental pollutants and body mass index during the first 3 years of life. Environ Health Perspect 117: 122‐126, 2009.
 409.Vogel CF, Chang WL, Kado S, McCulloh K, Vogel H, Wu D, Haarmann‐Stemmann T, Yang G, Leung PS, Matsumura F, Gershwin ME. Transgenic overexpression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AhRR) and AhR‐mediated induction of CYP1A1, cytokines, and acute toxicity. Environ Health Perspect 124: 1071‐1083, 2016.
 410.Vost A, Maclean N. Hydrocarbon transport in chylomicrons and high‐density lipoproteins in rat. Lipids 19: 423‐435, 1984.
 411.Wang HX, Zhou Y, Tang CX, Wu JG, Chen Y, Jiang QW. Association between bisphenol A exposure and body mass index in Chinese school children: A cross‐sectional study. Environ Health 11: 79, 2012.
 412.Wang L, Xue J, Kannan K. Widespread occurrence and accumulation of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE) and their derivatives in human blood and adipose fat. Environ Sci Technol 49: 3150‐3157, 2015.
 413.Wang N, Shi L, Kong D, Cai D, Cao Y, Liu Y, Pang G, Yu R. Accumulation levels and characteristics of some pesticides in human adipose tissue samples from Southeast China. Chemosphere 84: 964‐971, 2011.
 414.Wang T, Li M, Chen B, Xu M, Xu Y, Huang Y, Lu J, Chen Y, Wang W, Li X, Liu Y, Bi Y, Lai S, Ning G. Urinary bisphenol A (BPA) concentration associates with obesity and insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97: E223‐E227, 2012.
 415.Wang X, Santostefano MJ, Evans MV, Richardson VM, Diliberto JJ, Birnbaum LS. Determination of parameters responsible for pharmacokinetic behavior of TCDD in female Sprague‐Dawley rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 147: 151‐168, 1997.
 416.Warner M, Aguilar Schall R, Harley KG, Bradman A, Barr D, Eskenazi B. In utero DDT and DDE exposure and obesity status of 7‐year‐old Mexican‐American children in the CHAMACOS cohort. Environ Health Perspect 121: 631‐636, 2013.
 417.Warner M, Wesselink A, Harley KG, Bradman A, Kogut K, Eskenazi B. Prenatal exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and obesity at 9 years of age in the CHAMACOS study cohort. Am J Epidemiol 179: 1312‐1322, 2014.
 418.Weigensberg MJ, Goran MI. Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents. Lancet 373: 1743‐1744, 2009.
 419.Weistrand C, Norén K. Polychlorinated naphthalenes and other organochlorine contaminants in human adipose and liver tissue. J Toxicol Environ Health A 53: 293‐311, 1998.
 420.Welshons WV, Nagel SC, vom Saal FS. Large effects from small exposures. III. Endocrine mechanisms mediating effects of bisphenol A at levels of human exposure. Endocrinology 147: S56‐S69, 2006.
 421.Witt K, Niessen KH. Toxaphenes and chlorinated naphthalenes in adipose tissue of children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 30: 164‐169, 2000.
 422.Wolff MS, Teitelbaum SL, Windham G, Pinney SM, Britton JA, Chelimo C, Godbold J, Biro F, Kushi LH, Pfeiffer CM, Calafat AM. Pilot study of urinary biomarkers of phytoestrogens, phthalates, and phenols in girls. Environ Health Perspect 115: 116‐121, 2007.
 423.Wu H, Bertrand KA, Choi AL, Hu FB, Laden F, Grandjean P, Sun Q. Persistent organic pollutants and type 2 diabetes: A prospective analysis in the nurses' health study and meta‐analysis. Environ Health Perspect 121: 153‐161, 2013.
 424.Xu CX, Wang C, Zhang ZM, Jaeger CD, Krager SL, Bottum KM, Liu J, Liao DF, Tischkau SA. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor deficiency protects mice from diet‐induced adiposity and metabolic disorders through increased energy expenditure. Int J Obes (Lond) 39: 1300‐1309, 2015.
 425.Yanagisawa R, Koike E, Win‐Shwe TT, Yamamoto M, Takano H. Impaired lipid and glucose homeostasis in hexabromocyclododecane‐exposed mice fed a high‐fat diet. Environ Health Perspect 122: 277‐283, 2014.
 426.Yang L, Zhou Y, Sun H, Lai H, Liu C, Yan K, Yuan J, Wu T, Chen W, Zhang X. Dose‐response relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites and risk of diabetes in the general Chinese population. Environ Pollut 195: 24‐30, 2014.
 427.Yang M, Chen M, Wang J, Xu M, Sun J, Ding L, Lv X, Ma Q, Bi Y, Liu R, Hong J, Ning G. Bisphenol A promotes adiposity and inflammation in a nonmonotonic dose‐response way in 5‐week‐old male and female #c57BL/6J mice fed a low‐calorie diet. Endocrinology 157: 2333‐2345, 2016.
 428.Yu GW, Laseter J, Mylander C. Persistent organic pollutants in serum and several different fat compartments in humans. J Environ Public Health 2011: 417980, 2011.
 429.Zaroogian GE, Heltshe JF, Johnson M. Estimation of bioconcentration in marine species using structure‐activity models. Environ Toxicol Chem 4: 3‐12, 1985.
 430.Zhang Y, Lin L, Cao Y, Chen B, Zheng L, Ge RS. Phthalate levels and low birth weight: A nested case‐control study of Chinese newborns. J Pediatr 155: 500‐504, 2009.
 431.Zober A, Ott MG, Messerer P. Morbidity follow up study of BASF employees exposed to 2,3,7, 8‐tetrachlorodibenzo‐p‐dioxin (TCDD) after a 1953 chemical reactor incident. Occup Environ Med 51: 479‐486, 1994.
 432.Zulalian J. Study of the absorption, excretion, metabolism, and residues in tissues of rats treated with carbon‐14‐labeled pendimethalin, PROWL herbicide. J Agric Food Chem 38: 1743‐1754, 1990.
 433.Cooke PS, Naaz A. Role of estrogens in adipocyte development and function. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 229: 1127‐1135, 2004.
 434.Korbel L, Spencer JD. Diabetes mellitus and infection: an evaluation of hospital utilization and management costs in the United States. Journal of diabetes and its complications 29: 192‐195, 2015.
 435.Mensah GA, Brown DW. An overview of cardiovascular disease burden in the United States. Health Affairs 26: 38‐48, 2007.
 436.Nishimura N, Miyabara Y, Sato M, Yonemoto J, Tohyama C. Immunohistochemical localization of thyroid stimulating hormone induced by a low oral dose of 2,3,7,8‐tetrachlorodibenzo‐p‐dioxin in female Sprague‐Dawley rats. Toxicology 171: 73‐82, 2002.



Jackson E, Shoemaker R, Larian N, Cassis L. Adipose Tissue as a Site of Toxin Accumulation. Compr Physiol 2017, 7: 1085-1135. doi: 10.1002/cphy.c160038


The authors wish to acknowledge support from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (P42 ES007380-21) and the National Institute of Diabetes, Kidney and Digestive Diseases (T32 DK00778) of the National Institutes of Health.

Related Articles:

Perfusion of isolated adipose tissue: FFA release and blood flow in rat parametrial fat body
Lipid‐mobilizing activity during fasting
Structural aspects of adipose tissue: A summary attempting to synthesize the information contained in the preceding chapters
Lipid components of adipose tissue
The fine structure of adipose tissues
Accumulation and Release of Chemicals by Adipose Tissue
Diabetes and Obesity

Contact Editor

Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite

Erin Jackson, Robin Shoemaker, Nika Larian, Lisa Cassis. Adipose Tissue as a Site of Toxin Accumulation. Compr Physiol 2017, 7: 1085-1135. doi: 10.1002/cphy.c160038